Shockley ppt ch8

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Shockley-Zalabak, 9e Update Pamela S. Shockley-Zalabak

Shockley-Zalabak, 9e Update Pamela S. Shockley-Zalabak

2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.Chapter 8Participating in Organizations: Developing Critical Organizational Communication Competencies

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Learning Objectives (1 of 3)

8.1 Describe how decisions and effectiveness of problem solving capabilities aid both the organization as well as the participant8.2 Identify participation challenges for problem solving and decision making8.3 Distinguish between problem solving and decision making8.4 Describe problem-solving processes

2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Learning Objectives (2 of 3)

8.5 Report five decision making and problem solving methods available to individuals, groups and organizations 8.6 Describe individual and organizational influences on and barriers to decision making and problem solving8.7 Relate problem solving and decision making to excellence

2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Learning Objectives (3 of 3)

8.8 Express effective communication as essential to problem solving and decision making8.9 Describe organizational communications technologies8.10 Describe how technology effects our fundamental learning ability 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Introduction: Participating in Organizations: Developing Critical Organizational Communication Competencies

Objective 8.1 Describe how decisions and effectiveness of problem solving capabilities aid both the organization as well as the participant 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

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8.1 Introduction: Participating in Organizations: Developing Critical Organizational Communication CompetenciesProblem solvingCompetencies

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Point 1 Problem solvingDefining a problemChallenges and processesPoint 2 Competencies Knowledge Sensitivity Skills Values6

Participation Challenges for Problem Solving and Decision Making

8.2 Identify participation challenges for problem solving and decision making 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

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8.2 Participation Challenges for Problem Solving and Decision MakingProblem-solving and decision-making Changes in demographics 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Point 1 Problem-solving and decision-making Challenges numerous and diverse Virtually increasing Ethical dimensionsPoint 2 Changes in demographics Ages Races Ethnicities Languages Sexual identities Family structures Religions Political perspectives8

Defining Problem Solving and Decision Making

Objective 8.3 Distinguish between problem solving and decision making

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8.3 Defining Problem Solving and Decision Making- Problem solving - Decision makingCopyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Point 1 Problem solving Multistage process for moving an issue Generate alternatives and implementPoint 2 Decision making Choosing from alternatives Individuals and groups choose from alternatives10

Influences for Problem Solving and Decision Making

Objective 8.4 Describe problem-solving processes

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8.4 Influences for Problem Solving and Decision Making (1 of 2) Culture- Organizational culture - OrganizingThe Problem/Decision Issue- Problem - Decision situations

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CulturePoint 1 Organizational culture Decision-making processes Influence decision-making methodsPoint 2 Organizing Synonymous with decision-making process Limitation of alternatives and decision making

The Problem/Decision IssuePoint 1 Problem Influences decision making and problem solving Complexity of the problem Availability of resources Point 2 Decision situations Determinate Indeterminate12

8.4 Influences for Problem Solving and Decision Making (2 of 2) Communication Competency- Competencies - Problem solvingTechnical Competency- Technical competency - Dependency

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Communication CompetencyPoint 1 Competencies Influence the quality of decision making Helps determine how and when we engage in individual and group decision makingPoint 2 Problem solving Influence by competencies Failure to participate lowers the quality

Technical CompetencyPoint 1 Technical competency Do individuals involved in decision making have the technical background or competencies necessary to approach the problem thoughtfully? Are decision makers aware of the best available information on which to base their evaluations? Does the group have a distribution of appropriate technical skills?Point 2 Dependency Depend on others for understanding Group members bring proper technical competencies to the decision

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Methods for Problem Solving and Decision Making

Objective 8.5 Report five decision making and problem solving methods available to individuals, groups and organizations

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8.5 Methods for Problem Solving and Decision Making (1 of 3) Individual Approaches- Individuals - SupervisorsLeader Mandate- Leader-made decisions - Groups

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Individual ApproachesPoint 1 Individuals Engage in decision making and problem solving process Decisions are based on private evaluations of alternatives Point 2 Supervisors Put forth effort to solve a performance problem Work directly with employees in question

Leader MandatePoint 1 Leader-made decisions Have less group commitment May or may not be of high quality Point 2 Groups Come to decisions by a variety of methods Leader makes a decision when group deadlocked

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8.5 Methods for Problem Solving and Decision Making (2 of 3)Majority Rule- Majority rule method - Majority-rule decisionsPowerful Minority- Powerful-minority decision - Powerful-minority method

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Majority RulePoint 1 Majority rule method Common for decision making May not account for views of the minorityPoint 2 Majority-rule decisions High in quality Can ignore central issues of concern

Powerful MinorityPoint 1 Powerful-minority decision Another way groups can make decisions Used less frequently than majority votePoint 2 Powerful-minority method Effective when the minority members have the best information Fails if other-than-expert power drives the decision

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8.5 Methods for Problem Solving and Decision Making (3 of 3)Consensus- Consensus method - Challenges of the methodCopyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

ConsensusPoint 1 Consensus method Decisions supported and accepted by all members Considerable agreement Point 2 Challenges of the method Takes more time than other methods Difficult for all members to believe the best decisions have been made 17

Barriers to Effective Problem Solving and Decision Making

Objective 8.6 Describe individual and organizational influences on and barriers to decision making and problem solving

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8.6 Barriers to Effective Problem Solving and Decision Making (1 of 2)Organizational Barriers- Groupthink - Organizational barriersGroup Task and Procedural Barriers- Group task barriers - Procedural barriers

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Organizational BarriersPoint 1 Groupthink Cohesive groups Describes surface harmony Point 2 Organizational barriers Organizational culture Low or broadly divergent expectations contribute to poor problem solving Lack of trust in groups contribute to ineffective decisions Use of technology

Group Task and Procedural BarriersPoint 1 Group task barriers Develop a sense of superiority by viewing others as inferior or incapable Suppress dissent and discard information Make poor decisions when confused with the responsibilities or process Point 2 Procedural barriers Lack of agendas Too little or too much time for meetings

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8.6 Barriers to Effective Problem Solving and Decision Making (2 of 2)Interpersonal Barriers- Group cohesion - Interpersonal conflictCopyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Interpersonal BarriersPoint 1 Group cohesion Too much to too little influence the decision quality Contribute to distrust and afraid to riskPoint 2 Interpersonal barriers Poor leadership Self-centered or ego-centered behaviors20

Problem-Solving Processes

Objective 8.7 Relate problem solving and decision making to excellence

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8.7 Problem-Solving Processes (1 of 2)The Standard Agenda: A Rational Model- The Standard Agenda - The Diagnostic phase - The Solution phaseBrainstorming- Brainstorming - Basic rules

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The Standard Agenda: A Rational ModelPoint 1 The Standard Agenda Reflective thinking necessary for individual problem solving Apply to both individuals and groupsPoint 2 The Diagnostic phase Understanding the charge Understanding and phrasing the question Fact-finding Setting criteria and limitationsPoint 3 The Solution phase Discovering and selecting solutions Preparing and presenting t