Early christian and byzantine art (1)

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  • The Early Middle Ages7th to the 10th Century

    Roman Empire DeclineGerman Invasions Affecting Artistic Development and Other Radical Changes in Social & Political OrganizationsIn addition to the German invasions were those from Islam.

  • Islamic ArtIdolatry forbiddenConsisted mainly of abstracts, floral patterns, or other geometric objectsSculpture almost nonexistentAbundance of monumental architecture & architectural decorations

  • Islamic Art ExpressionsMosque:A place to pray and face towards MeccaSahn: enclosed courtyard that all mosques have.Qibla: prayer wallMihrab: small nitche to indicate the direction of Mecca. Exterior:Tall minaretsLarge and elaborate

    Hagia Sophia changed into a mosque

  • IslamIslam means submission to Gods willFounded by the prophet MuhammedMessage is brotherhood of Man & equality before God (Allah)Differs from Christianity No priesthood, no religious hierarchy, sacraments or requirements of literagyDoes include rulers and leaders in prayer

  • Islamic InstructionFaithfully conduct their daily livesCircumcise male infants Pray to Allah five times a day facing Mecca.Worship in the mosque on FridaysGive to the poor, Fast and practice abstinence in the daylight during RamadenAllowed multiple wives

  • The Great Mosque, CordobaMosque built in capital cityStriking example of Islamic artDouble arches first used here were duplicated in additions. (11.1,11.2, 11.3 & 11.4)Christians later turned this into a cathedral but it still conveys the original orientation of Islam.

  • Northern European ArtInfluenced by the Germanic tribesNew focus on artistic and political activitiesNo monumental structure, paintings or sculpture was done to the constant invasionsInvaders stimulated a new craft. . . Metalwork designs and techniques

  • Anglo-Saxon MetalworkPurse cover from the 17th century.Found among a pagan ship wreckage treasures suggesting royalty Is of gold decoration; cloisonne enamel originally on ivory or bone & dark red garnets.Early Christian intelace designs and Near Eastern motifsSuttonHoo purse cover from East Anglia, England, 630 AD Merging animal forms suggest invasion

  • BeowulfEarliest surviving European epic German folklore with strong Christian morality.A strange king child found adrift Denmark Scyld Scefing

    Famed was this Beowulf: far flew the boast of him, son of Scyld, in the Scandian lands. So becomes it a youth to quit him well with his father's friends, by fee and gift, that to aid him, aged, in after days, come warriors willing, should war draw nigh, liegemen loyal: by lauded deeds shall an earl have honor in every clan.

  • Hiberno-Saxon ArtIreland escaped invasions at this timeSt. Patrick spread Christianity throughout Ireland and for years later it became a haven for scholars, missionaries, monasteries, . .Christian art also prevailed across Ireland.Style has been called Insular and Hiberno-Saxon (Hiberno is Latin for Ireland)

  • Manuscript IlluminationIlluminated manuscripts produced by monks in monasteries. Illustrated the Word of God; Visual pleasuresUsed a strict unity of color and form.Crisp, clear sometines contrasting colors; flat surfaces; patterningLion Symbol of St. John, from the Book of Durrow, After AD650. Represents St. John, Evangelist as a lion . . . .later an eagle.

  • Carolingian PeriodBook of KellsCorresponds with the crowning of Charles the Great-Roman empr. Charlemagne ruled over the Holy Roman Empire and surrounding territories and revived culture.Network of learning was createdLatin manuscript texts. . .7LibArts

    11.7 Tunc Crucifixerant XPI, from the Book of Kells (Matthew 27:38) Then they crucified Christ & with him two thieves

  • ManuscriptsCharlemagnes rule involved the Roman revival of culture with manuscripts Manuscripts worked towards development of a practical form of portable artistic and educational communicationThey continued after Charlemagnes death but more apocalyptic approachFlatter space, figures connected by geometric design rather than landscapes.

  • Revelation & the Four Symbols of EvangelsitsRevelation-last book of the New Testament Written by St. JohnJohns account of Christs word in his appearance to him.Visionary work with scripture, literary tradition and symbols: lion, bull, man, eagle. Lion: St. Mark; Bull: St. Luke; Man: St. Matthew, Eagle: St. John.11.8 Four Evangelists, from a Carolingian Gospel Book

  • MonasteriesEach monastery:SchoolNetwork for artists and scholars to communicate.Religious and Administrative Center for economic functionsCommunal living quarters for MonksPlans for monstery of St.Gall, Switzerland; plan placed church in the center; building around in order of importance of education

  • Ottonian PeriodCharlemagnes grandsons were ineffective rulers of the European reign & fell to invaders.After the Vikings takeover, the Saxons crowned Otto I as Otto the Great, emperor.Ottonian refers to rulers named Otto who worked to continue Charlemagnes revival of Classical antiquity.

  • Major Works of the Ottonian PeriodArchitectural work: Benedictine abbey church of St. MichaelsMetalwork at Hildesheim