Cellular respiration ppt

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  • Cellular Respiration copyright cmassengale
  • Cellular Respiration
    • A catabolic, exergonic, oxygen (O 2 ) requiring process that uses energy extracted from macromolecules (glucose) to produce energy (ATP) and water (H 2 O).
    • C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO2 + 6H 2 O + energy
    copyright cmassengale glucose ATP
  • Question:
    • In what kinds organisms does cellular respiration take place?
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  • Plants and Animals
    • Plants - Autotrophs : self-producers.
    • Animals - Heterotrophs : consumers.
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  • Mitochondria
    • Organelle where cellular respiration takes place.
    copyright cmassengale Inner membrane Outer membrane Inner membrane space Matrix Cristae
  • Redox Reaction
    • Transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant to another .
    • Two types:
    • 1. Oxidation
    • 2. Reduction
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  • Oxidation Reaction
    • The loss of electrons from a substance .
    • Or the gain of oxygen .
    • C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + energy
    copyright cmassengale glucose ATP Oxidation
  • Reduction Reaction
    • The gain of electrons to a substance .
    • Or the loss of oxygen .
    copyright cmassengale glucose ATP C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + energy Reduction
  • Breakdown of Cellular Respiration
    • Four main parts (reactions).
    • 1. Glycolysis (splitting of sugar)
    • a. cytosol, just outside of mitochondria.
    • 2. Grooming Phase
    • a. migration from cytosol to matrix.
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  • Breakdown of Cellular Respiration
    • 3. Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle)
    • a. mitochondrial matrix
    • 4. Electron Transport Chain (ETC) and
    • Oxidative Phosphorylation
    • a. Also called Chemiosmosis
    • b. inner mitochondrial membrane.
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  • 1. Glycolysis
    • Occurs in the cytosol just outside of mitochondria.
    • Two phases (10 steps):
    • A. Energy investment phase
    • a. Preparatory phase (first 5 steps) .
    • B. Energy yielding phase
    • a. Energy payoff phase (second 5 steps) .
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  • 1. Glycolysis
    • A. Energy Investment Phase:
    copyright cmassengale Glucose (6C) Glyceraldehyde phosphate (2 - 3C) (G3P or GAP) 2 ATP - used 0 ATP - produced 0 NADH - produced 2ATP 2ADP + P C-C-C-C-C-C C-C-C C-C-C
  • 1. Glycolysis
    • B. Energy Yielding Phase
    copyright cmassengale Glyceraldehyde phosphate (2 - 3C) (G3P or GAP) Pyruvate (2 - 3C) (PYR) 0 ATP - used 4 ATP - produced 2 NADH - produced 4ATP 4ADP + P C-C-C C-C-C C-C-C C-C-C GAP GAP (PYR) (PYR)
  • 1. Glycolysis
    • Total Net Yield
    • 2 - 3C-Pyruvate (PYR)
    • 2 - ATP (Substrate-level Phosphorylation)
    • 2 - NADH
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  • Substrate-Level Phosphorylation
    • ATP is formed when an enzyme transfers a phosphate group from a substrate to ADP .
    Example: PEP to PYR copyright cmassengale Enzyme Substrate O - C=O C-O- CH 2 P P P Adenosine ADP (PEP) P P P ATP O - C=O C=O CH 2 Product (Pyruvate) Adenosine
  • Fermentation
    • Occurs in cytosol when NO Oxygen is present (called anaerobic).
    • Remember: glycolysis is part of fermentation .
    • Two Types:
    • 1. Alcohol Fermentation
    • 2. Lactic Acid Fermentation
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  • Alcohol Fermentation
    • Plants and Fungi beer and wine
    copyright cmassengale glucose Glycolysis C C C C C C C C C 2 Pyruvic acid 2ATP 2ADP + 2 2NADH P 2 NAD + C C 2 Ethanol 2CO 2 released 2NADH 2 NAD +
  • Alcohol Fermentation
    • End Products: Alcohol fermentation
    • 2 - ATP ( substrate-level phosphorylation)
    • 2 - CO 2
    • 2 - Ethanols
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  • Lactic Acid Fermentation
    • Animals (pain in muscle after a workout).
    copyright cmassengale 2 Lactic acid 2NADH 2 NAD + C C C Glucose Glycolysis C C C 2 Pyruvic acid 2ATP 2ADP + 2 2NADH P 2 NAD + C C C C C C
  • Lactic Acid Fermentation
    • End Products: Lactic acid fermentation
    • 2 - ATP ( substrate-level phosphorylation)
    • 2 - Lactic Acids
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  • 2. Grooming Phase
    • Occurs when Oxygen is present (aerobic).
    • 2 Pyruvate (3C) molecules are transported through the mitochondria membrane to the matrix and is converted to 2 Acetyl CoA (2C) molecules.
    copyright cmassengale Cytosol C C C 2 Pyruvate 2 CO 2 2 Acetyl CoA C-C 2NADH 2 NAD + Matrix
  • 2. Grooming Phase
    • End Products: grooming phase
    • 2 - NADH
    • 2 - CO 2
    • 2- Acetyl CoA (2C)
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  • 3. Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle)
    • Location: mitochondrial matrix .
    • Acetyl CoA (2C) bonds to Oxalacetic acid (4C - OAA) to make Citrate (6C) .
    • It takes 2 turns of the krebs cycle to oxidize 1 glucose molecule.
    copyright cmassengale Mitochondrial Matrix
  • 3. Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle) copyright cmassengale Krebs Cycle 1 Acetyl CoA (2C) 3 NAD + 3 NADH FAD FADH 2 ATP ADP + P (one turn) OAA (4C) Citrate (6C) 2 CO 2
  • 3. Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle) copyright cmassengale Krebs Cycle 2 Acetyl CoA (2C) 6 NAD + 6 NADH 2 FAD 2 FADH 2 2 ATP 2 ADP + P (two turns) OAA (4C) Citrate (6C) 4 CO 2
  • 3. Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle)
    • Total net yield ( 2 turns of krebs cycle)
    • 1. 2 - ATP (substrate-level phosphorylation)
    • 2. 6 - NADH
    • 3. 2 - FADH 2
    • 4. 4 - CO 2
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  • 4. Electron Transport Chain (ETC) and Oxidative Phosphorylation ( Chemiosmosis )
    • Location: inner mitochondrial membrane.
    • Uses ETC (cytochrome proteins) and ATP Synthase (enzyme) to make ATP .
    • ETC pumps H + (protons) across innermembrane ( lowers pH in innermembrane space ).
    copyright cmassengale Inner Mitochondrial Membrane
  • 4. Electron Transport Chain (ETC) and Oxidative Phosphorylation ( Chemiosmosis )
    • The H+ then move via diffusion (Proton Motive Force) through ATP Synthase to make ATP .
    • All NADH and FADH 2 converted to ATP during this stage of cellular respiration .
    • Each NADH converts to 3 ATP .
    • Each FADH 2 converts to 2 ATP (enters the ETC at a lower level than NADH ).
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  • 4. Electron Transport Chain (ETC) and Oxidative Phosphorylation ( Chemiosmosis ) copyright cmassengale Inner membrane Outer membrane Inner membrane space Matrix Cristae
  • 4. ETC and Oxidative Phosphorylation ( Chemiosmosis for NADH ) copyright cmassengale NADH + H + ATP Synthase 1H + 2H + 3H + higher H + concentration H + ADP + ATP lower H + concentration H + (Proton Pumping) P E T C NAD+ 2H + + 1/2 O 2 H 2 O Intermembrane Space Matrix Inner Mitochondrial Membrane
  • 4. ETC and Oxidative Phosphorylation (Chemiosmosis for FADH 2 ) copyright cmassengale FADH 2 + H + ATP Synthase 1H + 2H + higher H + concentration H + ADP + ATP lower H + concentration H + (Proton Pumping) P E T C FAD+ 2H + + 1/2 O 2 H 2 O Intermembrane Space Matrix Inner Mitochondrial Membrane
  • TOTAL ATP YIELD
    • 1. 04 ATP - substrate-level phosphorylation