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Aramaic Peshitta Primacy- 2008

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2 Was the New Testament Really Written in Greek?Was the New Testament Really Written in Greek?AConcise Compendiumof the Many Internal and!ternal "idences of Aramaic #eshitta #rimacy#u$lication dition %a& May 2''(Compiled $y Raphael Christopher )atasterdited $y wan Mac)eodCo"er desi*n $y +tephen Me,a- Copyri*ht Raphael Christopher )ataster 2''( .oreword /ForewordA New and Powerful Tool in theAramaic NT Primacy Movement ArisesI wanted to set down a few words a$out my collea*ue and fellow Aramaicist Raphael )ataster& and his new $ook 0Was the New Testament Really Written in Greek?1 2a"in* written two $ooks on the su$3ect myself& I can honestly say that there is no $etter free resource& $oth in terms of scope and le"el of detail& a"aila$le onthe Internet today4 Muchof the researchthat myself& #aul 5ounan and so many others ha"e done is here& cate*ori,ed con"eniently $y topic and issue4 What Raphael thou*h has also accomplished so e!pertly is to linkthesee!amples withasimple andunam$i*uous narrati"estylethat lea"eslittledou$t that the#eshittaAramaicNewTestament isinfact the ori*inal that Christians and Na,arene6Messianics ha"e $een searchin* for& for so lon*4The fact is& when Raphael decides to e!plore a topic& he is far from content in pro"idin* 3ust a few e!amples and lea"in* the rest to the readers7 ima*ination4 Instead& Raphael plum$s the depths of the Aramaic New Testament& andoffersdozensof examplesthat speaktoaparticular type..lip throu*h the 0split words1 and 0semi6split words1 sections alone and you will see what I mean4 The e!amples come in lock6step& one after the other& $ecomin* ana"alancheofproof$ythe time he is finished4 And when that topic is well6esta$lished& Raphael does the same thin* with the ne!t area of focus& and the one after that& and so on4 8 Was the New Testament Really Written in Greek?0Was the New Testament Really Written in Greek1 is also written in a manner free of scholarly 3ar*on and confusin* *rammatical terminolo*y that takes the lay6person from where they currently are and plun*es them into the depth of clarity and e!citement that only comes fromunderstandin* the nati"e lan*ua*e of 57shua and his disciples4 In other words& you don7t need a de*ree to ha"e at your fin*ertips a resource that truly does 3ustice to the $readth of e"idence for Aramaic New Testament primacy4 I can also say for a fact that all the *rammatical claims Raphael makes ha"e $een scrupulously checked out and"erified& not tomentioncross6documentedinmyworksandthoseof others in the field4.inally& 0Was the New Testament Really Written in Greek1 also *oes to places that I ha"e ne"er seen fully discussed elsewhere $ut that add immensely to the o"erall scholarly picture it paints4.or e!ample& we at #eshitta4or* ha"e known for some time a$out the e!cellent work of Re"erend 9auscher on the Aramaic NT 9i$le Codes4 2owe"er& it is Raphael7s selection of this material& marriedto*ether withhis e!cellent commentaries that reallypro"ide the pro"er$ial icin* on the cake to the rest of his e!cellent thesis4 .or my part then& I will $e happy to endorse 0Was the New Testament Really WritteninGreek1& and$elie"eit will $ecomeakeyresourcefor +emitic researchers in the years to come4 Inparticular& the work represents an e!cellentintroduction and primertotheno"ice onthe*randand stunnin* issues of Aramaic #rimacy in the New Testament4 Its online "ersion should $e re:uired ;and freeIntroductionThis $ook is not a$out reli*ion4This $ook is not a$out whether or not Christianity is the ?true faith?4This $ook is not a$out whether we were created $y God or $y chance4This $ook isa$out whether the New Testament was written in Greek& or in Aramaic4There are many $ooks out there on Aramaic #rimacy ;the $elief that the New Testament was ori*inally written in Aramaic= $y a handful of authors such as @r4 Geor*e )amsa [email protected] Roccorrico4 All pro"ide proofs of Aramaic #rimacy and are fine works4 2owe"er& they ha"e one thin* in common4 They all cost money4This work is a$solutely free4 5ou may distri$ute it freely& unchan*ed& without the author7s permission& as lon* as no money is char*ed for it4 This $ook is to $e a"aila$le free indefinitely ;downloada$le from my we$site=4Matthew 10:8 [amsa!02eal the sick& cleanse the lepers& cast out demonsA freely you ha"e recei"ed& freely *i"e41Another $i*difference $etweenthis $ookandothers of its kind& is the denomination ofits author4 I ha"e none4Theworksofpeople can often $e $iased$ytheir$eliefs4 Manypeople$elon*in*toadenominationwill $e B Was the New Testament Really Written in Greek?$iased& and they tend to chan*e the 9i$le to suit their $eliefs4 As I am non6denominational&I chan*e my reli*ious $eliefs&to suit the 9i$le4+o you can rest assured that when I try to con"ince you that the Aramaic says somethin*& I ha"e no hidden a*enda& it really does say it4This $ook was ori*inally created so that the Christian community could ha"e timely access to this "ital information& without ha"in* to spend a dime4As someone who comes from a poor economic $ack*round& I assure you that it is not God7s plan for only the wealthy to share in 2is truth4 It is also created withsimplelan*ua*e;youwill $ea$letotell thatIamnoauthor=& $ein* written $y a layman& for laymen42owe"er& asmyknowled*e$aseof thesu$3ect *rewat anama,in*rate ;thankstofriendswhoha"ededicatedmuchof theirli"estothefield= it $ecame apparent that this work would not only $e distin*uished from others $y its price C $ut also $y its contents4 With all humility ;most of the internal proofsIdidnot disco"ermyself Ctheyha"e$eendisco"eredDsupplied$y "arious contri$utors=& I $elie"e this is the most comprehensi"e $ook out there on the topic of Aramaic primacy4+o what is this really all a$out? Well& the ma3ority of people $elie"e that the New Testament was ori*inally penned in Greek4 There is one little pro$lem with this $elief4 There is no proof4 It has 3ust $een taken for *ranted& in much the same way as it has $een taken for *ranted that the Eld Testament was writtenin2e$rew;e"enthou*hfor alon*time& wehadnowidespread access to a 2e$rewEld Testament=4 Fnfortunately& while 2e$rewET primacists were ri*ht& Greek NT primacists were wron*4 The New Testament was ori*inally written in Aramaic& not Greek4 And that makes a whole lot of sense4 Gesus& 2is Apostles& and the earliest Christians were +emites& speakin* the +emitic lan*ua*e of Aramaic C the main ton*ue of Gesus7 day4 That later and numerous manuscripts of the NT were found written in Greek& pro"es Greek primacy no more than the widespread reach of the Hin* Games 9i$le pro"es n*lish primacy4There are many Christians who $elie"e that the New Testament was written inAramaic& particularlyinthe ast ;Christianity is after all& anastern reli*ion=49ut they ha"e $een a rather silent minority4 It is time to raise our "oices& and present the e"idence4 While there is no e"idence of Greek #rimacy ;sa"e the so6called ?manuscript e"idence?and the opinions of some ?Church fathers?=& there are mounds of proofs for Aramaic primacy4Introduction IThis $ook will show you many errors and contradictions in the Greek te!t& which are sol"ed $y the Aramaic4 It will show you "ariants in the many Greek manuscript families that are e!plained $y the #eshitta4 It will show you how scri$al errors in the Greek translations ha"e led to confused $eliefs& compared to crystal6clear teachin*s in the Aramaic4 It will e!plain many of Gesus7 idioms that ha"e $een misunderstood $y those uninitiated in the +emitic lan*ua*es4 It will show you how the ori*inal Aramaic New Testament preser"es Gesus7 poetic teachin*s4 It may e"en sa"e your faith4I ha"erecei"edemailsfromChristianswhoweredisillusionedwiththeir contradiction6filledGreek6$ased9i$les& sayin* that this information ;this $ook was ori*inally a series of articles& distri$uted on "arious #eshitta #rimacy we$sites= finally *a"e them peace4I hope that this $ook will increase your knowled*e of the true Word of God4Raphael )ataster& 94#harm& [email protected]+& G#www4Raphael)ataster4comAc"nowled#ements:While I ha"e worked hard on this pro3ect& most of the internal e"idences were disco"ered or supplied to me $y "arious people4 The lar*est contri$utor ;who also has o"erseen& edited and appro"ed much of this $ook= has $een renowned #eshitta translator and Aramaic e!pert& #aul @a"id 5ounan& who has my deepest appreciation for his efforts4 Great appreciation is also *i"en to my $rother& Andrew Ga$riel Roth& Aramaic and 2e$rew e!pert& and former contri$utortotheAramaic9i$le+ociety& whohas$eensuchahelpinthe creationofthis$ookandhassuppliedmanyoftheproofs4 Thanksalsoto wan Mac)eod who has edited this $ook& helped to *et it pu$lished and has completed numerous other pro3ects for Aramaic primacy4 Thanks also *o out to my nephew& +tephen Me,a& who desi*ned such a wonderful co"er4 Great thanks are also *i"en to the followin*J )arry Helsey& @r4 Games Trimm& +te"e Caruso& Goseph Kiel& Ro$ Kanhoff& @r4 Geor*e )amsa& Glenn @a"id 9auscher& and Kalentin +an, Gon,ale,4( Was the New Testament Really Written in Greek?Notes:#icture C The picture on the co"er pa*e is the Alef and the Tau ;the first and lastletters oftheAramaic alpha$et=&in the stran*eloscript Cthe scriptof Aramaic that the#eshittawas $elie"edtoha"e$eenwrittenin4 Asit is Aramaic& it is read from ri*ht to left4ReferencesCFnlessotherwisestated& 9i$lereferencesareusuallyfromthe )amsa "ersion& the most relia$le complete n*lish translation of the Aramaic #eshitta4Lor$a C ?Lor$a? is a name *i"en to the people who translated the Aramaic into Greek& asit ismorecon"enient tosaythan?theori*inal translatorsofthe Aramaic New Testament into Greek?4 No racial slur is intended to the Greeks Citcamea$outamon*Aramaic#rimacistsasitismorecon"enienttosay ?Lor$a?& especiallyaswedonot knowwhothesetranslatorswere4 Many Greeks a*ree with the content of this $ook& as the comments section shows4+acred names C I don7t think you will *o to 2ell for sayin* ?Gesus?or ?God? e"en when you know that these are not the ori*inal desi*nations4 2owe"er& I do $elie"e that if we know the proper names& we may as well use them4 +o& youwill oftenfindmereferrin*toGesusandGod$ythe2e$rewandDor Aramaicpronunciations4 5eshua;Aramaicand2e$rew=isusedtoreferto Gesus& while Alaha ;Aramaic= and loha ;2e$rew= are used to refer to God4Contact C peshittaMenthusiastNhotmail4com We$site C .or the latest edition of this $ook ;includin* free downloads=& other #eshitta6related materials& and free tools for researchin* the "arious Aramaic& 2e$rew& Greek and n*lish 9i$le "ersions& "isitJ httpJDDwww4aramaicpeshitta4comIntroduction OTable of Contents.oreword44444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444/Introduction444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444>Chapter %4 +plit Words C Fndenia$le "idence of #eshitta #rimacy4444444444444444444444444444444%/1. Burn or boast? 1Corinthians 13:3...................................................................................................15. Be an imitator or be zealous? 1!eter 3:13........................................................................................1"3. !o#er or co$erin%? & 1Corinthians 11:1'...........................................................................................1(). *er children or her deeds? +atthe# 11:1, - .uke /:35 - Colossians 3:"&/.....................................'5. 0o compare or to represent? +ark ):3'...........................................................................................)". 0hose #ho are stron% or #ho ha$e po#er? 1e$ ":15......................................................................."/. 2ayin% or thinkin%? 3ohn 11:31.......................................................................................................((. 0hrou%h the %ate or door? .uke 13:).............................................................................................,,. 2uffer or tolerate? 1e$elation :'...................................................................................................311'. 0o hope or #ait? 1omans (:).......................................................................................................311. 4n *im5 on *im or into *im? 3ohn 3:15.......................................................................................3)1. 6n%ry or merciful? +ark 1:)1......................................................................................................3513. Because5 #hen or since? 3ohn 1:)1...............................................................................................3/1). Be%innin% or firstfruits? 0hessalonians :13..............................................................................3(15. 7e shall or let us? 1Corinthians 15:),.........................................................................................3,1". 7hatsoe$er place or as many as? +ark ":11.................................................................................)11/. 8isre%arded or heard? +ark 5:3"..................................................................................................)1(. 4 or she? .uke /:)5.........................................................................................................................))1,. 7alkin% or passin% on? +ark 1:1"................................................................................................)5'. !araptoma or hamartia? 3ames 5:1"..............................................................................................)/1. 9f sal$ation or of life? +atthe# 1":1"..........................................................................................)(. 6lms or ri%hteousness? +atthe# ":1............................................................................................),3. *eart or understandin%? :phesians 1:1(......................................................................................5'). Bo#els or lo$e? !hilippians 1:(5 :1 - Colossians 3:1 - !hilemon /5 15 ' - 13ohn 3:1/ -Corinthians ":1...................................................................................................................................515. 2it or d#ell? 1e$elation 1):".........................................................................................................53". 2hout or $oice? 1e$elation 1):1(...................................................................................................5)/. 0o permit or send? +atthe# (:31..................................................................................................55(. +ar$elled or afraid? +atthe# ,:(.................................................................................................5",. 7earied or harassed? +atthe# ,:3"..............................................................................................5/3'. 6nother or the next? +atthe# 1':3............................................................................................5/31. Commandment5 #ord or la#? +atthe# 15:"................................................................................5(3. 0he Bi% 9ne; 6 prisoner apostle?5 of @eshua? !hilemon 1:1.......................................................................................................5,33. Belo$ed or sister? !hilemon 1:....................................................................................................."3). Ai$en to her or it? 1e$elation 13:15.............................................................................................."335. 0he :$en Bi%%er 9ne; 6 2:!0=!.: split #ord. 4ntemperate5 unclean5 unBust5 >unBustintemperance?5 co$etousness5 #ickedness or iniCuity? +atthe# 3:5..............................................")3". 7eddin% or #eddin% hall? +atthe# :1'...................................................................................""3/. 6nother or nei%hbor? 3ames ):1..................................................................................................."/3(. 4rritated or denied? 6cts 3:1)........................................................................................................"(Chapter 24 +emi +plit Words4444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444I%%' Was the New Testament Really Written in Greek?1. *ardly die for a ri%hteous man or a #icked man? 1omans 5:/......................................................./. 7hy hast thou forsaken me or #hy ha$e you spared me? +atthe# /:)" - +ark 15:3)................/33. Camel or rope? +atthe# 1,:) - +ark 1':5 - .uke 1(:5............................................................./"). Ai$e not a holy thin% or han% not earrin%s? & +at /:"......................................................................//5. 2imon the leper or potter-Bar maker? +atthe# ":" - +ark 1):3..................................................../,". :unuch or belie$er? +atthe# 1,:1 - 6cts (:/.............................................................................('/. *ate or put aside? .uke 1):".........................................................................................................((. 2alted or scattered-destroyed? +ark ,:),........................................................................................(3,. 0his %eneration or this family? +ark 13:3'....................................................................................()1'. !ains or cords? 6cts :)..............................................................................................................(511. Bed or coffin? 1e$elation :'.......................................................................................................((1. *ouse or amon%? +atthe# 11:(....................................................................................................(,13. Doice or sound? 6cts ,:/................................................................................................................(,1). 0eacher or my %reat one? +atthe# 3:(.......................................................................................,'15. !erform repeatedly or re$ert? 1omans :1&3.................................................................................,1". Ai$en up to $ile passions or diseases of dis%race? 1omans 1:"...................................................,31/. Cities or talents? .uke 1,:1/&1,....................................................................................................,)1(. Aall or an%er? 6cts (:3................................................................................................................,)1,. Eeet or foot soldiers? 1omans 3:15................................................................................................,5'. 7orld or land of 4srael? 6cts 11:(...............................................................................................,"1. Aood and food or much and cheer? 6cts 1):1/..............................................................................,/. !eace or culti$ated land? 3ames 3:1(.............................................................................................,(3. !eace or culti$ated land? 6%ainF 6cts 1:'............................................................................1''). 3oin or touch? 6cts 5:13...............................................................................................................1'15. !erfected or finished? .uke 13:3................................................................................................1'". 7alk or #ork? .uke 13:33...........................................................................................................1'/. !riest or priests? +ark 1:))........................................................................................................1')Chapter /4 #oetry and Word #lays4444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444%'>1. 0he beauty that is >3anus !arallelism? +atthe# 13:31&3...........................................................1'". 6 #ord play of common roots for lo$e5 o#e and nei%hbour 1omans 13:(.....................................1'(3. 0he .ordGs !rayer +atthe# ":,&13................................................................................................1',). !aul the poet; !hilippians ):(........................................................................................................11'5. 3esus on mithla and miltha .uke (:11............................................................................................111". 0he Beatitudes +atthe# 5:3&1.....................................................................................................111/. 3esus the poet; .uke /:3................................................................................................................11(. 9ceans of #ordplay .uke 1..........................................................................................................113,. 2i%ns and miracles 3ohn ):)(.........................................................................................................1151'. HhGda o$er the Hhad .uke 15:)&5.................................................................................................11"11. 7e are not forsaken Corinthians ):(&,......................................................................................11"1. 2eparatin% !harisees .uke 1/:1(&'............................................................................................11/13. 2impler and prettier in the 6ramaic 1omans ):5......................................................................11(1). 0riple sla$ery #ord play .uke /:(................................................................................................11(15. 6mazin% poetry #ith a hidden meanin% 10imothy 3:1".............................................................11(1". :$en foxes ha$e holes .uke ,:5(..................................................................................................111/. Concentrated poetry 10imothy 5:1'............................................................................................111(. 6#esome foursome #ord play .uke /:)1&)................................................................................111,. 0riple #ordplay to 2emites in 0hessalonica 10hessalonians 1:3&5.............................................1'. @ou did not dance nor lament +atthe# 11:1/............................................................................131. 2tephen the poet; 6cts /:)&"....................................................................................................13. Aod re#ards >non&bra%%ers? +atthe# ":3&)..............................................................................1)Introduction %%3. !arallelisms in the Aospels +atthe# 5:)5...................................................................................1)). 1e$ealin% poetry 1e$elation 1/:1/..............................................................................................155. 2emitic rhymin% *ebre#s 1:3....................................................................................................1"". Crumbs from the table .uke 1":1...............................................................................................1"/. Creati$e 2emitic #ritin% to 0itus >the Areek? 0itus 3:)&5.........................................................1/(. 6fflicted one 6cts ,:33&3)............................................................................................................1,Chapter 84 +emitic Idioms444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444%/%1. !ick up snakes +ark 1":1(............................................................................................................133. Cut it off and pluck it out +ark ,:)3&)/.......................................................................................1333. :yes of your heart :phesians 1:1(.................................................................................................13)). 9f the household :phesians :1,...................................................................................................1355. Bo#els of 3esus !hilippians 1:(5 :1 - Colossians 3:1 - !hilemon /5 15 ' - 13ohn 3:1/ -Corinthians ":1.................................................................................................................................13"". *is face #as set .uke ,:53.............................................................................................................13//. 0heir phylacteries and borders +atthe# 3:5...............................................................................13((. 7ho shall declare his %eneration? 6cts (:33.................................................................................13,,. !ressed in the spirit 6cts 1(:5.......................................................................................................1)'1'. 2on of its hour +atthe# 13:5......................................................................................................1)111. *i%h mountain +atthe# ):( - .uke ):5......................................................................................1)11. 0o %o 3ohn 1:11..........................................................................................................................1)13. 2on of peace .uke 1':".................................................................................................................1)31). 2lo# of heart and heart burn .uke ):5 - .uke ):3................................................................1)315. *o# your breath should depart .uke 1:11&1...........................................................................1))1". 2on of his city *ebre#s (:11........................................................................................................1)5Chapter >4 Miscellaneous #roofsJ Minor Kariants& )oan Words& 9ad Greek Grammar P More444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444%8I1. Iumerous 6ramaic loan #ords in the Areek .uke 1:15 - +atthe# 1:1' - .uke :)1 et al.........1)/. .ambs5 sheep5 sheep? 9r lambs5 sheep5 %oats? 9r lambs5 rams5 e#es? 3ohn 1:15&1/.................1),3. +iracle or miracles? 3ohn ":1)......................................................................................................15'). Bad Areek %rammar in 1e$elation 1e$elation...............................................................................1515. 0he Areek I0 Cuotes the 2eptua%int? +atthe# 11:1'.................................................................153". 7hich or no #hich? 6cts 1':3".....................................................................................................15)/. 2emitic parallelisms in the supposedly Areek Bible 1!eter :1) et al............................................155(. 3esus the non&.e$itical hi%h priest *ebre#s 3:1............................................................................15/,. Burnished brass? 1e$elation 1:15 - 1e$elation :1(.....................................................................15(1'. Eor5 but or and? Corinthians :1...............................................................................................1"111. Areek !rimacist =nited Bible 2ociety >Bumpin% ship?? 6cts 1':3"...........................................1"1. 0he Areek I0 Cuotes the 2eptua%int? 6%ain? +atthe# :))..................................................1"313. 6 cro#d or the cro#d? 3ohn 1:1...............................................................................................1"31). 6bba abba Aalatians ):"...............................................................................................................1")15. 0hief or thie$es? 10hesssalonians 5:)..........................................................................................1"51". 0he alpha and the 9 1e$elation 1:( - 1e$elation 1:" - 1e$elation :13..................................1""1/. Iot e$en missin% +atthe# (:1'..................................................................................................1"(1(. CanGt you lea$e the old readin% alone? *ebre#s 1:3...................................................................1/'1,. 6s someone some#here testified *ebre#s :".............................................................................1/1'. 6ramaic explainin% 6ramaic is no proof of Areek primacy +ark 3:1/ - +ark 15:3) - 6cts 1:1,...............................................................................................................................................................1/1. Aalilee of the Aentiles5 Areeks or 6rameans? +atthe# ):15......................................................1/3. Contention or contentions? 0itus 3:,..........................................................................................1/)3. +ust the 2criptures be #ritten in a >%lobal lan%ua%e?? 0imothy 3:1" - 6cts 1/:1'&11..........1/)%2 Was the New Testament Really Written in Greek?). Chief and chief? 9r chief and elder? 6cts 1(:(5 1/......................................................................1/55. !eshitta =nori%inal? 4f so5 it is 204.. 2uperior5 8ue to @eshuaGs 7ords....................................1/"Chapter B4 2istorical ;!ternal= #roofs444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444%IO1. 0he 6ramaic lan%ua%e......................................................................................................................1/,. 0he 6ramaic Bible.............................................................................................................................1(33. 7hat the ancient reli%ious authorities said of the ori%inal Bible......................................................1(5). 7hat the modern authorities say......................................................................................................1,'5. 0he 2eptua%int..................................................................................................................................1,/". 0he Areek I0: a pale imitation.........................................................................................................1,,/. 9ther 6ramaic $ersions....................................................................................................................'1(. Erom *ebre#5 to 6ramaic5 to... 6rabic? 7hereGs the Areek;?.........................................................',Chapter I4 Contradictions in the Greek New Testament #ro"e #eshitta #rimacy44444442%/1. 0he Aenealo%ies of @eshua +at 1:"&1" - .uke 3:1&31.................................................................1). 8id 3oseph name @eshua? +atthe# 1:1 - .uke 1:31...................................................................1/3. 8oes Aod lead us into temptation? +atthe# ":13 - +atthe# ):3 - 10hessalonians 3:5...............1(). 4s #isdom $indicated by her children? +atthe# 11:1, - .uke /:35..............................................'5. 7as the :thiopian a eunuch? +atthe# 1,:1 - 6cts (:/ - 8euteronomy 3:1...........................1". Can #e be teachers or not? +atthe# 3:( - +atthe# (:1,&'....................................................3/. 7as 2imon really a leper? +atthe# ":" - +ark 1):3 - .e$iticus 13:)5&)".................................)(. 7as it really 3eremiah the !rophet? +atthe# /:,&1' - Jechariah 11:13....................................5,. 7as 3esus forsaken? +atthe# /:)" - +ark 15:3) - !salms 3/:5&( - 3ohn 1":3...................../1'. 7as she Areek or not? +ark /:" - +atthe# 15:....................................................................(11. 2hall #e sinners maim oursel$es? +ark ,:)3&)/ - 1Corinthians ":1,&'..................................,1. 4s that %eneration still ali$e? +ark 13:3'....................................................................................3'13. 7hy does 3esus #ake up !eter5 3ames and 3ohn5 after tellin% them to >sleep on?? +ark 1):)1 -+ark 1):)............................................................................................................................................311). 8o #e need to hate to become %ood Christians? .uke 1):" - 1omans ,:13 - 13ohn 3:15 - 13ohn ):'&1..................................................................................................................................................315. 4s the Aospel really foolish? 1Corinthians 1:1 - 0imothy 3:15&1"...........................................3)1". 6 medley of 9ld 0estament apolo%etics..........................................................................................351/. Aod blinded their eyes? 3ohn 1:)' et al......................................................................................3/1(. 8ebatin% about the la# and-or 0orah is unprofitable and $ain? 0itus 3:, - +atthe# 5:1/&1(. .3,Chapter (4 I @on7t Hnow Aramaic& What 2ope is There for Me?4444444444444444444444444444444444428/.eature % C The Greek of the GNT is not Hoine Greek444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444428I.eature 2 C A )en*thy Refutation of Eld +yriac ;E+= #rimacy4444444444444444444444444444444444444442I/.eature / C Mistranslatin* the Genealo*ies of 5eshua4444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444/2/.eature 8 C 9i$le Word6#airs and Codes Indicate #eshitta #rimacy and @i"ine Inspiration44444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444/8>Appendi! A C The @ecepti"e Nature of Greek #rimacy4444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444/I/Appendi! 9 C Introduction to the )amsa 9i$le4444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444/IIAppendi! C C Reader Comments444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444/O>Appendi! @ C The Aramaic #eshitta +a"es .aiths444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444448%>Appendi!C )amsa .amily ndorses This 9ook4444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444448%OAppendi! . C Notes for .uture ditions44444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444482%Appendi! G C A$out Raphael )ataster44444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444482/Chapter %4 +plit Words C Fndenia$le "idence of #eshitta #rimacy %/$ha%ter 1& '%lit (ords ) *ndenia+le ,vidence of Peshitta PrimacyWeshall start ourin"esti*ationwithoneofthemostcon"incin*formsof proofJ 0split words14 +plit words are in"alua$le to the Aramaic primacists as theyshowthe Aramaicto$esuperiortoGreekA showhowGreek"ariantsarecaused$y different translations of the AramaicA and often sol"e QanomaliesDerrorsDcontradictions7 within the New Testament& $y allowin* for more correct renderin*s40+plit words1& are polysemous words ;polysemy C ha"in* multiple meanin*s=4The rele"ance of polysemy in the case for #eshitta primacy ;the $elief that the New Testament was written not in Greek& $ut in Aramaic& and that the #eshitta is the closest 9i$le we ha"e to the ori*inal= is mind6$lowin*4 In a more *eneral sense& a split word isn7t confined to Greek "ariants where a sin*le Aramaic word or root is in :uestion4 !amples where Greek translators clearly confused two similarly spelt Aramaic words& leadin* to "ariances in the Greek are also split words& as are e!amples where a "ariant is caused $y differin* translations of an Aramaic idiom4 This is how it worksJWhencomparin*differentGreekNT;NewTestament=manuscriptsandDor the n*lish translations of said manuscripts& many differences are apparent4 %8 Was the New Testament Really Written in Greek?+ometimes&there is 3ust a one6word difference amon* "erses from different manuscripts4 In $asic cases& some Greek te!ts will ha"e the word 051 ;as an e!ample= and some will ha"e the word 0L14 Now this one word often chan*es the meanin* of the "erse& so these "ariants are :uite important4 Now& suppose we ha"e a manuscript that has as the word in :uestion& the word known as 0R14 +upposealsothat thismanuscript isinanotherlan*ua*e& anancient +emitic lan*ua*e& and that 0R1 in this lan*ua*e can $e translated to mean 051 and 0L1< Which manuscript would $e more relia$le? The one that says 051& 0L1 or 0R1?Ef course& 0manuscript R1 would clearly $e superior to the 0manuscripts 5 and L1& and it is also clear that $oth the 05 and L manuscripts1 are translated from0manuscript R1& as the 0manuscript R1 happens to $e in another lan*ua*e& and happens to $e in a lan*ua*e used $y Gesus& the Apostles and the earliest Christians& Gudeans and other +emitic peoples< It is also clear& that thedifferences $etweentheGreekmanuscripts [email protected]$ydifferent translations of the one 0R manuscript14 Ef course& the 0R manuscript1 I speak of is the #eshitta& the New Testament& as ori*inally written in Aramaic4 What wouldthepro$a$ility$ethat this phenomenon3ust occurred$ychance? What if this phenomenon occurs twice? It could happen4 Thrice? .i"e times? )ooks like it7s more than 3ust chance& ri*ht? Ten times? May$e $y the tenth time& you should think a$out throwin* away your Greek "ersion& especially inli*ht oftheother forms of e"idence ;0semi splitwords1& poetry&idioms& etc=4 Therearesomanyoccurrences& it defies chance& andI will only$e discussin* a mere handful4In case my e!planation of Qsplit words7 is not sufficiently clear& let7s look to the definition from the man who coined the termJ-In the $ody of the Greek New Testament& there are MAN5 "ariances4 +cri$es o"er the years ha"e made ;what they thou*ht were= corrections& words were misread for others in copyin*& and ;in some rare cases= words were inserted or remo"ed to fit people?s doctrine4 We ha"e thetechnolo*y today to trace most of these "ariances $ack and find out where they came from& $ut some 3ust seem to pop up out of nowhere4 +ometimes theentire$odyof theGreekNewTestament is di"idedri*ht down the middle with a "ariance&half of them containin* one word& while half of themcontain another4 These are knownas S+plit Words4S And& surprisin*lyenou*h& alot ofthemseemto$ee!plaina$le$yanAramaic Chapter %4 +plit Words C Fndenia$le "idence of #eshitta #rimacy %>word that& when translated& has two separate and distinct meanin*s4. C +te"e CarusoNoteJ .or con"enience& I *i"e "erses from n*lish 9i$les ;translated from the Greek "ersions= and list some main 9i$les where a particular readin* occurs4 This isnot to $e takenas e"idence of split words4Thee"idencelies in the Greekmanuscripts4 Also&pleasedonot$eledintothinkin*that$ecausea "ariant is represented in 2> n*lish "ersions&that it is superior to a "ariant representedin%or2n*lish"ersions& andsoforth4 Most ofthepopular n*lish"ersionsaretranslatedformthesamefewGreekmanuscripts& so num$ers of n*lish translations with a particular "ariant are not important4 WhatisimportantisthatthereareGreekmanuscriptswiththe"ariantsin :uestion4Now let us look at the e"idence% +yr to suffer from ,eal'/% +yr to arouse someone?s en"y'/2 +yr to make to emulateTnn A% +yr ,ealous2 +yr champion/ +yr emulator8 +yr en"iousThat?s why you ha"e Greek "ariants that don?t look anythin* alike e!cept for the ?6tai? endin*4 We ha"e 0mimetai1 "ersus 0,elotai1 C 0imitators1 "ersus 0,ealous14%( Was the New Testament Really Written in Greek?The te!ts that ha"e ?mimetai? ;imitators= are the %>>' +tephens Te!tus Receptus& the%(O8+cri"ener Te!tusReceptusandthe9y,antineMa3ority Te!t4The Ale!andrian Te!t has ?,elotai? ;,ealous= as well as theseJ %#et /J%/4 Read S$e ,ealousS instead of S$e imitatorsS4 ) T Tr A W W2 N NA )])achmann %(82& T]Tischendorf %(BO& Tr]Tre*elles %(>I& A]Alford %(8O as re"isedin%(I%& W]Wordsworth%(>Basre"isedin%(I'& W2]Westcott P 2ort %((%& N]Collation in pro*ress of Nestle %O2I as re"ised in %O8% ;%Ith=4 NA]Nestle6Aland %OIO ;Aland et al4 %OIO=43. Powerorcovering ? - 1Corinthians 11:10 The HGK saysJ 0.or this cause ou*ht the woman to ha"e poweron her head $ecause of the an*els41The N)T saysJ 0+o a woman should wear a co"erin* on her head as a si*n of authority $ecause the an*els are watchin*41Kersions that say power or a "ariation thereofJ @ouay6Rheims& Gene"a& HG2%& HGK& We$ster4Kersions that say co"erin*& "eil or a "ariation thereofJ AM#& CK& GodsWord& N)T& R+K& TK& W& Wycliffe4Now& it 3ust so happens that the Aramaic word 0sholtana1 ;0n=lw4= can mean 0power1& $ut can also refer to a 0co"erin*14 It is clear that the disa*reements in the Greek te!ts& points to the Aramaic ori*inal4+owhywouldonetranslatoruse0power1andtheother0co"erin*1?The answer has to do with how the apostle #aul thinks in a +emitic framework4In the #eshitta NT the word used is 0sholtana14 In most cases& this word does in fact mean 0power1& and so we can see how it mi*ht $e translated as such into Greek4 2owe"er& sholtana also has a secondary meanin* of how power is reflected in the person who has or does not ha"e it4 +o& if the person is a kin*& his crown is his co"erin* [email protected] his authorityDpower4 .or a woman then& in the Chapter %4 +plit Words C Fndenia$le "idence of #eshitta #rimacy %Oconte!t of $ein* su$missi"e& her "eil is her si*n of authority and her co"erin* as well4 Now& in the Greek& the word for power used in this "erse is 0e!ousia1& which did not ori*inally ha"e the secondary meanin* of 0co"erin*14.or proof of this assertion& I turn to what is pro$a$ly the lar*est collection of ancient Greek manuscripts and study tools a"aila$le anywhereJ the #erseus #ro3ect at Tufts Fni"ersity4 Their interacti"e dictionaries show all the shades ofmeanin*ofaGreekwordwhere"eritappearsintheliterature&andnot once is this 0co"erin*1 meanin* usedJe!ous6ia& h^& ;e!esti= power& authoritytodoathin*& c4 inf4& chaireinkai noseine4 paresti +4.r4((4%% codd4A aut_i e4 ^n saph_s eidenai & cf4 A e!ousian ho nomos ded_ke permission to do 4 4& A e4 poiein & etc4A e4 la$ein & & etc4A la$_n e4 h_ste 4 4 A epi t^i t^s eir^n^s e4 with the freedom permitted $y peace& J c4 *en4 o$3ecti& e4 echein thanatou power of life and death& #oll4(4(BA pra*ma hou t^n e4 echousin alloi control o"er 4 4& @io*4Een4>IA e4 tinos power o"er& licence in a thin*& tou le*ein A en me*al^i e4 tou adikein [email protected]]au]& cf4 ti]A kata t^n ouk e4 t^s a*_nise_s from want of :ualification for 4 4& J a$s4& power& authority& 4.r4I(84 24 a$use of authority& licence& arro*ance& hu$ris kai e4 & cf4 au]& A h^ a*an e4 [email protected]]au]]lrA ametros e4 EGIBBO4>% ;i [email protected]=4 /4 )it4 Crit4& e4 poi^tik^ poetic licence& +tr4%424%I& Gul4Er4%4%'$4 II4 office& Ma*istracy& archaikai e4 A hoientaise4 A hoiene4 [email protected]]A hoi ep?e!ousi_n )[email protected]/42A h^ hupatik^ e4 the consulate& & etc4A also h^ hupatos e4 @424I4%A h^ tamieutik^ e4 the :uaestorship& @424(4IIA d^marchik^ e4& "4 d^marchikosA h^ tou thalamou e4& in the Roman empire& )[email protected] of the $edcham$er& 2dn4%4%24/4 24 concrete& $ody of Ma*istrates& @424%%4/2A hai e4 ;as we say= the authorities& "4)uc4%24%%&al4& #lu4#hil4%I4 $4 h^ e4 as an honorary title& #E!y4%%'/ ;i" [email protected]=& etc4 III4 a$undance of means& resources& e!ousias epidei!is A ploutos kai e4 & cf4 A endeester_s ^ pros t^n e4 A t_n anankai_n e4 A e!cessi"e wealth& opp4 ousia& Com4Adesp42>a4>@4 IK4 pomp& #lu4Aem4/84 Now the Greek +chool will counter& 09ut this is Hoine& not Classical Greek1& and that is my point as well4 This alle*ed 0Hoine1 was $orn in Ale!andria& 2' Was the New Testament Really Written in Greek?*ypt& withthetranslationof the+eptua*int .REM29RW+EFRC+4 This secondarymeanin*was NEW2Rpre"iously& andcamefromthe dou$le meanin* of sholtana444This is clearly a word play rooted in +emitic and not 2ellenistic understandin*4 I say that $ecause another wordfor 0power1 also used elsewhereinthepistles doesnot ha"ethesecondarymeanin*of 0"eil1 ;[2>I%6kalumaA see2Corinthians/J%/6%B=& and"ice"ersa& ;dunatos& hupo& ischus& kratos=4 Ineither case& #aul wouldha"e sufficient control inthe translationprocesstopickeitherane!clusi"ely"eil6likeorane!clusi"ely power6like word without creatin* confusion4 The reason he did not is $ecause& a*ain& thetranslator whodidit didnot ha"ethe$enefit of this understandin*4 All he knew was that sholtana was starin* $ack at him from the pa*e4 A few years later& when the second letter came to his church& either the skill of the translator had impro"ed in the interim or he was replaced with another who had a $etter of *rasp of the lan*ua*e4. !er chil"renor her"ee"s ? #atthew 11:1$ % &u'e (:3) % Colossians 3:*-(This split word is :uite ama,in* ;and :uite len*thy=& as it not only points to anAramaicori*inal throu*hAramaicori*insofGreek"ariants& $utitalso pro"ides an Aramaic solution for apolo*ists workin* on these "erses& as well as e!posin* much corruption in the Greek te!ts4 This is further complicated $y the oddity that the "ariant is found in the wron* "ersenon-braggers? #atthew *:3-The HGK saysJ 09ut when thou doest alms& let not thy left hand know what thy ri*ht hand doethJ That thine alms may $e in secretJ and thy .ather which seeth in secret himself shall reward thee openly41ant deyn ma dGa$ed ant zedGCatah C whene"er you do your *i"in*la tedah simal6H* C don7t re"eal to your left handmanah a$da yamin6H* C what your ri*ht hand is doin* aGyikh dGteG#eh zedGCatakh [email protected]* C so your *i"in* should $e done in secretooGa$okh dGkhazeh [email protected]* C and our father who sees in secrethoo nepraGakh bG%[email protected]*6 he will reward you in the open .orsome reason&the Greekandmedie"al2e$rew"ersionsof Matthewdo not rhyme as much4 23. Parallelisms in the Aos,els #atthew ):)The HGK saysJ 0That ye may $e the children of your .ather which is in hea"enJ for he maketh his sun to rise on the e"il and on the *ood& and sendeth rain on the 3ust and on the un3ust415/-'an-na "D+ehwon Benoi "D5bo'hon "DbD.hma/a;so that you may $e the sons of your .ather who is in 2ea"en= Chapter /4 #oetry and Word #lays %2>!u "D#a"ni'h .hemsheh al +awa wDal Beesha ;2e who raises 2is sun upon the *ood and upon the e"il= wD#a'het #itreh al Iana wDal 5wela ;and causes 2is rain to descend upon the 3ust and the un3ust4= This is a $eautiful e!ample of Aramaic poetry with $oth rhyme and parallelisms42. -evealing ,oetr/ -evelation 1(:1(The HGK saysJ 0.or God hath put in their hearts to fulfil his will& and to a*ree& and*i"etheir kin*domuntothe$east& until thewordsof Godshall $e fulfilled41Note the rhymes and root play in this "erse4;%= 6laha %ir yaheb bP.ebothon dPIebdon tsebyaneh ;2= #PIebdon tsebyanhon khad #PIetlon malkothhon ;/= lPHhayotha hay edama dPIeshtamliyan melohiy ;8= dP6laha Well& it looks like line 8 *ot cut short $ut it emphasi,es the fact that the "erse $e*ins with SAlahaS and ends with Sd?AlahaSNotice how Sd?Ne$donS of line % rhymes and has the same root o$"iously as Sw?Ne$donS of line 24 As you can see Sw?NetlonS of line 2 rhymes :uite well with Sd?Ne$lonS and Sw?Ne$don4S 9y the way& when it comes to Sw?NetlonS under ?netel? in the Compendious& this is *i"en C Sdefecti"e "er$ used to supplement ?yahe$?4 ?5ahe$? is the third word in line %4 Thethreewordsthat ha"ean?6on? endin*correspond:uitewell withthe words that ha"e a ?6hon? endin*66tse$yanhon? and ?malkothhon? of line 24 Then of course there?s the correspondence $etween ?tse$yaneh? of line % and ?tse$yanhon? ofline 24The similar6soundin*consonants ofthelastword in line2andthefirstwordinline/6Smalkothhonl?HhayothaSandthe?mim& %2B Was the New Testament Really Written in Greek?lamad and yudh? in the last two words of line /66 Sd?Neshtamliyan melohiyS4 9y the way& the root of ?melohiy? is ?miltha?42). .emitic rh/ming !ebrews 12:3The HGK saysJ 0.or consider him that endured such contradiction of sinners a*ainst himself& lest ye $e wearied and faint in your minds41This is "ery interestin*& as the Greek omits a phrase fromthis "erse4 Ama,in*ly& this missin* phrase rhymes with the rest of the "erse and adds line parallelism42ereit isinall it?s$eauty& rhythmandrhyme6 3ust astheApostlehad intended itJ wnh0y=xNmrbys0mk$ykhw!x;khza#hakil kma saybar min khatayeh hanun= Consider& therefore& how much he suffered from those sinners& wh4#nl fbwqs wwh wnhd ;dPhanun ha#u saCubleh lPnaphshayhun= for they were ad"ersaries to their own soul& wkl 0mt fd ;dPla teman lPkhun= so that you not $ecome weary& wk4#n 0#rtt fw ;#Pla tethrapa naphshkhun= nor your soul $ecome remiss2*. Crumbs 2rom the table &u'e 1*:21The HGK saysJ 0And desirin* to $e fed with the crum$s which fell from the rich man7s ta$leJ moreo"er the do*s came and licked his sores41Thereis wordplayintheAramaic& whichis not preser"edintheGreek translationsJ Chapter /4 #oetry and Word #lays %2I#arthutheh 6 Scrum$sS #athureh 6 S;his= ta$leS This isa*ain& ane!ampleof two ofthemain words ;inthe ima*ery of the para$le= $ein* similar to each other4 Eur )ord makes fre:uent use of this type of ima*ery and wordplay to help facilitate the memori,ation $y the crowds of 2is para$les4 In Greek& the word for ?crum$s? is #sichion and for ?ta$le? it is Trape,a4 There is clearly no wordplay in the Greek42(. Creative .emitic writing to +itus >the Aree'? +itus 3:-)TheHGKsaysJ 09ut after that thekindnessandlo"eof Godour +a"iour toward man appeared& Not $y works of ri*hteousness which we ha"e done& $ut accordin* to his mercy he sa"ed us& $y the washin* of re*eneration& and renewin* of the 2oly GhostA1Titus 3:DK4Nnyxm 0hl0d htwnmxrmw htwmysb tyl%t0 Nyd dkhlyd Yhwmxrb f0 db9d Fwqyd!d 0db9b f04dwqd 0xwrd Fdwxbw $yrd Nmd 0dlwmd Fxsb Nyx0 )amsaJ 09ut after the*oodness andkindnessof Godour +a"iour was manifested& Not $y works of ri*hteousness which we ha"e done& $ut accordin*tohis mercy& hesa"edus$ythewashin*of re*enerationand renewin* of the 2oly +pirit&1This is a "ery $eautiful passa*e of +cripture and a *reat confirmation of our standin* in 57shua the Messiah4 There are some stron* poetic tendencies here waswell4 .ore!ample&basiymotheh#Pmrakhmanotheh;*oodnessandmercy= are ane!ample of a0dou$le reflection1& where twowords withsimilar meanin*s are 3ammed to*ether4 In this case& the common definitions shared $y the nei*h$orin* words are as followsJ%2( Was the New Testament Really Written in Greek?htwmysb8basi/mothehF"indness7 %ity7 mercy8mra'hmanothehF twnmxrmThe last three words in /J> also represent a "ery cle"er alliteration as wellJ#PbPkhodatha ;and in renewin*= dP1okha ;of the +pirit=dP +yr love)+2 I28)+2 "J ra!mA=a$s4 "ocJ r!emr!m K'%% passim to lo"e'%2 +yr to ha"e pity on'%/ +yr to desire'%/ G)AGal&G)AT* to like s4t4'%8 +yr to prefer'8% +yr to $e lo"ed'82 +yr to o$tain mercy'8/ +yr to $e moderated'2% G)AGal&G)AT*&+yr&G9A w4\;l\ to ha"e mercy'22 +yr to stri"e for mercy'2/ G9A to lo"e'28 G9A to *i"e suck'>% G)AGal&+yr to $e pitied'/% +yr to ha"e pity'/2 +yr to make to lo"e'// +yr to make $elo"edAs the heart is "iewed as the seat of the intellect& the $owels are "iewed as the seat of compassion4*. !is 2ace was set &u'e $:)3The HGK saysJ 0And they did not recei"e him& $ecause his face was as thou*h he would *o to Gerusalem41We read the Greek with astonishmentJ J....because his 2ace was set towar" 0erusalemJ %/( Was the New Testament Really Written in Greek?.ace was set toward Gerusalem? What does that mean in Greek? In +emitic idiom& Sto set one?s face444S means ?to make up one?s mind?& and is :uite fre:uent in +emitic thou*ht4 Reference the followin* "ersesJ Amos OJ8 Geremiah /J%2 Geremiah 2%J%' Geremiah 82J%> Geremiah 88J%2 2 Hin*s %2J%I @aniel %%J%I ,ekiel BJ% ,ekiel %/J%I ,ekiel %8J( ,ekiel %>JI Most importantly& this idiom is present in the commentary portion of )uke& not merely the narrati"e portion ;when Aramaic idioms occur in the narrati"e portions& it is understanda$le as it is not disputed that Gesus spoke Aramaic=4 The idiom is also present in "erse >%4NoteJAsan interestin*sidenote&the pre"ious "erse;"erse>2=hasa minor Greek "ariant that could $e e!plained $y the Aramaic ori*inal4Most Greek mss say 0"illa*e1& while Tischendorf7s says 0city14 The Aramaic Fyrqcan mean $oth4(. +heir ,h/lacteries an" bor"ers #atthew 23:)The HGK saysJ 09ut all their works they do for to $e seen of menJ they make $road their phylacteries& and enlar*e the $orders of their *arments&1GreekJ tooitjptootcv Rtheir phylacteriesR #eshittaJ whyl#t Chapter 84 +emitic Idioms %/ORtheir tefillinR .rom 2nd Temple period times to this day& ?Tefillin? is the proper ;and only= term4 The #eshitta te!t assumes the reader has a *oodknowled*e and "oca$ulary of Gewish orthodo!y4 GreekJ toipoonrootcvtottcvotcv Rthe borders of their %armentsR #eshittaJ why=w=rmd Flkt Rthe tekhelet of their %armentsR ?Tekhelet? is the correct 9i$lical term here& the name for the actual $lue strand in the ?t,it,it?& or frin*es4 Num+ers 14:38+peakuntothechildrenofIsrael& and$idthemthattheymakethemfrin*es;2e$4 tzitzit= in the $orders of their *arments throu*hout their *enerations& and that they put upon the frin*e of the $orders a ri$$and of $lue ;tekhelet= The #eshitta assumes intimacy with Gewish custom and "oca$ulary& and is a muchmorespecific atermthanthe*eneral Greekwordmeanin*?ed*e& $order& skirt& or hem?4 Why would the #eshitta& $ein* a supposed translation of the Greek& $e more specific than the 0Greek ori*inal1?1. 6ho shall "eclare his generation? 5cts 1:33TheHGKsaysJ 0Inhishumiliationhis3ud*mentwastakenawayJ andwho shall declare his *eneration? for his life is taken from the earth41SWho willdeclare his *eneration?S is an idiom meanin* rou*hly in n*lish S2is linewas cut offS4 Inother words& 5eshuahasnoli"in*relati"esor descendants444 andthat?stheconte!tofthepassa*e$ein*:uotedinIsaiah ;pleasenotethatmanyanti6#eshittacampai*nersclaimthatthe#eshittais fa"ored $y cultists and Gnostics C this re"elation that 5eshua had no children %8' Was the New Testament Really Written in Greek?directly contradicts the widespreadGnostic teachin* that 2e andMary Ma*dalene had children to*ether=4In+emitic thou*ht& S*enerationS is ine!trica$ly linkedwith *enetic line& offsprin*4It?s not like the n*lish which means only an Sa*eS or Speriod of time4S When Matthew and )uke recorded the *enealo*y of 5eshua& it stopped withhim4 Thereis nooneafter him4 This is themeanin*of theIsaiah?s prophecy in Isaiah >/J( C Swho will speak of his descendants ;*enerations=?S Isaiah teaches us that the 5eshua would $e Scut offS without any descendents or line of continuation444 no S*enerationsS4$. Presse" in the s,irit 5cts 11:)The HGK saysJ 0And when +ilas and Timotheus were come from Macedonia& #aul was pressed in the spirit& and testified to the Gews that Gesus #as Christ41NoteJ +ome translators of the #eshitta New Testament& into n*lish& are @r4 Geor*e Mamishisho )amsa& Games Murdock and Gohn Wesley therid*e4Lor$a failed to translate a certain phrase in Acts %(J> idiomatically4 Acts 18:4:wu }>B%/b ; [email protected]= gp }%%B%b ; W2N= ijxoq~kn }2I%(b }>B2Ib ; CAM @EWN= jyk }>I>b xou }/>((b ; .REM= rjipgknhju }/%'Ob k }/>((b ; [email protected]= xp}>'/Ib; 9ET2= lhqju}8B'Ob; +I)A+= ijh }2>/2bk}/>((b ;[email protected]=xhrk~pku}>'O>b;TIMET25= lmnph{pxk}8O%2b}>I%2bxw}/>((b;(A' PB,'',>= ynpmrjxh }8%>%b k }/>((b ;IN'PIBIT= yjmqku }/OI2b ; #AF)= ghjrjzxmzkrpnku }%2B/b }>I8'b ; ARN+T)5 T+TI.5ING= xkhu }/>((b ; TE T2= hkmgjhkhu }28>/b ; GW+TE 9= xkn }/>((b ; T2= {zhlxkn }>>8Ib ; C2RI+T= holkmn }2828b ; G+F+4=;Interlinear Greek NT= %(J> And when +ilas and Timothy had come from Macedonia& #aulwas im%eded in discourse& $ecause the Gews stood up a*ainst him& and re"iled& as he testified to them that Gesus is the Messiah4 ;Games Murdock= %(J> And when fromMakedunia +hilo and Timotheos had come& #auloswas constrained in his s%eech& $ecause the Gihudoyee arose a*ainst him and $lasphemed& while he testified to them that Geshu is the Meshiha4 ;Gohn Wesley therid*e= %(J> And when +ilas and Timotheus came from Macedonia& #aul felt he was not free to s%ea"& $ecause the Gews opposed him and $lasphemed as he testified that Gesus is the Christ4 ;Geor*e )amsa=Chapter 84 +emitic Idioms %8%The Te!tus Receptus has 0pressed in the spirit1& while Ale!andrian te!ts such as Westcott62ort and Nestle6Aland& ha"e 0pressed in the word14 This is not 3ust a +emitic idiom then& it is also a split wordSdo not $e an!ious ;Merimnao= a$out how or what you should say in your defenseS Whereas the Aramaic readsJ Sdo not $e an!ious a$out how to compose your speech or what you should sayS In other words& don?t worry a$out the way you speak or the content of that speech4 ;2= There is a triple6wordplay in this "erseJ STaspunS& STap:unS and STamrunS4 ;/= An allusion to the dual6meanin* of the word SRukhaS44444spirit and $reath& and how Gesus plays on this duality& is noticed in the "ery ne!t "erse ;"erse %2= S.or the 2oly +pirit ;Rukha d?fudsha= will teach you what to sayS In other words444444don?t worry a$out your rukha S$reathS& the Rukha d?fudsha ;the 2oly +pirit= will teach you4 IntheGreek& theallusiontoS9reathS ;"erse%%= andS+piritS ;"erse%2= is missin*41*. .on o2 his cit/ !ebrews 1:11The HGK saysJ 0And they shall not teach e"ery man his nei*h$our& and e"ery man his $rother& sayin*& Hnow the )ordJ for all shall know me& from the least to the *reatest41In the Aramaic& it actually does not literally say 0nei*h$or1& $ut 0son of his city14 This is an idiom& referrin* to a nei*h$or& or fellow6citi,en4 )amsa and Murdock $oth fi*ured this out in their translationsJMurdockJ 0And one shall not teach his fellow6citi,en`1)amsaJ 0And no man shall teach his nei*h$or`1%8B Was the New Testament Really Written in Greek?therid*e chose to render it literally in his translation from the Aramaic4therid*eJ 0and no man shall ;ha"e need to= teach the son of his city`1Ama,in*ly& this seems to ha"e caused a "ariant amon* the Greek te!ts4The Te!tus Receptus says ;nei*h$or=& while Ale!andrian6type te!ts like Westcott62ort and Nestle6Aland says ;fellow6citi,en=4It seemsthat Lor$aactuallyunderstoodthisidiom& $ut couldn7t renderit consistently4Chapter >4 Miscellaneous #roofsJ Minor Kariants& )oan Words& 9ad Greek Grammar P More %8I$ha%ter 4& Miscellaneous Proofs: Minor Jariants7 oan (ords7 =ad Hree" Hrammar O MoreThis article is $asically for those e!amples that didn7t really fit with the other types of lin*uistic proofs& such as 0split words1 and 0Aramaic idioms14 That doesn7tthereforemeanthatthesee!amplesareinsi*nificant4 2ere& wewill deal with such issues as 0minor Greek "ariants1 ;these are split words also=& 0multiple inheritance1 ;where multiple Aramaic words are diluted down to 3ust one word in the Greek=& 0$ad Greek *rammar1 ;$ad *rammar is particularly rampant in the Greek copy of Re"elation=& 0loan words1 ;where the Greek te!t has Aramaic words= and more41. Kumerous 5ramaic loan wor"s in the Aree' &u'e 1:1) %#atthew 12:10 % &u'e 2:1 et alNo HGK ref is *i"en here& as we focus on the specific Aramaic words that are in the Greek42ere is a :uestion you should ask the ne!t Greek NT scholar you meet4 %8( Was the New Testament Really Written in Greek?If )uke was written in Greek& why does the Aramaic word for S+tron* @rinkS ;+hakira= appear in the Greek manuscripts as S+ikeraS? ;)uke %J%>= Is it not $ecause Greek lacks an ori*inal word for S+tron* @rinkS? +o& they 3ust transliterated the Aramaic word? The fre:uency of this type of thin* is astoundin*& to say the least4 And then& people ask why there is a handful of Greek words in the #eshitta4 2ow a$out the >6fold :uantity of Aramaic words in the Greek manuscripts? 2ow a$out the Aramaic loan6word in Greek te!ts& S+a$$ataS ;Matthew %2J%'=& as if the Greeks had no word for +aturday`Then there is S#aschaS ;)uke 2J8%=& as if the Greeks couldn?t make up a word like the n*lish people did C S#asso"erS4 Then there are the followin* Aramaic words in the Greek manuscriptsJ .ebonthah ;frankincense& Matthew 2J%%= +ammona ;)uke %BJO= 7ai ;Woe< Matthew 2/J%/= 1abbi ;Matthew 2/JI&(= Beelzebub ;)uke %%J%>= = Boaner%es ;Mark /J%I= And then of course 0Amen1& which appears a$out %'' times in the Greek te!t of the Gospels4 Chapter >4 Miscellaneous #roofsJ Minor Kariants& )oan Words& 9ad Greek Grammar P More %8O2. &ambs4 shee,4 shee,? 8r lambs4 shee,4 goats? 8r lambs4rams4 ewes? 0ohn 21:1)-1(The HGK saysJ 0+o when they had dined& Gesus saith to +imon #eter& +imon& sonof Gonas& lo"est thou me more than these? 2e saith unto him& 5ea& )ordA thou knowest that I lo"e thee4 2e saith unto him& .eed my lam$s4 2e saith to him a*ain the second time& +imon& son of Gonas& lo"est thou me? 2e saith unto him&5ea& )ordA thou knowest that I lo"e thee4 2e saith unto him&.eed my sheep4 2e saith unto him the third time& +imon& son of Gonas& lo"est thou me? #eter was *rie"ed $ecause he said unto him the third time& )o"est thou me? And he said unto him& )ord& thou knowest all thin*sA thou knowest that I lo"e thee4 Gesus saith unto him& .eed my sheep41NoteJ This "erysamesectionof +criptureis alsousedto$lowthefalse doctrine of 0two lo"es1 ;the $elief that there is a common lo"e& 0phileo1& and a di"ine lo"e& 0a*ape1& and that we must stri"e for 0a*ape1= wide open4 This will $eco"ered;withe"[email protected]= inalater section4 .or now we will deal with the 0multiple inheritance1 aspect of this passa*e4Why would Gesus tell #eter to feed 2is sheep twice? Are sheep ;adults= more important than lam$s ;children=?Gesusasks#eterwhetherornot helo"es2im6 /times4 AftereachSyesS answer& Gesus asks #eter to StendS his lam$s& sheep& sheep C if one happens to $e readin* the Greek translations4 In the Aramaic #eshitta& we ha"e a much clearer teachin*& and while readin* fromtheAramaicthereasonfor theGreekmistranslationof these"erses $ecomes clear4 In the #eshitta& the words Gesus uses to denote SsheepS are / distinct words& as opposedtotheGreek& whichonlyuses2;?Arnion?& )am$& and?#ro$aton?& Adult +heep4= The ori*inal Aramaic words used are as followsJ 0rm0 ;Amrea= 6 5oun* +heep ;)am$& word[ %//'= %>' Was the New Testament Really Written in Greek?0br9 ;Aer$a= 6 Adult +heep ;Masculine& word[ %B2'>= And& finally& the one that stumped the Greek translator;s=J 0wqn ;Ni:wa= 6 SweS& Adult +heep ;.eminine& word[ %/>82 6 which& $y the way& the)e!iconhascodedtoanerroneous)e!emeandRoot6thisword e"en stumped the creators of the )e!icon 9 '%O% The followin* Greek manuscripts translate F0 SmiracleDsi*nS in the sin*ular ;the correct way= 6 '7 A7 >7 ?7 7 (7 >elta7 Theta7 Pi7 Psi7 f17 f137 :87 337 4;47 2007 81:7 10107 1:D1&. Ba" Aree' grammar in -evelation -evelationThissupposedlyGreek$ookisfullof$ad*rammar4NowIknowthatthe Greek primacists like to use the term 0Hoine Greek1 in re*ards to the 9i$le& rather than 0translation Greek1` 9ut were the 9i$le writers such $ad writers that they couldn7t e"en follow simple rules of Greek *rammar? Was Almi*hty God7s inspirational power limited?It has lon* $een reco*ni,ed that the New Testament is written in "ery poor Greek *rammar& $ut "ery *ood +emitic *rammar4 Many sentences are %>2 Was the New Testament Really Written in Greek?in"ertedwith a "er$ b nounformat characteristic of +emitic lan*ua*es4 .urthermore& there are se"eral occurrences of the redundant SandS4 A num$er of scholars ha"e shown in detail the +emitic *rammar em$edded in the Greek New Testament $ooks ;.or e!ampleJ 9ur 0ranslated Aospels 9y Charles Cutler TorreyA8ocuments of the !rimiti$e Church$y Charles Cutler TorreyA6n 6ramaic 6pproach to the Aospels and 6cts $y Matthew 9lackA 0he 6ramaic 9ri%in of theEourthAospel$yCharles.o!9urneyA0he6ramaic9ri%inof theEour Aospels$y.rankLimmermanand2emitisms of the Book of 6cts$yMa! Wilco!=4In addition to the e"idence for +emitic *rammar em$edded in the Greek New Testament& thefactthatserious*rammatical errorsarefoundintheGreek New Testament $ooks may $e added4 +peakin* of the Greek of Re"elation& CharlesCutlerTorreystatesthat it S444swarmswithma3oroffensesa*ainst Greek *rammar4S 2e calls it Slin*uistic anarchyS& and says& SThe *rammatical monstrosities of the $ook& in their num$er and "ariety and especially in their startlin* character& stand alone in the history of literature4S Torrey *i"es ten e!amples listed $elowJ %4 Re"4 %J8 SGrace to you& and peace& from he who is and who was and who is to comeS ;all nom4 case= 24 Re"4 %J%> S2is le*s were like $urnished $rass ;neut4 *ender dati"e case= as in a furnace purifiedS ;.em4 *ender sin*4 no4& *en4 case=/4 Re"4 %%J/ SMy witness ;nom4= shall prophesy for many days clothed ;accus4= in sackcloth4S84 Re"4 %8J%8SI sawonthecloudoneseatedlikeuntoa+onofMan ;accus4= ha"in* ;nom4= upon his head a *olden crown4S>4 Re"4 %8J%O S2e har"ested the "inta*e of the earth& and cast it into the winepress ;fem=& the *reat ;masc4= of the wrath of God4SB4 Re"4 %IJ8SA*oldencupfilledwitha$ominations;*en4= andwith unclean thin*sS ;accus4=I4 Re"4 %OJ2' SThe lake of $la,in* ;fem4= fire ;neut4=4Chapter >4 Miscellaneous #roofsJ Minor Kariants& )oan Words& 9ad Greek Grammar P More %>/(4 Re"4 2'J2 SAnd he sei,ed the dra*on ;accus4=& the old serpent ;nom4= who is the @e"il and +atan& and $ound him4SO4 Re"4 2%JO S+e"en an*els holdin* se"en $owls ;accus4= filled ;*en4= with the se"en last pla*ues4S%'4 Re"4 22J>STheyha"enoneedoflampli*ht ;*en4= norof sunli*ht ;accus4=4). +he Aree' K+ Cuotes the .e,tuagint? #atthew 11:10TheHGKsaysJ 0.or this ishe& of whomit is written& 9ehold& I sendmy messen*er $efore thy face& which shall prepare thy way $efore thee410+cholarlyconsensus1 holds that the GreekNT;NewTestament= is the ori*inal& and often :uotes the +eptua*int4 )et7s look at Matthew %%J%'& from the +eptua*int ;Greek Eld Testament translation of the 2e$rew& also known as the )RR=&the#eshitta ;also knownasthe#NT= and the Greek NT4This "erse in the NT is supposed to $e :uotin* Malachi /J% fromthe Eld Testament4)RRJ toorycronootrctovoyyrovoiotrntprjrtotooovnponpoocnooI send my messen*er& and he will prepareT ;future= the way $efore me T rntprnclook upon with careA show more respect to4#NTJ K#w(r# Mdq Yk0lm 0n0 rd4m 0n0 0hd Kymdq 0xrw0 Nqtnd 9ehold I send ;or& I7m sendin*= my messen*er ahead of you& who will prepare the way $efore youGNTJooryconootrctovoyyrovonponpoocnoooo;iotooiroorttjvooovoornpooOrvooI send my messen*er ahead of you& %>8 Was the New Testament Really Written in Greek?who will prepareT your way $efore you T iotooirocprepareA $uild& constructA furnish& e:uip4Now& if the Greek is the ori*inal and :uotes the +eptua*int& why does it read likethe#eshitta?I wonderwhat that couldmean`Also& if the0ori*inal Greek1:uotes the +eptua*int& whydoes it sayiotooiroc;prepareA $uild&constructA furnish&e:uip= while the +eptua*int saysrntprnc;look upon with careA show more respect to=? If Matthew :uoted the +eptua*int in his 0ori*inal Greek letter to the 29RW+1& he surely made a dod*y 3o$ of it4 Miscellaneous #roofsJ Minor Kariants& )oan Words& 9ad Greek Grammar P More %>>redundant proclitic;e"enat the e!pense oftheGreek=&whileothers would naturally choose to lea"e it out to make for $etter Greek4 InActs %'J/B& weha"etwodifferent readin*s amon*the"arious Greek manuscripts4 I?"elistedthemanuscript names inparentheses ne!t tothe readin*J S5ou know the word which d he sent to the sonsS ;manuscripts 6 pI8 +T C @# #si O8> %28% 28O>= S5ou know the word he sent to the sonsS ;manuscripts 6 +a A 9 (% B%8 %I/O= The first GNT readin* is not proper Greek& $ut it is the sort of Greek that one would e!pect in a translation from Aramaic4 )ikethesin*ularDplural inconsistencieswhicharose$ecauseofthelackof +yame markin*s& the @aleth #roclitic shows itself as an Aramaic "ein $eatin* underneath the Greek skin of the GNT4 Thedifferenceinthetworeadin*sistheinclusionoromissionofSwhichS which is the due to the redundancy of the @alethd#roclitic as found in the #eshitta readin* of Acts %'J/B4(. .emitic ,arallelisms in the su,,ose"l/ Aree' Bible 1Peter 2:1 et alEnewayweknowthat GreekS%st #eterS is translatedfromanAramaic ori*inal is$ytheunmistaka$lesi*nsof+emiticinfluence& inparticularthe parallelisms4 .or instanceJ 2J%8 ;Antithetic #arallelism= 2J2262/ ;Antithetic #arallelism= %>B Was the New Testament Really Written in Greek?/J%( ;+ynonymous #arallelism= 8JB ;+ynonymous #arallelism= 8J%% ;Climactic #arallelism=This will address what is known& in +emitic prose& as 6ntithetic !arallelism& a fancy scholarly term which descri$es when a second line contrasts the terms used in the first line4 There are& in fact& four types of!arallelismsin the prose of Gesus and others found throu*hout the Gospels4 These areJ Antithetic Kdiscussed in this post& when a second line contrasts the terms used in the first line 'ynonymous K where there is a correspondence in idea $etween 2 lines of a couplet& the 2nd line reinforcin* and echoin* the sense of the %st in e:ui"alent& thou*h different& terms4 'ynthetic Kwhere the thou*ht of the 2ndline supplements and completes that of the first $limactic Kwhere the second line is not a complete echo of the first& $ut adds somethin* more which completes the %st& thus formin* its clima!,6am%les of 5ntithetic ParallelismsIn Matthew /J%2JSWhose winnowin*6$asket is in his hand&And he will cleanse his threshin*6floor&And *ather his wheat into the *ranaries&9ut he will $urn the chaff with un:uencha$le fireS In the #rolo*ue of the Gospel of Gohn& "erse %(JSNo man has e"er seen God&The only69e*otten& who is in the 9osom of the .ather& he has declared himS In Gohn /J2IJSA man can recei"e nothin*&e!cept it $e *i"en to him from 2ea"enS Chapter >4 Miscellaneous #roofsJ Minor Kariants& )oan Words& 9ad Greek Grammar P More %>IIn Gohn %J/B& we ha"e 2 lines which form an Antithetic #arallelism& followed $y a /rd line that forms a clima! to the whole "erseJS2e that $elie"es in the +on has e"erlastin* life&$ut he who does not o$ey the +on will not see life&rather the #rath of Aod #ill rise up a%ainst him.S Many more e!amples of this can $e found& and are too numerous to list41. 0esus the non-&evitical high ,riest !ebrews 3:1The HGK saysJ 0Wherefore& holy $rethren& partakers of the hea"enly callin*& consider the Apostle and 2i*h #riest of our profession& Christ GesusA1When is a priest not a priest? This especially powerful proof& like so many others& speaks to the authentic Gewishheartoftheori*inal Messianic$elie"ers4 +pecifically& therearetwo Aramaic words for SpriestS that are used in the #eshitta4 The first& "ahna is the direct co*nate of the 2e$rew word cohenand therefore desi*nates a priest fromthe traditional )e"itical order4 The secondword&"umrea& appears se"eral times in 2e$rews4 )et?s look at how this latter word is usedJ .rom henceforth& all my holy $rethren& called $y a call from hea"en& look to this Apostle and 2i*h #riest ;"umrea= of our faith& 5?shua the Messiah4 2e$rews /J% This "erse is nothin* short of *enius in Aramaic< Gesus& $ecause he was not from the tri$e of )e"i& is not $ein* called cohen& $ut "umrea66a non6)e"itical priest like Gethro66instead4 Interestin*ly enou*h also& the #eshitta ET consistently translates cohenE"ahna into "umreawith re*ards to these same men& ;Genesis %8J%(& !odus 2J%B& /J% and %(J%=4 This isa"ery important point& $ecauseit*oes to theMessianicprophecies that deal with Messiah $ein* Slike a priest after MelchisedecS ;#salm %%'=& or a non6Aaronic fi*ure to in effect take o"er intercedin* for Israel4 Another mind6$lower part of this "erse howe"er is the deli$erate use of the phrase Scalled $y a callS4 %>( Was the New Testament Really Written in Greek?Reason$ein*& the$ookof )e"iticus;GreekforSof thepriestsD)e"itesS= is actually named Kayikrain 2e$rew&afterthe first three words inthe $ook& SandhecalledS4 .urthermore& theAramaicword#aul useshere66:arya66is deri"ed from the e!act same root4 +o in essence& we ha"e one classification of priests $ein* Scalled toS compare themsel"es to the other< Nor isthis usa*e a coincidence& sinceit appears almost another twodo,en timesinthispistle& ande!actlythesameway;8J%8& >J%& >J>&>JB& BJ2'&IJ%& IJ%%&IJ%>& IJ%I&IJ2%& IJ2/&IJ2B& IJ2I&IJ2(& (J%&(J/& (J8&OJ2>& OJB&%'J%%& %'J2%& %/J%%=4 In some cases also&"umreais in a *i"en passa*e twice 3ust to cement the point #aul is tryin* to make4 .urthermore& this word is utterly uni:ue to 2e$rews $ecause of its e!clusi"e emphasis on Messiah $ein* the true hi#h %riest that *i"es eternal atonement4 9y contrast& in e"ery other $ook of the New Testament& we are confined solely to the word "ahnaEcohen& $ecause there is it is the re*ular kind of priest that is $ein* referenced4 2owe"er& perhapsthemost remarka$leaspect ofthemall isthat #eshitta 2e$rews actually Sout Gudai,esSthe Massoretic 2e$rewET itself&sincethe Massoretic te!t makes no distinction $etween )e"ite priests like Aaron& and ri*hteous Gentiles like Melchisedec and Gethro4 The Greek render $oth words the same& there$y dilutin* the messa*e4There is only one word for ?priest? in the Greek NT& hee&er&yoocePaccordin* to Games +tron*4 The ar&khee&er&yuceP & used for ar&khayP precedin* it much like youwould 3oin Sarch6S and San*elS to produce Sarchan*el4S$. Burnishe" brass? -evelation 1:1) % -evelation 2:11The HGK says ;Re"elation %J%>=J 0And his feet like unto fine $rass& as if they $urned in a furnaceA and his "oice as the sound of many waters41Chapter >4 Miscellaneous #roofsJ Minor Kariants& )oan Words& 9ad Greek Grammar P More %>OThe HGK says ;Re"elation 2J%(=J 0And unto the an*el of the church in Thyatira writeA These thin*s saith the +on of God& who hath his eyes like unto a flame of fire& and his feet are like fine $rassA1The fuirkJSAnd his feet like unto +urnished +rass& as if it had $een refined in a furnaceA and his "oice as the "oice of many waters4SKKBevelation 1:14SAnd to the an*el of the church in Thyatira writeJ These thin*s saith the +on of God& who hath his eyes like a flame of fire& and his feet are like unto +urnished +rassJSKKBevelation ::189othof the $oldedareas are the compoundGreekword& {jqikqhjnw ;-chalkolibanoD=49reakin* it down into its two parts& we *etJ1F {jqik ;-chalkoD=GreekJ'tron#Cs Num+er: >8I> chalkos Ukhal6kos?V#erhapsfrom>8B>throu*htheideaofhollowin*outasa"essel;thismetal$ein* chiefly used for that purpose=An m AK 6 $rass /& money 2A > 1. +rass :& what is made of +rass7 money7 coins of +rass 8also of silver and #oldF :F qhjnw ;-libanoD=GreekJ'tron#Cs Num+er: /'/' li$anos Uli$?6an6osV5f forei#n ori#in 038:8P [email protected] 6 8J2B/&>//An m AK 6 frankincense 2A 2 1. the fran"incense tree 2. the %erfume7 fran"incense Waitamoment< And frankincense?Thatdoesnotmakesense4Why was it translated as $urnished? Also& $olded a$o"e& it?s of forei*n ori*in4 )et?s take a look at +tron*?s Num$er '/(2(J2e$rewJ'tron#Cs Num+er: '/(2( lN$ownah Ule$6o6naw?V or lN$onah Ule$6o6naw?VFrom 038:8P TWET 6 %'I8dAn f AK 6 frankincense %>& incense BA 2% %B' Was the New Testament Really Written in Greek?1. fran"incense 1. a white resin +urned as fra#rant incense %4 ceremonially 24 personally /4 used in compoundin* the holy incense Ence a*ain& referred to another root word& +tron*?s Num$er 0383;J2e$rewJ'tron#Cs Num+er: '/(/B la$an Ulaw6$awn?V or ;Gen4 8OJ%2= la$en Ulaw6$ane?VFrom 03834P TWET 6 %'I8aAad3 AK 6 white 2OA 2O 1. white Ene more deri"ationJ2e$rewJ'tron#Cs Num+er: '/(/> la$an Ulaw6$an?VA %rimitive rootP TWET 6 %'I8$&%'I8hA" AK 6 make white /& make 2& make $rick %& $e white %& $e whiter %A ( 1. to +e white %4 ;2ilphil= 1. to ma"e white7 +ecome white7 %urify 2. to show whiteness7 #row white 2. ;2ithpael= to +ecome white7 +e %urified ;ethical= 24 ;fal= to make $ricks +o now we see that this Greek word has half of its roots in ancient +emitic root& transliterated into the Greek qhjn ;-libanD=4 The other half was compounded on to make sense of a comple! concept of white $rass4 9ut why wouldGreekusea+emiticroot inthisconte!t whentheGreekwordfor SwhiteS is qpmiku ;-leukosD= as used e"erywhere else in the New Testament? CrawfordManuscript of Re"elationsaysle#nayaPwhichcaneither mean SwhiteS or S)e$aneseS4 Another interestin*thin*tokeepinmindis that )e$anon was famous for its $rass4 Now one can say that this passa*e is not& how the Greek su**ests& $rass and frankincense in a furnace& $ut whitenin* or )e$anese $rassin a furnace& as recorded in the Crawford Manuscriptof Re"elation4This is perhaps how the author of Re"elation wrote these passa*esJSAnd his feet like unto e+anese +rass& as if it had $een refined in a furnaceA and his "oice as the "oice of many waters4SKKBevelation 1:14Chapter >4 Miscellaneous #roofsJ Minor Kariants& )oan Words& 9ad Greek Grammar P More %B%SAnd to the an*el of the church in Thyatira writeJ These thin*s saith the +on of God& who hath his eyes like a flame of fire& and his feet are like unto e+anese +rassJSKKBevelation ::185BSAnd his feet like unto whitened +rass& as if it had $een refined in a furnaceA and his "oice as the "oice of many waters4SKKBevelation 1:14SAnd to the an*el of the church in Thyatira writeJ These thin*s saith the +on of God& who hath his eyes like a flame of fire& and his feet are like unto whitened +rassJSKKBevelation ::1810. For4 but or an"? 2Corinthians 2:1TheHGKsaysJ 09ut I determinedthiswithmyself& that I wouldnot come a*ain to you in hea"iness41Another Aramaic word which causes pro$lems for translators isNydwhich really has no e:ui"alent in n*lish&$ut it is more of a Sthou*ht6switcherS 6 some n*lish words come close to translatin* it 6 like S And& .or& 9ut& Now& 2owe"erS In the Aramaic of the #eshitta& this "erse readsJ Y4#nb 0dh Nyd tnd ;SI ha"e decided this&$utDandDhowe"erDfor& within myselfS= Thefollowin*GreekmanuscriptsreadS.orIdecidedthiswithinmyselfSK %D;7 =7 0::37 337 ;307 12317 18817 :D14 The followin* Greek manuscripts read S9ut I decided this within myselfS 6 '7 A7 $7 H7 ?7 P7 Psi7 0817 817 10D7 ;1D7 1:D1 And manuscript > translates it SAnd I decided this within myselfS %B2 Was the New Testament Really Written in Greek?As an interestin* side note& most +outhern Coptic "ersions& alon* with some NorthernCoptic& dropitalto*etherandsimplyreadSIdecidedthiswithin myselfS411. Aree' Primacist =nite" Bible .ociet/ >Bum,ing shi,?? 5cts 10:3*It7s one thin* for Aramaic primacists to say that a Greek passa*e looks like it was translated from Aramaic& $ut it7s an entirely different thin* when Greek primacists say it4 Miscellaneous #roofsJ Minor Kariants& )oan Words& 9ad Greek Grammar P More %B/12. +he Aree' K+ Cuotes the .e,tuagint? 5gain? #atthew 22:The HGK saysJ 0The )[email protected] said unto my )ord& +it thou on my ri*ht hand& till I make thine enemies thy [email protected] the Greek NT :uote the +eptua*int7s translation of #salms %%'J%& or does it merely copy the Aramaic #eshitta New Testament?)RRJ tnrvipto;tciptcoioOoriortcvorc;ovOcto;r,Opo;oononootovtcvnoocvoo The )ord said to my )ordJ S+it at my ri*ht YhandZ until I put your enemies a footstool for your feet4S#NTJ Ynymy Nm Kl Bt Yrml 0yrm rm0 Kyl%r tyxt Kybbdl9b Mys0d 0md9 The )ord said to my )ordJ S+it at my ri*ht YhandZ until I put your enemies under your feet4SGNTJ tnrvipto;tciptcoioOoriortcvorc;ovOcto;r,Opo;oonoiotctcvnoocvoo The )ord said to my )ordJ S+it at my ri*ht hand until I put your enemies under your feet4SEnce a*ain& instead of :uotin* the +eptua*int& the Greek NT seems to copy the #eshitta413. 5 crow" or the crow"? 0ohn 12:12TheHGKsaysJ 0Enthene!tdaymuchpeoplethatwerecometothefeast& when they heard that Gesus was comin* to Gerusalem&1The Aramaic lan*ua*e lacks an indicator for the definite article4 +o whether or not a noun is in the definite or indefinite is $ased on conte!t4 %B8 Was the New Testament Really Written in Greek?.or instance& 0klm means $othJ SA Hin*S SThe Hin*S Therefore& we would e!pect that this would create pro$lems for Lor$a when translatin* from the Aramaic4 In Gohn %2J%2& the word for ScrowdS 6 04nk is translated SA CrowdS $y Greek manuscriptsJ '7 A7 >7 ?7 (7 @7 >elta7 Pi7 Psi7 f17 :87 4;47 2007 81:7 10107 1:D1 The followin* manuscripts translate it as SThe CrowdS 6 %;;7 =7 7 Theta7 f131. 5bba abba Aalatians :*The HGK saysJ 0And $ecause ye are sons& God hath sent forth the +pirit of his +on into your hearts& cryin*& A$$a& .ather41Gal 8JB4 A trap for the NT 0Aramaic translator14 )ets ima*ine this little scenarioJ 0he translator #ho translated the >ori%inal Areek? into 6ramaic suddenly stumbledon $erse " in chapter )5 findin% himself in >bi% trouble?: OttorrotrtotronrotrtrvoOro;tonvrototootort;to;iopoto;jcvipoovAppoonotjp?9ops;?hereflected. >7hatshould4dohere?2hould4repeatthe#ord>6bba?: 0b0 0b0K>6bba abba?L? Io5 that redundancy doesnGt sound fine.? >7ell?5 hethou%ht5 >letGsmakeasli%ht$ariance5 forthesakeof literaryperfection.?2o5 herather put:wb0 0b0 K>6bba aboun?L. 6nd he sa# it #as %ood5 and smiled ironically. Chapter >4 Miscellaneous #roofsJ Minor Kariants& )oan Words& 9ad Greek Grammar P More %B>What we really ha"e here& in my opinion& in the ERIGINA) e!pression wb0 0b0 Y0A$$aa$oun1Z isafurthere"idenceof the#eshitta7sori*inality4 2owe"er& allow me to *rant Lor$a at least one point for ha"in* preser"ed the first Aramaic0b0 Y0A$$a1Z thou*hrenderin*thefollowin*0A$$a1as onotjp ;The .ather= for his Greek readers4 Cf4Rom (J%>;IdenticalAramaic andit7s Greektranslation=A Mk%8J/BYb0 0b0translated as the pre"ious=4Well& the way I wrote it was a little 0ironic1 as you noticed4 May$e this could cause confusion4 It seems to me that the 0dou$le a$a6o pater1 in Greek is an indication of the Aramaic #rimacy $ecause there7s a TRAN+)ATIEN implied& while in the Aramaic there7s the +AM [email protected] distin*uished $y a +F..IR& withthesenseofINTN+IT5J 0.ather6Eur.ather1& 0My.ather1;Gesus7=C Eur .ather1 ;disciples7=4 The 0non6e!act repetition1 in Aramaic is& in my point of "iew& a clear e!pression of this 0sameDnot same1 #aternityD.iliation of God for Gesus and us4 We are sonsDdau*hters $y [email protected]#TIEN& while Gesus is T2 +on $y nature49asically& the 0dou$lin* up1 of A$$aD.ather makes sense in the Aramaic4 9ut in the Greek& it doesn7t really make sense for Gesus to say this one word in Aramaic& and then ha"e it translated into Greek4 We all know that Gesus spoke Aramaic& so why does the Greek te!t only translate a handful of 2is sayin*s?1). +hie2 or thieves? 1+hesssalonians ):TheHGKsaysJ 09utye& $rethren& arenotindarkness& thatthatdayshould o"ertake you as a thief41Thefollowin*GreekmanuscriptstranslatedtheAramaic0bn% ;SthiefS=in the sin*ular 6 '7 >7 H7 ?7 P7 Psi7 0::;vid7 337 817 10D7 ;1D7 ;307 1:D17 12317 18817 :D14 as reflected in the Hin* Games Kersion& the American +tandard Kersion and the New International Kersion4 %BB Was the New Testament Really Written in Greek?The followin* Greek manuscripts translated the Aramaic 0bn% ;SthiefS= in the plural 6A7 =andmost $o%tic Jersionsas reflectedinfootnotes inthe American+tandard& NewAmerican+tandardandtheNewn*lish9i$le "ersions4Without plural markin*s& Lor$a was clearly in two minds41*. +he al,ha an" the 8 -evelation 1:1 % -evelation 21:* %-evelation 22:13Throu*hout the9ookof Re"elation& theMessiahrefers tohimself asthe SAlpha and the Eme*aS in Greek manuscripts& $ut notice an interestin* :uirk of the te!tJChapter % Kerse (The GreekJp|wprh xkQRSQijh xkTqp|ph imzhku~pkuwnijh onijh pz{krpnku yjnxkizjxwz;-e%o emi to al,ha kai to o le%ei kurios ho theos ho on kai ho en kai ho erchomenos ho pantokrator-= TranslationJSI am the Al%ha and the 58me#aF& says the )ord God& who is and who was and who is to come& the Almi*hty4S Chapter 2% Kerse BThe GreekJijh phypn rkh |p|knj p|w xk QRSQijh xk T jz{o ijh xk xpqku w|k xw ghwnxh gwlw pi xpu yo|ou xkm mgjxku xou wou gwzpjn;-kai eipen moi %e%ona e%o to al,ha kai to o he arche kai to telos o%o to dipsonti dosoek tes pe%es tou udatos tes zoes dorean-= TranslationJSAndhe saidto me& Theyare come to pass4 I amthe Al%ha andthe 58me#aF&the $e*innin* and the end4 I will *i"e to him that is athirst of the fountain of the water of life freely4S Chapter 22 Kerse %/The GreekJp|w xk QRSQ ijh xk T yzwxku ijh pl{jxku jz{o ijh xk xpqkuChapter >4 Miscellaneous #roofsJ Minor Kariants& )oan Words& 9ad Greek Grammar P More %BI;-e%o to al,ha kai to o ho protos kai ho eschatos he arche kai to telos-= TranslationJSI am the Al%ha and the 58me#aF&the first and the last& the $e*innin* and the end4S In the "ast ma3ority of Greek manuscripts& they stateJxk QRSQ ijh xk T ;-to al,ha kai to oD J The Alpha and the E;me*a== jqj;-alphaD J Alpha= $ein*thefirst letterof theGreekalpha$et& andw ;ome*a=& the last4 Ene KR5 stran*e thin* of noteJjqj;-alphaD6Alpha=isspelledoutwhilew;ome*a=issimplythesin*le letter w ;ome*a=4All of the Aramaic te!ts of Re"elation that sur"i"e to dateJPalOf Paf tOuJ The Alap& also the Tau NoteJ in the a$o"e picture& the circled word on the left is the word for Tau in Aramaic4 Aramaic is written from ri*ht to left4AlapDaleph is the first letter of the Aramaic alpha$et& where Tau is the last& in parallel withthe GreekAlpha andEme*a4 2owsimilar a lone wrp|j ;-ome%aD J Eme*a= ;or T= looks like Tau YwtZ in stran*elo scriptelta Theta Pi f13 33 4;4 200 1010 1:D1 and e"en the +inaitic +yriac ;the other SEld +yriacS "ersion=4Whenwelookatourmodernn*lish"ersions& wecanseethedifferences caused $y the ancient "ariants in the Greek "ersions4%I' Was the New Testament Really Written in Greek?TheNA+K& NIK& andTK;amon*others= followtheformer ;erroneous= Greekte!t& omittin*theSnote"enSphrase& whiletheHGK& A+K& R+K& and N9 ;amon* others= preser"e it411. CanHt /ou leave the ol" rea"ing alone? !ebrews 1:3Well& this doesn7t really support #eshitta primacy that much& $ut it is noteworthy4 #eshitta manuscripts are treated with far more respect than these Greek copies4 Note also the irony& that in recent times& people ha"e flocked to theAle!andriante!ts;the$asisforsuchme*a6populartranslationsasthe NIK= for 0*reater accuracy14The picture $elow shows a section of the Code! Katicanus& 2e$rews %J/4 The footnote ;0sidenote1 rather= readsJooOrototriotioir,or;tovnootov,jrtonotrtTranslationJ 0.ool and kna"e& can?t you lea"e the old readin* alone and not alter it4 Miscellaneous #roofsJ Minor Kariants& )oan Words& 9ad Greek Grammar P More %I%In case you were wonderin*& 2e$rews %J/ deals somewhat with the @i"inity of Gesus4 It seems that tamperin* with such "erses was :uite common in those days ;cf4 the Comma Gohanneum=amsel7 I say unto thee7 arise4Ef course& we find these 0translations1 usually lackin* in the Aramaic #eshitta& as it7s all Aramaic anyway4 +ince the audience is Aramaic6speakin*& there is no need to translate the phrase4Mar" 4:D1 8UounanFAnd he took the hand of the *irl and said to her youn# #irl arise2owe"er& there are three places where the 0translation1 ;ane!planation actually= still occurs in the #eshitta& and Greek primacists are only too ea*er to say& 0)ook at how silly the #eshitta is