Cell Energy: ATP, Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration Chapters 8 & 9

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<ul><li>Slide 1</li></ul> <p>Cell Energy: ATP, Photosynthesis &amp; Cellular Respiration Chapters 8 &amp; 9 Slide 2 Energy for the Cell ATP= Adenosine Triphosphate 3 major parts to ATP: 1. Adenine 2. Ribose (sugar) 3. Three phosphates Adenosine Slide 3 Adenosine Triphosphate Slide 4 adenine ribose three phosphates Slide 5 How is energy released from ATP? Break a bond between 2 nd &amp; 3 rd phosphates This releases ENERGY to be used by cells! Slide 6 3 rd phosphate is broken off Slide 7 ATP breaking down to ADP and releasing ENERGY! Slide 8 ADP= Adenosine Diphosphate Only 2 phosphates instead of 3 ADP is recycled to make ATP [add a phosphate] If ADP/ATP is not reused, we would eat 24/7 just to have enough energy! Slide 9 ADP being recycled to create ATP once again. Slide 10 PHOTOSYNTHESIS Photosynthesis = process trapping light energy to make GLUCOSE [chemical (food) energy] Slide 11 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + sunlight 6 carbon dioxide 6 water C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O26O2 1 glucose 6 oxygen Slide 12 Where does photosynthesis take place? PLANTS only; in the LEAVES In plant cell, inside CHLOROPLASTS Slide 13 Chlorophyll = pigment that captures light energy from sun found in THYLAKOID DISCS in chloroplasts Slide 14 http://www.nicerweb.com/doc/class/bio100/Locked/media/ch06/DB06100.jpg Slide 15 Why are Plants Green? Chlorophyll absorbs all wavelengths of light EXCEPT for green. Green wavelengths are REFLECTED most Slide 16 Green wavelength Green not absorbed so it gets reflected thats why plants look green! Slide 17 Photosynthesis occurs in 2 phases: 1. Light Dependent Reactions 2. Light Independent Reactions Slide 18 1.Light DEPENDENT rxns (Occurs in thylakoids) takes light energy to make ATP &amp; NADPH (needed for light indep. rxns) converts H 2 O to O 2 Slide 19 Three Processes: a. Electron transport chain (ETC) 1) light hits chlorophyll &amp; energizes e - 2) e - move down a chain to make NADPH (a form of energy) Slide 20 b. Photolysis = splits water to make oxygen, hydrogen ions &amp; electrons (to replace e - used in ETC) 2H 2 O 4H + + 4e - + 0 2 Slide 21 c. Chemiosmosis moves H+ (made in photolysis) to stroma (space inside chloroplast) to make ATP Slide 22 http://www.mun.ca/biology/singleton/Topic%2012/lPlantNutrition&amp;Metabolism.htm Slide 23 2. Light INDEPENDENT Reactions (CALVIN CYCLE) = makes glucose from CO 2 using NADPH &amp; ATP made in light dep. rxns Slide 24 a. Occurs in light or dark c. Glucose has 6 carbons &amp; CO 2 has only 1 carbon b. Occurs in stroma Calvin cycle must go around 6 times to make 1 glucose Slide 25 Light O2O2 Sugars CO 2 NADPH ATP ADP + P NADP + Chloroplast Light Dependent Reactions Calvin Cycle Slide 26 CELLULAR RESPIRATION = process that breaks down glucose to make ATP occurs PLANT &amp; ANIMAL cells Slide 27 C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O26O2 1 glucose6 oxygen 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + ATP 6 carbon dioxide 6 water Slide 28 Glucose Glycolysis Oxygen present No oxygen present Aerobic Respiration Fermentation Slide 29 Glycolysis breaking down glucose into pyruvic acid occurs in cytoplasm ANAEROBIC = does not require oxygen (can still occur if O 2 present) Slide 30 Makes : 4 ATP Uses:2 ATP NET TOTAL:2 ATP Slide 31 2 major stages (after glycolysis) A. Aerobic Respiration = breaks down glucose to make ATP when O 2 is available occurs in MITOCHONDRIA Slide 32 occurs in MATRIX [space within mitochondria] AEROBIC = requires oxygen makes 2 ATP 1) Citric Acid Cycle (Krebs Cycle) uses pyruvic acid (from glycolysis) to make ATP &amp; CO 2 Slide 33 2) Electron Transport Chain (ETC) Makes H 2 O &amp; ATP from O 2 and H + Occurs in CRISTAE (inner membrane) AEROBIC makes 34 ATP Slide 34 ENERGY MADE FROM AEROBIC RESPIRATION: Glycolysis = 2 ATP Citric Acid Cycle= 2 ATP (Krebs Cycle) ETC = 34 ATP From 1 glucose 38 ATP! Slide 35 Glucose Glycolysis Cytoplasm Pyruvic acid Electrons carried in NADH Krebs Cycle Electrons carried in NADH and FADH 2 Electron Transport Chain Mitochondrion Slide 36 B. FERMENTATION (Anaerobic Respiration) = breaks down glucose to make ATP when no O 2 is available begins after glycolysis Slide 37 2 major types: 1) Lactic acid fermentation glucose breaks down to make lactic acid &amp; CO 2 makes 2 ATP (including glycolysis) Slide 38 occurs in bacteria occurs in human muscle cells [under heavy exercise, not enough O 2 lactic acid builds up in muscles &amp; makes you sore] [yogurt, cheese, etc.] Slide 39 2) Ethyl alcohol fermentation glucose breaks down to make ethyl alcohol &amp; CO 2 makes 2 ATP (including glycolysis) occurs in yeast [bread rises because CO 2 bubbles formed in dough] </p>