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ABSTRAK PEMBERIAN DAGING AYAM BROILER ... ... Kata kunci: daging ayam broiler, kadar testosteron, panjang penis dan berat testis, ekspresi AR korpus kavernosum dan sel Leydig. ii ABSTRACT

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Text of ABSTRAK PEMBERIAN DAGING AYAM BROILER ... ... Kata kunci: daging ayam broiler, kadar testosteron,...

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    ABSTRAK

    PEMBERIAN DAGING AYAM BROILER

    MENGHAMBAT PERKEMBANGAN PENIS DAN TESTIS

    TIKUS GALUR WISTAR MELALUI PENURUNAN HORMON

    TESTOSTERON DAN EKSPRESI RESEPTOR ANDROGEN

    Berdasarkan konsep Anti-Aging Medicine salah satu penyebab penting

    proses penuaan ialah berkurangnya kadar hormon. Hormon yang paling awal

    berkurang pada masa dewasa yaitu testosteron dan estrogen. Kalau kekurangan

    hormon testosteron dialami oleh anak laki-laki, maka terjadilah mikropenis dan

    dapat juga terjadi mikrotestis. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk membuktikan hambatan

    perkembangan penis dan testis melalui penurunan kadar testosteron, penurunan

    reseptor androgen korpus kavernosum, dan penurunan reseptor androgen sel

    Leydig. Juga untuk membuktikan penurunan ekspresi reseptor androgen (RA)

    pada penis lebih sedikit dibandingkan pada testis setelah mendapatkan daging

    ayam broiler.

    Rancangan penelitian yang digunakan adalah Ramdomized Post-test Only

    Control Group Design. Penelitian dilakukan selama 60 hari. Penelitian ini

    menggunakan 34 ekor tikus jantan galur Wistar usia 28 hari, dibagi menjadi dua

    kelompok. Kelompok kontrol diberi akuades 2 ml, kelompok perlakuan diberi

    daging ayam broiler direbus 1,007 gr/60 gram bb. Data yang diamati meliputi

    kadar testosteron, panjang penis, berat testis, RA korpus kavernosum, ekspresi

    RA sel Leydig, penurunan RA kelompok kontrol dibandingkan penurunan

    kelompok perlakuan pada penis dan testis.

    Hasil penelitian menunjukkan rerata kadar testosteron serum kelompok

    kontrol 19,26 ±2,09 ng/ml, kelompok perlakuan 17,57±2,47 ng/ml (p

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    ABSTRACT

    ADMINISTRATION OF BROILER CHICKEN MEAT INHIBITED THE

    DEVELOPMENT OF PENIS AND TESTIS OF RAT WISTAR STRAIN

    THROUGH THE DECREASE OF TESTOSTERONE LEVEL AND

    EXPRESSION OF ANDROGEN RECEPTORS

    Based on the concept of Anti-Aging Medicine, one of the dominant causes

    of aging process is the decrease of hormone level. Hormones that decrease in

    early period of adult are testosterone and estrogen. If lack of testosterone occurs

    in male children it results in micropenis and also microtestis. The aim of this

    study was to prove that chicken meat caused the inhibition of penile and testicle

    development through decrease of testosterone level, decrease of Androgen

    Receptors (AR) expression in the corpora cavernosa of the penis and Leydig cell

    of the testis. It also proved the decrease of AR in the penis was less compared to

    AR decrease in the testis.

    The design of this study was Experimental Post-test Only Control Group

    Design. This study was performed at the Integrative Biomedical Laboratory Unit

    Medical Faculty Udayana University and and Department of Pathology Gajah

    Mada University in 60 days. This study used 34 male rats of Wistar strain, divided

    into 2 groups. Control Group was given 2 ml akuadest, while Treatment Group

    was treated with boiled chicken meat 1,007 gr/60 gram bw. Data observed include

    testosterone level, length of penis, weight of testis, expression of AR of penis and

    testis, and the percentage of decrease of AR in the penis compared to testis.

    The results of the study showed that mean level of testosterone in control

    group was 19,26 ±2,09ng/ml, while in treatment group was 17,57±2,47ng/ml

    (p

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    Keywords: broiler chicken meat-testosterone level-penile length-testis weight -

    AR expression in corpus cavernosum and Leydig cells

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    DAFTAR ISI

    Halaman

    DAFTAR ISI …………………………………………………………… ix

    DAFTAR GAMBAR………………………………………………………… xiii

    DAFTAR TABEL ............................................................................................ xiv

    DAFTAR LAMPIRAN .................................................................................... xv

    DAFTAR SINGKATAN DAN LAMBANG………………………………… xvi

    BAB I PENDAHULUAN ………………………………………………… 1

    1.1 Latar belakang ………………………………………………….. 1

    1.2 Rumusan masalah ………………………………………………. 8

    1.3 Tujuan penelitian…………………………………………………… 9

    1.3.1 Tujuan umum ............................................................................ 9

    1.3.2 Tujuan khusus.. ......................................................................... 9

    1.4 Manfaat penelitian ………………………………………………… 10

    1.4.1 Manfaat akademik …………………………………………… 10

    1.4.2 Manfaat praktis………………………………………………. 10

    BAB II TINJAUAN PUSTAKA ...................................................................... 11

    2.1 Hormon dan proses penuaan. ............................................................ 11

    2.2 Hormon testosteron .......................................................................... 13

    2.2.1 Sintesis, sekresi, dan regulasi .................................................... 13

    2.2.2 Testosteron pada sirkulasi ......................................................... 15

    2.2.3 Metabolisme testosteron ............................................................ 16

    2.2.4 Estrogen-like endocrine disrupting chemicals (EEDC)………. 18

    2.3 Mikropenis dan mikrotestis ............................................................... 19

    2.3.1 Embriologi ................................................................................. 22

    2.3.2 Patofisiologi ............................................................................... 22

    2.4 Reseptor Hormon .............................................................................. 23

    2.4.1 Reseptor hormon dan transduksi sinyal ..................................... 25

    2.4.2 Reseptor membran sel………………………………………… 25

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    2.4.3 Reseptor Intraseluler .................................................................. 27

    2.4.4 Reseptor Estrogen ...................................................................... 29

    2.4.5 Reseptor Progesteron ................................................................ 32

    2.4.6 Reseptor Androgen ................................................................... 33

    2.4.7 Hubungan antara reseptor .......................................................... 37

    2.5 Tikus percobaan ............................................................................... 37

    2.5.1 Tinjauan Umum ......................................................................... 37

    2.5.1.1 Karakteristik tikus Wistar ................................................. 38

    2.5.1.2 Organ seksual dan reproduksi tikus ................................. 40

    2.5.1.3 Anatomi dan histologi penis dan testis tikus .................... 41

    2.6 Kadar hormon testosteron pada tikus jantan. .................................... 44

    BAB III KERANGKA BERPIKIR, KONSEP, DAN HIPOTESIS ................ 45

    3.1 Kerangka berfikir ............................................................................... 45

    3.2 Konsep Penelitian ............................................................................. 47

    3.3 Hipotesis ........................................................................................... 48

    BAB IV METODE PENELITIAN ……………………………………….. 49

    4.1 Rancangan Penelitian. ....................................................................... 49

    4.2 Lokasi dan waktu penelitian.............................................................. 50

    4.2.1 Lokasi penelitian ...................................................................... 50

    4.2.2 Waktu penelitian ........................................................................ 50

    4.3 Sampel penelitian ............................................................................... 51

    4.3.1 Kriteria sampel .......................................................................... 51

    4.3.1.1 Kriteria inklusi .............................................................. 51

    4.3.1.2 Kriteria drop out ............................................................. 51

    4.3.2 Jumlah sampel...........…………………………………………. 51

    4.3.3 Teknik penentuan sampel .......................................................... 52

    4.4 Variabel penelitian ............................................................................ 52

    4.4.1 Identifikasi dan klasifikasi variable……. .................................. 52

    4.4.1.1 Variabel bebas…………………………………………… 52

    4.4.1.2 Variabel tergantung …………………………………….. 52

    4.4.1.3 Variabel kendali ................................................................ 53

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    4.4.2 Hubungan antar variabel ................................