Copy Editing and Proofreading-Minus Photos

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<ul><li><p>8/2/2019 Copy Editing and Proofreading-Minus Photos</p><p> 1/33</p><p>Copyediting and Proofreading:</p><p>Some BasicsBarbara Gastel, MD, MPH</p><p>Texas A&amp;M University</p><p>Knowledge Community Editor,AuthorAID @ INASP</p></li><li><p>8/2/2019 Copy Editing and Proofreading-Minus Photos</p><p> 2/33</p><p>www.authoraid.info</p>http://www.authoraid.info/http://www.authoraid.info/</li><li><p>8/2/2019 Copy Editing and Proofreading-Minus Photos</p><p> 3/33</p><p>Overview</p><p> Definitions</p><p> Copyediting: reasons, levels, tasks, tools,</p><p>advice, resources</p><p> Proofreading: purposes, types, things to look</p><p>for, ways to indicate changes, advice</p><p>Characteristics of good copyeditors and goodproofreaders</p></li><li><p>8/2/2019 Copy Editing and Proofreading-Minus Photos</p><p> 4/33</p><p>Definitions</p><p> Copyediting (also called manuscript editing)</p><p>revision of material written by others to</p><p>increase its suitability for publication or</p><p>distribution</p><p> Proofreadingcorrection of typographical and</p><p>other errors in written material before it is</p><p>published or distributed</p></li><li><p>8/2/2019 Copy Editing and Proofreading-Minus Photos</p><p> 5/33</p><p>Copyediting</p></li><li><p>8/2/2019 Copy Editing and Proofreading-Minus Photos</p><p> 6/33</p><p>Reasons to Copyedit:</p><p>The 4 (or 5) Cs</p><p> Clarity (defined in terms of the intended reader)</p><p> Correctness Of grammar, spelling, punctuation, usage</p><p>Of facts Conciseness (briefness)(saves reader time,</p><p>saves publisher space)</p><p> Consistency</p><p>Within a manuscript With the publications style</p><p> (Courtesyrespectful wording)</p></li><li><p>8/2/2019 Copy Editing and Proofreading-Minus Photos</p><p> 7/33</p><p>Whom does the copyeditor serve?</p><p> At least 3 constituencies:</p><p> Reader</p><p> Author</p><p> Publisher</p><p> Ideally, reader comes first</p><p> Should try to serve the interests of all</p></li><li><p>8/2/2019 Copy Editing and Proofreading-Minus Photos</p><p> 8/33</p><p>Levels of Editing</p><p> Light editinglimited largely to correctingmechanical problems (such as errors ingrammar, spelling, punctuation, and reference</p><p>format) Medium editingalso can include, for</p><p>example, making wording more concise andimproving sentence structure</p><p> Heavy editingcan include, for example,reorganizing a document or rewriting part of it</p></li><li><p>8/2/2019 Copy Editing and Proofreading-Minus Photos</p><p> 9/33</p><p>Levels of Editing: Some Notes</p><p> Tends to be a continuum</p><p> Boundaries can vary</p><p> Underlying concepts to remember</p><p> Existence of various extents of editing</p><p> Helpfulness of determining early what extent ofediting is desired</p><p>Level of editing doesnt mean how manyeditorial changes were made; something canbe lightly edited but contain many corrections</p></li><li><p>8/2/2019 Copy Editing and Proofreading-Minus Photos</p><p> 10/33</p><p>Microediting and Macroediting</p><p> Microeditingfocuses on small-scale aspects</p><p>of a manuscriptfor example, grammar,</p><p>spelling, and punctuation</p><p> Macroeditingdeals with large-scale aspects</p><p>of a manuscriptfor example, the overall</p><p>structure</p></li><li><p>8/2/2019 Copy Editing and Proofreading-Minus Photos</p><p> 11/33</p><p>Copyediting:</p><p>Some Examples of Common Tasks</p><p> Correcting errors in grammar, spelling,punctuation, and usage</p><p> Making sure the specified style and format are</p><p>followed Making wording clearer, more concise, and</p><p>more graceful</p><p>Making language by non-native speakers moreidiomatic</p><p> Checking logic</p></li><li><p>8/2/2019 Copy Editing and Proofreading-Minus Photos</p><p> 12/33</p><p>Copyediting:</p><p>More Examples of Common Tasks</p><p> Improving the organization of the manuscript</p><p>and its parts</p><p> Improving the design of tables</p><p> In some cases, inserting instructions for</p><p>typesetting or posting</p><p> Querying the author when information is</p><p>needed to ensure that the writing is clear,</p><p>correct, and consistent</p></li><li><p>8/2/2019 Copy Editing and Proofreading-Minus Photos</p><p> 13/33</p><p>Querying</p><p> Definition: asking the author questions</p><p> Some items to query about</p><p> Missing information</p><p> Inconsistencies (for instance, between table and text)</p><p> Ambiguities</p><p> Possible inaccuracies (for example, unusual spellings)</p><p> Revisions that might change meaning</p><p> Something not to query about: routine editorial</p><p>changes</p></li><li><p>8/2/2019 Copy Editing and Proofreading-Minus Photos</p><p> 14/33</p><p>Possible Formats for Querying</p><p> Attaching paper tags or self-adhesive notes</p><p> Writing notes by hand in the margin</p><p>Inserting queries in textfor example: Using the Comments feature in Track Changes</p><p> Inserting the queries in the text, for example in</p><p>boldface or in a different color</p><p> Providing a separate list of queries</p><p> Combining two or more of these methods</p></li><li><p>8/2/2019 Copy Editing and Proofreading-Minus Photos</p><p> 15/33</p><p>Some Advice on Querying</p><p> Use wording that helps elicit the needed</p><p>information:</p><p> Not: Is this correct?</p><p> But: These numbers dont seem to add up.</p><p>Please check them and make any needed</p><p>corrections.</p><p> Word queries concisely. Word queries politely and respectfully.</p></li><li><p>8/2/2019 Copy Editing and Proofreading-Minus Photos</p><p> 16/33</p><p>Some Tools</p><p> Dictionaries</p><p> General</p><p> Specialized (for example, medical dictionaries)</p><p> Other reference works in the journals field</p><p> Online resources</p><p> OneLook Dictionary Search (www.onelook.com)</p><p> Various sources for fact checking</p><p> Other</p>http://www.onelook.com/http://www.onelook.com/</li><li><p>8/2/2019 Copy Editing and Proofreading-Minus Photos</p><p> 17/33</p><p>More Tools</p><p> Style manuals</p><p> Style sheets</p><p> For a journal as a whole</p><p> For specific manuscripts</p><p> Other</p></li><li><p>8/2/2019 Copy Editing and Proofreading-Minus Photos</p><p> 18/33</p><p>Style Manuals</p><p> The ACS (American Chemical Society) Style Guide</p><p> AMA (American Medical Association) Manual ofStyle</p><p>The Chicago Manual of Style The MLA (Modern Language Association) Style</p><p>Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing</p><p> Publication Manual of the American Psychological</p><p>Association Scientific Style and Format</p><p> Other</p>http://pubs.acs.org/page/books/styleguide/index.htmlhttp://www.us.oup.com/us/companion.websites/9780195176339/toc/?view=usa&amp;view=usahttp://www.us.oup.com/us/companion.websites/9780195176339/toc/?view=usa&amp;view=usahttp://www.press.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/hfs.cgi/00/15542.ctlhttp://www.mla.org/store/CID29/PID341http://www.mla.org/store/CID29/PID341http://www.apastyle.org/manual/index.aspxhttp://www.apastyle.org/manual/index.aspxhttp://www.resourcenter.net/Scripts/4Disapi07.dll/4DCGI/store/item.html?Action=StoreItem&amp;Item=13693&amp;LoginPref=1http://www.resourcenter.net/Scripts/4Disapi07.dll/4DCGI/store/item.html?Action=StoreItem&amp;Item=13693&amp;LoginPref=1http://www.apastyle.org/manual/index.aspxhttp://www.apastyle.org/manual/index.aspxhttp://www.mla.org/store/CID29/PID341http://www.mla.org/store/CID29/PID341http://www.press.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/hfs.cgi/00/15542.ctlhttp://www.us.oup.com/us/companion.websites/9780195176339/toc/?view=usa&amp;view=usahttp://www.us.oup.com/us/companion.websites/9780195176339/toc/?view=usa&amp;view=usahttp://pubs.acs.org/page/books/styleguide/index.html</li><li><p>8/2/2019 Copy Editing and Proofreading-Minus Photos</p><p> 19/33</p><p>Some Advice on Copyediting</p><p> Make changes only if you can state reasons forthem.</p><p> Dont over-copyedit. (If an item is clear, correct,</p><p>concise, consistent, and courteous, leave it as is,even if you would have said it another way.)</p><p> If in doubt, check.</p><p> Review the piece of writing more than once.</p><p> Keep learning.</p><p> Enjoy copyediting! It can be fun and satisfying.</p></li><li><p>8/2/2019 Copy Editing and Proofreading-Minus Photos</p><p> 20/33</p><p>Some Resources</p><p> The Copyeditors Handbook, 2nd edition, by Amy</p><p>Einsohn. University of California Press, 2005.</p><p> Editing and Publication: A Training Manual, by Ian</p><p>Montagnes. International Rice Research Institute,1991.</p><p> Posted on Google Books and at</p><p>books.irri.org/getpdf.htm?book=9712200094 Also available through the AuthorAID website</p><p>(www.authoraid.info)</p>http://www.ucpress.edu/books/pages/8429001.phphttp://books.irri.org/getpdf.htm?book=9712200094http://www.authoraid.info/http://www.authoraid.info/http://books.irri.org/getpdf.htm?book=9712200094http://books.irri.org/getpdf.htm?book=9712200094http://books.irri.org/getpdf.htm?book=9712200094http://www.ucpress.edu/books/pages/8429001.php</li><li><p>8/2/2019 Copy Editing and Proofreading-Minus Photos</p><p> 21/33</p><p>Proofreading</p></li><li><p>8/2/2019 Copy Editing and Proofreading-Minus Photos</p><p> 22/33</p><p>Some Purposes of Proofreading</p><p> To correct typographical errors</p><p> To correct serious errors somehow not</p><p>corrected during copyediting</p><p> To correct some kinds of page-layout</p><p>problems</p><p> Other</p></li><li><p>8/2/2019 Copy Editing and Proofreading-Minus Photos</p><p> 23/33</p><p>Types of Proofreading</p><p> Comparison: compare current version (livecopy) and previous version (dead copy)possible approaches:</p><p> One person (looking back and forth) One person plus voice recorder</p><p> Two people (with one person reading aloud)</p><p> Other</p><p> Noncomparison: proofread without looking atprevious version</p></li><li><p>8/2/2019 Copy Editing and Proofreading-Minus Photos</p><p> 24/33</p><p>Proofreading:</p><p>Some Things to Look ForMain Source:</p><p>Proofreading by Russ Sprague. In: Essays for</p><p>Biomedical Communicators: Volume 2 ofSelected AMWA Workshops. American MedicalWriters Association, 1997.</p></li><li><p>8/2/2019 Copy Editing and Proofreading-Minus Photos</p><p> 25/33</p><p>Some Things to Look For</p><p> Typographical errors</p><p> Errors in grammar and punctuation</p><p> Deviations from the requested editorial style</p><p> Inconsistencies in editorial style</p><p> Inconsistencies in information</p><p> Mechanical problems (smudged type, misaligned</p><p>type, etc) Incorrect typefaces or type sizes</p><p> Spacing errors</p></li><li><p>8/2/2019 Copy Editing and Proofreading-Minus Photos</p><p> 26/33</p><p>More Things to Look For</p><p> Problems in positioning (for example, of pagenumbers or running heads)</p><p> Failure to update material in template (for</p><p>example, issue numbers) Widows (single lines of text at tops of</p><p>columns)</p><p>Orphans (single lines of text at bottoms ofcolumns)</p><p> Consistency between captions and figures</p></li><li><p>8/2/2019 Copy Editing and Proofreading-Minus Photos</p><p> 27/33</p><p>Still More Things to Look For</p><p> Omissions</p><p> Errors in alphabetical or numerical sequence</p><p> Incorrect cross-references</p><p> Incorrect arithmetic</p><p> Poor appearance of graphics</p><p> Poor appearance of tables</p><p> Poor spacing of type (for example, rivers orlakes)</p></li><li><p>8/2/2019 Copy Editing and Proofreading-Minus Photos</p><p> 28/33</p><p>Some Ways to Indicate Changes</p><p> By hand</p><p> Use standard proofreading marks (available in manyreference works and, for example, at www.merriam-webster.com/mw/table/proofrea.htm) .</p><p> Clearly mark both the text and the margin.</p><p> Circle instructions.</p><p> Electronicallyfor example on a PDF file</p><p>Mark changes in text.</p><p> Highlight changes that might not be noticed.</p><p> Use the comment feature.</p>http://www.merriam-webster.com/mw/table/proofrea.htmhttp://www.merriam-webster.com/mw/table/proofrea.htmhttp://www.merriam-webster.com/mw/table/proofrea.htmhttp://www.merriam-webster.com/mw/table/proofrea.htmhttp://www.merriam-webster.com/mw/table/proofrea.htm</li><li><p>8/2/2019 Copy Editing and Proofreading-Minus Photos</p><p> 29/33</p><p>Some Advice on Proofreading</p><p> Find out and follow the editorial style.</p><p> Consider using a checklist.</p><p> Review the document more than once.</p><p> Query if necessary.</p><p> Dont make excessive changes (proofreading isntcopyediting). Proofreaders mainly delete, insert,replace, and transposenot rewrite.</p><p> Keep learning.</p><p> Enjoy proofreading! It can be fun and satisfying.</p></li><li><p>8/2/2019 Copy Editing and Proofreading-Minus Photos</p><p> 30/33</p><p>Some Characteristics</p><p>of Good Copyeditors</p><p>and Good Proofreaders</p></li><li><p>8/2/2019 Copy Editing and Proofreading-Minus Photos</p><p> 31/33</p><p>Some Characteristics of a Good Editor(from Editing and Publication, by Ian Montagnes)</p><p> reads widely and has great curiosity</p><p> can analyze a manuscript even when the subject is unfamiliar, spotdifficulties, and suggest solutions</p><p> is tactful and persuasive in working with authors</p><p> is enthusiastic about work and can inspire enthusiasm in others</p><p>has good judgment about what is important and what isnt</p><p> has a sensitive understanding of language</p><p> keeps secrets</p><p> shows initiative</p><p> is resourceful and enjoys solving problems</p><p> cares about details</p><p> does everything possible to meet schedules</p><p> understands what happens to a manuscript after it leaves the editorialdepartment: design, production, distribution</p></li><li><p>8/2/2019 Copy Editing and Proofreading-Minus Photos</p><p> 32/33</p><p>Characteristics of Good Proofreaders</p><p>(from Proofreading by Russ Sprague)</p><p> Excellent memory</p><p> Understanding of and eye for linguistic andtypographical detail</p><p> Thorough understanding of grammar, punctuation, and</p><p>sentence structure Excellent spelling ability</p><p> Good judgment, tact, and diplomacy; sensitivity todeadlines and issues</p><p>Technical knowledge about type, page design, printing</p><p> Persistence</p><p> A sense of humor</p></li><li><p>8/2/2019 Copy Editing and Proofreading-Minus Photos</p><p> 33/33</p><p>Thank you!</p></li></ul>

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