Designing with Gamification: Tips for Creating Fun & Engaging User Experiences

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Designing with Gamification: Tips for Creating Fun & Engaging User Experiences

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Designing with Gamification

Designing with GamificationTips for creating fun and rewarding user experiencesHi, my name is Jeff Steffgen and this is my first Meetup at IDDC Tonight Ill be talking about how you can use gamification techniques to create fun and reward experiences in your apps, web sites and products.1Your Mission (if you choose to accept):Level 1: Understand GamificationLevel 2: Know the AudienceLevel 3: Think like a Game DesignerLevel 4: Planning for GamificationEnd-Goal: Apply Gamification into your own User Experiences after achieving all 5 ranks:

Level 1: Understand GamificationYour starting rank:Gamification Initiate

Gamification What is it?Meaningful playThe use of game theory/game mechanics being applied in a non-gaming contextGame PlayGoals:Create a sticky, viral and engaging experienceInject fun into everyday mundane tasksDrive specific user behaviors

How many think they know what gamification means? Sample some answers

Heres how most people define gamification

How many of you have ever played a game? What are some of your favorites, and why do you like them so much?How many of you have ever had a mundane task that you did not want to complete, but had to? Ask for a few examples.Wouldnt it be cool if we could take some of the same game mechanics that made our favorite game so fun and apply it to this task to make it seem more enjoyable?

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Example: Hot lava game

Example of when your mom would take you to a mall and youd pretend that all the cracks in the floor were hot lavaYour mission was to make it through all of the stores (levels) without stepping on those make-believe objectsMake a boring task more fun and tolerable

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Example: Star chart

Example of when your mom would take you to a mall and youd pretend that all the cracks in the floor were hot lavaYour mission was to make it through all of the stores (levels) without stepping on those make-believe objectsMake a boring task more fun and tolerable

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Example: Rewards program

To help us better understand the psychology of game design, we need to first take a step back to understand what defines a game

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Example: Urinal Fly Sticker

To help us better understand the psychology of game design, we need to first take a step back to understand what defines a game

8Game PlayWhat is play?Unstructured, flexible, imaginative & freeformDriven by imaginationGoal =

What is a game?Structured, rigid, stimulating & focusedDriven by rulesGoal =

fun

WIN

It is far too easy to hear game and to think play, especially for those who dont understand how game mechanics can be made to drive specific behaviors and how many already exist in the workplace.

Play is freeform and imaginative with a primary goal of having fun.

A game has players, rules, and a win condition. 9Game PlayGreat games are built around a narrative the players/users interact with as they complete tasks, get rewarded, level up and have fun.A game is bounded, specific problem solvingA game has a predictable resolution, whereas play may not.

Work already has players and rules, so defining a win condition is all thats left.What does winning mean in the workplace? This ties neatly into the thinking around Bartles Player Types and knowing your audience10

Congratulations, youve successfully completed Level 1Your rank has been upgraded to: Gamification Trainee

Level 2: Know the AudienceBegin your Gamification Training by gathering intelligence about your target audience

Bartles Player TypesAchieversAttaining status & completing preset goals quickly Engaged by: Achievements

ExplorersExploring and discovering the unknownEngaged by: Achieving their own goals

KillersWinning, rank & direct peer-to-peer competitionEngaged by: Leaderboards, Rankings

SocializersSocializing & developing a friends/contacts networkEngaged by: Newsfeeds, Friends Lists, Chat

Killers > Competing & Defeating = DestroyersAchievers > ChallengeSocializers > FellowshipExplorers > Discovery13

Actions Based on Player TypeAchievers

ExplorersKillers

SocializersActing

Interacting

Players

Game Space

Each of these player types is drawn to certain interactions and interests that may cross over to other player types. For instance, Killers and Achievers enjoy taking action, but Killers are more interested in other players than they are in the actual game world like the Explorers. And Explorers are more interested in interacting within the game much like Socializers.14Things Guys Like in GamesMastery Doesnt need meaning, just challenging Competition Love to prove we are the best Destruction We like destroying things a lotSpatial Puzzles Especially puzzles navigating 3D spacesTrial and Error Men hate reading instructions!

15Things Girls Like in GamesEmotion Exploring the richness of human emotionReal World Prefer games that connect meaningfullyNurturing Relationships & healing others (vs. winning)Dialog & Verbal Puzzles Love books & cross-word puzzlesLearning by Example Appreciate tutorials that lead step-by-step

Emotion Heart icon, Romance NovelReal world House iconNurturing Nurse hat icon or Leaf iconDialog & Verbal Puzzles Crossword puzzle or book iconLearning by Example Map with 1.2.31650+Age DemographicsPreschoolers Games with parental guidance

KidsAge of reason: read, make decisions & solve problems

Preteens/tweens Age of obsession: braingrowth and passion

Teens Boys: competition & mastery; Girls: real-world issues & communication

Young adults Firmly established tastes for entertainment & games

Adults starting families Casual gamers due to families; hardcore gamers very influential

Adults w/ children Casual gamers due to careerand families; seek family play

Adults w/ older children Empty nesters lots of time for games enjoy social components4-67-910-1313-1818-2425-3536-50

Level 2 training completed Your target has been identifiedCongrats! Youve been promoted to Gamification Analyst

FREE Coffee Power-Up!Every analyst needs an extra boost!Earn a Starbucksgift card by being the first audience member to correctlyyell out Bartles 4 player typesLevel 3: Think like aGame Designer Game TheoryField assignment 1: Rendezvous with mLevels wise Agent M to uncover insider secrets for creating successful games

Mental Abilities:Making Gameplay PossibleModeling illusions create experiences that feel realFocus interesting enough to hold players attention as long and as intensely as possibleImagination engage as a storytelling partner and have a sense of the problems they will/wont solveEmpathy imagining or projecting yourself in the shoes of the game character(s)

Human brainsare amazing!

Motivation: Hierarchy of NeedsPhysical NeedsSafetyBelongingSelf-EsteemSelf-Actualization

Physiological Food/water iconSafety lock icon?Belonging.Love heart iconSelf Esteem Badge iconSelf-Actualization Person/Mirror icon22

Motivation: Hierarchy of Needs

Food, Water, Shelter, WarmthSecurity, Stability, Freedom from FearFamily, Community, LoveAchievement, Rank, Mastery, RecognitionInnerTalent, Fulfillment

People areso needyPhysiological Food/water iconSafety lock icon?Belonging.Love heart iconSelf Esteem Badge iconSelf-Actualization Person/Mirror icon23Game PleasuresLeBlancs TaxonomySensationSight, sound & touch (game aesthetics)

Fantasy Imaginary worlds (something you cannot be)

NarrativeDramatic unfolding of a sequence of events

ChallengeCore pleasure of gameplay, problem solving

Fellowship Enjoying friendship, cooperation & community

Discovery Exploring game world, discovery of secret feature

Expression Build & share your own things (characters, levels)

Submission Leaving the real-world behind for a new, more enjoyable set of rules/meaning

Maybe break this into multiple slides:

Sensation show Angry Birds (graphics, music, touch interactions)Fantasy show an imaginary world (mario/Zelda)Narrative show a game that has a talking script/cut sceneChallenge Cut the RopeFellowship show Farmville, WWFDiscovery show ZeldaExpression show Ski Safari with customized items menutSubmission Minecraft, Forza24Flow TheoryBalancing Challenges & SkillsAnxietyBoredomLowHighChallengesFlowChannel

LowHighSkills

Flow Activities must manage to stay in the narrow challenge that lies between boredom and frustration

Repeated tension & release patterns create the pleasure of variety and anticipation

Deep focus on nothing but the activity: Clear goalsDistorted sense of timeDirect and immediate feedbackBalance between ability level and challengeSense of personal control over the activity/situationIntrinsic rewardLack of awareness of bodily needs

25Game DesignThe 4 Basic ElementsMechanicsProcedures and rulesStorySequence of events that unfolds, may be linear or branchingAesthetics How the game looks, sounds and feelsTechnology Any high technology, materials and/or interactions that make the game possible

AestheticsTechnologyMechanicsStoryMore VisibleLess Visible

Game MechanicsThe Game SpaceObjects, Attributes & StatesActions (What can players do?)Rules (Constraints & consequences)Define Skills NeededChance & Surprise

Lets learnmore aboutmechanics

The Game SpaceDefines the various spaces that can exist in a game and how those places are related to one another

Either discrete or continuousHave some number of dimensionsHave bounded areas which may or may not be connected

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Objects, Attributes & StatesObjects are anything that can be seen or manipulated in the game space (characters, tokens, props, etc)

Objects = NOUNS, Attributes & State = ADJECTIVES29

Objects, Attributes & StatesObjects are anything that can be seen or manipulated in the game space (characters, tokens, props, etc)

Pac-ManPowerPelletInkyPelletsObjects = NOUNS, Attributes & State = ADJECTIVES30

Objects, Attributes & StatesObjects have Attributes such as the current position in the game space, or other categories of information

Pac-ManMovesIs YellowEats ObjectsCan DiePowerPelletStrategically PlacedWhite, Round & LargeEnables Power-Up

InkyMovesIs BlueKills Pac-ManCan Go to Cage

PelletsStatic Position, Fills the MazeWhite, Round & SmallIs Worth Points

Objects = NOUNS, Attributes & State = ADJECTIVES31Objects, Attributes & StatesEach Attributes current State can be static or dynamic,as shown in the classic Pac-Man example above

Objects = NOUNS, Attributes & State = ADJECTIVES32

Operative ActionsOperative Actions are the base actions that a player can take in the game space (think VERBS)

Objects = NOUNS, Attributes & State = ADJECTIVES33

Operative ActionsOperative Actions are the base actions that a player can take in the game space (think VERBS)

Climb UpDuck/Climb Down/Enter Warp TubeMoveLeftMoveRightJump/Swim UpDash/Throw

Objects = NOUNS, Attributes & State = ADJECTIVES34

Resultant ActionsResultant Actions are strategic actions that use operative actions (or a combination of them) to achieve a goal

Objects = NOUNS, Attributes & State = ADJECTIVES35

Resultant ActionsResultant Actions are strategic actions that use operative actions (or a combination of them) to achieve a goal

Jump +

Land on amushroom

= Kills itJump +

Hit brick

= CoinsJump +

Hit ? Box

= Power upJump +

Land on Yoshi

= RideObjects = NOUNS, Attributes & State = ADJECTIVES36RulesDefines the space, objects, consequences & constraints of actions, and the overall goals of the game

Concrete players understand and can clearly state what they are supposed to achieve

Achievable players must think they have a chance to achieve the goal (if it seems impossible, theyll give up)

Rewarding needs the right level of challenge, but also use of Pleasures to reward players by giving them something to make them feel good/proud

Objects = NOUNS, Attributes & State = ADJECTIVES37

Define Skills NeededDefine the various types of skills (both real & virtual) within the game needed to engage and interest your audience

Objects = NOUNS, Attributes & State = ADJECTIVES38

Define Skills NeededDefine the various types of skills (both real & virtual) within the game needed to engage and interest your audience

Physical StrengthDexterityCoordinationPhysical Endurance MentalMemoryObservationPuzzlesProblemSolvingSocialReading OpponentsTeamworkLeadershipBanterObjects = NOUNS, Attributes & State = ADJECTIVES39Chance & SurpriseConsider interactions with other mechanics along with the human element to create uncertainty & surprise

Cant always perfectly predict human behaviorPeople seek out options that create the most pleasure, but also avoid the ones that cause the most painThe human mind may inflate some risks completely out of proportionEveryone loves positive surprisesthat add delight

40Balance: Skill & ChanceA balance of skill and chance, along with various levels of risk can create a great game dynamic

Estimating chance is a skillEstimating an opponents skill is a skillSkills have a probability of success every action has some level of risk. Players must know when to play it safe and when to take a big risk.Predicting or controlling pure chance is an imagined skill we seek patterns, but lucky streaks and gamblers fallacy do not actually existChance concerns interactions between all of the other five mechanics, essential to create uncertainty, which means surprisesExpected Value the average of all the possible values that could resultConsider Values Carefully if you arent careful about the true values of an outcome, it can be very misleadingThe Human Element expected value calculations dont always perfectly predict human behavior (i.e., humans will not always choose what you think they will), due to regret.People not only seek out options that create the most pleasure, they also avoid the ones that cause the most pain.The human mind may inflate some risks completely out of proportion.Skill and Chance Get TangledEstimating chance is a skill often separates players skillsSkills have a probability of success every action has some level of risk. Players must know when to play it safe and when to take a big risk.Estimating an opponents skill is a skillPredicting pure chance is an imagined skill we seek patterns, but lucky streaks and gamblers fallacy do not actually existControlling pure chance is an imagined skill we also seek cause-and-effect relationships, and some people will always use lucky charms or superstitious rituals. But with pure chance there is no way to control the outcome.

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You survived Level 3 field training Now participate in a top-secret assignment thats for the birdsExcellent work! Youve earned the rank of Gamification Intelligence Officer

Congratson thepromotion!

Bonus Round!@_jeffgen_Be the 20th person to retweet my Designing with Gamification tweet andyoull be enjoying a coffee on me!

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