ATP, Photosynthesis, and Cellular Respiration

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  • 1. Unit 4: Energy FlowATP, Photosynthesis, and Cellular Respiration

2. Energy What is it? Theability to do work Energy can not be created or destroyed Energy is TRANSFORMED Formsof energy Light, electric, chemical Chemicalenergy is stored in the electrons of chemical bonds 3. Biochemical Energy Cells store and release energy using the chemical ATP Adenosine triphosphateATP is the energy currency of the cell MANY cellular processes use ATPCells release energy by breaking a phosphate bond 4. Photosynthesis Plants convert light energy into chemical energy Energy is stored in the bonds of carbohydrates 5. Light and Pigments Light travels in waves Colors have different wavelengthsWhite light is a mixture of all colors in the visible spectrum Red longest wavelength, lowest energy 6. Light and Pigments Plant pigments absorb sunlight Chlorophyll green pigment needed for photosynthesis Reflects green light Absorbs other light 7. Photosynthesis Overview Reactants: CO2, H2O, (light energy) Products: O2, C6H12O6 (glucose) Two reactions Light-dependent reaction Calvin Cycle (light-independent reaction) 8. Electron Carriers Lightenergy excites electrons in chlorophyll High energy electrons need special carriers ie: NADP+ and NAD+ 9. Light-Dependent Rxn Chlorophyll absorbs light, and electrons become energized Water splits to produce H+ and O2Electron loses energy to form ATP ATP goes to Calvin Cycle H+ and NADP forms NADPH Carries energy to Calvin Cycle (Light Independent Rxn) 10. Light Reaction Electron Transport 11. Light-Independent Rxn (Calvin Cycle) CO2is added to a 5 carbon sugar Energyfrom NADPH & ATP are used to carry out reactions Produces sugar (glucose) 12. Photosynthesis Overview 13. Chloroplast Structure Thylakoid sacs contain chlorophyll Granum stacks of thylakoids Light rxnStroma open space Calvin cycle 14. Light Reaction 15. Calvin Cycle 16. ATP Revisited Howdo living things use ATP for energy? Where does ATP come from? 17. Biochemical Energy Cells store and release energy using ATP Adenosine triphosphateATP is the energy currency of the cellCells release energy by breaking a phosphate bond 18. Overview of Cellular Respiration 19. Cellular Respiration Energy from glucose is released In the presence of O2 Energy is stored in ATP CO2 is a byproduct6O2 + C6H12O6 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP oxygen + glucose carbon dioxide + water + ATP 20. Overview of Cellular Respiration 3 Stages Glycolysis Krebs Cycle Electron Transport Chain 21. Glycolysis In the cytoplasm Glucose breaks into 2 molecules of pyruvic acid (3C) Uses 2 ATP, produces 4 ATP Net gain of 2 ATP2 NADH produced Pyruvic acid is used for respiration OR fermentation 22. Krebs Cycle In the mitochondria Pyruvic acid breaks down Series of 9 rxns which produce: CO2 FADH2 and NADH 2 ATPFADH2 and NADH go on to the ETC to. MAKE MORE ATP!!!! 23. Electron Transport Chain Occurs in mitochondria Uses high energy electrons from FADH2 and NADH to make ATP O2 accepts the final electron forming H2O 24. Page 229The Totals Electron carriers which go on the electron transport chain to generate ATP! 25. 2232 26. Fermentation Releases energy from food in the absence of O22 Types Alcoholic produces ethanol and CO2 Yeast, bacteria Lactic Acid produces lactic acid Muscle cells, bacteria