CURS 06 - Clasicism Baroc Tarziu NeoClasicism Romantic Sf Arh Clasice

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    Oraul baroc

    "Cetatea ideal

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    Sbastien Le Prestre, Seigneur de Vauban and later

    Marquis de Vauban (May 15, 1633March 30, 1707),

    commonly referred to as Vauban, was a Marshal of

    France and the foremost military engineer of his age,

    famed for his skill in both designing fortifications and inbreaking through them. He also advised Louis XIV on

    how to consolidate France's borders, to make them

    more defensible. Vauban made a radical suggestion of

    giving up some land that was indefensible to allow for a

    stronger, less porous border with France's neighbours.

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    The palais du Louvre in Paris, on the Right Bank of the

    Seine is a former royal palace, situated between the

    Tuileries Gardens and the church of Saint-Germain

    l'Auxerrois. Its origins date back to the medieval period

    and its present structure has evolved in stages since

    the sixteenth century.

    The Louvrewhich gets its name from a Frankish word

    leovar or leower, signifying a fortified place, according

    to the French historian Henri Sauval (1623-1676)was

    the actual seat of power in France until Louis XIV

    moved to Versailles in 1682, bringing the government

    perforce with him; the Louvre remained the formal seatof government to the end of the Ancien Rgime.

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    Medieval period

    The Palais du Louvre was

    originally constructed as a

    fortress, and was built in

    1190 by King PhilippeAuguste, along with the

    City's first enclosure wall,

    to defend the banks of the

    Seine river against

    invaders from the north.[1]

    The fortress had at itscenter a cylindrical tower:

    the Donjon, or the Keep.

    Archaeological discoveries

    of the original fortress are

    part of the Medieval Louvre

    exhibit in the Sully wing of

    the museum.

    The Louvre was renovated

    frequently through the

    Middle Ages.

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    In 1358 Charles V began to

    enlarge the Louvre and in 1546,

    Francis I employed architect

    Pierre Lescot and sculptor Jean

    Goujon to remove the keep andmodernize into a Renaissance

    style palace. Lescot added a

    ceiling to King Henry II's bedroom

    (Pavillon du Roi) that departed

    from the traditional beamed style,

    and installed the Salle desCaryatides, which featured

    sculpted caryatids based on

    Greek and Roman works. Art

    historian Anthony Blunt refers to

    Lescot's work "as a form of

    French classicism, having its ownprinciples and its own harmony.

    Francis acquired what would

    become the nucleus of the

    Louvre's holdings; his acquisitions

    included Leonardo da Vinci's

    Mona Lisa.

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    During his reign (1589-1610), Henry IV added the

    Grande Galerie. More than a quarter of a mile

    long and one hundred feet wide, this huge

    addition was built along the bank of the Seine; at

    the time of its completion it was the longest

    building of its kind in the world. Henry IV, a

    promoter of the arts, invited hundreds of artistsand craftsmen to live and work on the building's

    lower floors. This tradition continued for another

    200 years until Napoleon III ended it. Catherine

    de Medici then took over the restoration of the

    palace, starting with the creation of the Palais des

    Tuileries. This was started in 1564, one year after

    the purchase of the land. Philibert Delorme beganthe project, and was replaced after his death in

    1570 by Jean Bullant.

    In the early 17th century, Louis XIII razed the

    north wing of the medieval Louvre and replaced it

    with a continuation of the Lescot wing. His

    architect, Jacques Lemercier, designed and

    constructed what is today known as the Pavillionde lHorloge. The Richelieu Wing was also built by

    Louis XIII, the building first being opened to the

    public as a museum on November 8, 1793 during

    the French Revolution.[1] Louis XIII (1610-1643)

    completed the wing now called the Denon Wing,

    which had been started by Catherine de Medici in

    1560. Today it has been renovated, as a part ofthe Grand Louvre Renovation Programme.

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    In 1594, King Henry IV began his "Grand Design" to remove remnants of the medieval fortress, to increase the Cour Carre's area,

    and to create a link between the Palais des Tuileries and the Louvre. The link was completed via the Grande Galerie by architects

    Jacques Androuet de Cerceau and Louis Mtezeau.[8] By 1639, classical architect Lemercier had finished the structure known as the

    Pavillon de l'Horloge, after a clock was added in 1857.[8] In 1659, Louis XIV instigated a phase of construction under architects Le

    Vau and Andr Le Ntre, and painter Charles Le Brun.[8][9] Le Vau oversaw the decoration of the Pavillon du Roi, the Grand Cabinet

    du Roi, a new gallery to parallel the Petite Gallerie, and a chapel. Le Ntre redesigned the Tuileries garden in the French style, which

    had been created in 1564 by Catherine de' Medici in the Italian style; and Le Brun decorated of the Galerie d'Apollon. A committee of

    architects proposed on Perrault's Colonnade; the edifice was begun in 1668 but not f inished until the 19th century.[8][10]

    Commissioned by Louis XIV, architect Claude Perrault's eastern wing (1665-1680), crowned by an uncompromising Italian balustrade

    along its distinctly non-French flat roof, was a ground-breaking departure in French architecture. His severe design was chosen over

    a design provided by the great Italian architect Bernini, who had journeyed to Paris specifically to work on the Louvre. Perrault had

    translated the Roman architect Vitruvius into French. Now Perrault's rhythmical paired columns form a shadowed colonnade with a

    central pedimented triumphal arch entrance raised on a high, rather defensive basement, in a restrained classicizing baroque manner

    that has provided models for grand edifices in Europe and America for centuries. The Metropolitan Museum in New York, for oneexample, reflects Perrault's Louvre design. In 1678 the royal residence moved to Versaille and the Palais du Louvre became an art

    gallery.

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    The palace originally was the home of Cardinal

    Richelieu. He hired the architect Jacques

    Lemercier to design it. It was completed in 1624.

    During the lifetime of the cardinal, the palace was

    known as the Palais Cardinal. Upon his death in

    1642, Richelieu bequeathed his lavish residenceto the French Crown. After Louis XIII died, it

    became the home of the Queen-Mother, Anne of

    Austria, her advisor, Cardinal Mazarin, and her

    young sons, King Louis XIV and Philippe, duc

    d'Anjou. During the Fronde, the royal family fled

    there for safety

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    The Chteau de Vaux-le-Vicomte is a classical French chateau located in

    Maincy, near Melun, 55 km southeast of Paris in the Seine-et-Marne

    dpartement of France. It was built from 1658 to 1661 for Nicolas Fouquet,

    Marquis de Belle-Isle (Belle-Ile-en-Mer), Viscount of Melun and Vaux, the

    superintendent of finances of Louis XIV.Vaux-le-Vicomte was in many ways the most influential work built in Europe

    in the mid-17th century, the finest house in France built after the Chteau de

    Maisons. Here, the architect Louis Le Vau, the landscape architect Andr le

    Ntre, and the painter-decorator Charles Le Brunworked together on a

    large-scale project for the first time. Their collaboration marked the

    beginning of a new order: the magnificent manner that is associated with the

    "Louis XIV style" involving a system of collective work, which could be

    applied to the structure, its interiors and works of art and the creation of an

    entire landscape. Vaux-le-Vicomte is one of Europe's finest constructions of

    its kind.

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    Triumfal se deschid porile clasicismului n cultur, Nota modei

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    Triumfal se deschid porile clasicismului n cultur,

    arhitectur i peisagistic.Nota ode

    o d curtea

    de la

    Versailles.

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    The French Revolution (c. 17891799) was a period of political and social upheaval in the history ofFrance, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges

    for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on Enlightenment principles of

    nationalism, citizenship, and inalienable rights.

    These changes were accompanied by violent turmoil, including the trial and execution of the king,

    vast bloodshed and repression during the Reign of Terror, and warfare involving every other major European

    power. Subsequent events that can be traced to the Revolution include the Napoleonic Wars, two separate

    restorations of the monarchy, and two additional revolutions as modern France took shape.

    In the following century, France would be governed variously as a republic, dictatorship,constitutional monarchy, and two different empires.

    Jules Hardouin-Mansart (Paris April 16 1646 Marly-le-Roi

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    Jules Hardouin Mansart (Paris, April 16, 1646 Marly le Roi,

    France, May 11, 1708) was a French architect whose work is

    generally considered to be the apex of French Baroque

    architecture, representing the power and grandeur of Louis XIV.

    Mansart, as he is generally known, was one of the most

    important European architects of the seventeenth century.

    Born Jules Hardouin, he studied under his renowned great-uncleFranois Mansart, one of the originators of the classical tradition

    in French architecture; Hardouin inherited Mansart's collection of

    plans and drawings and adopted his well-regarded name. He

    also learned from Libral Bruant, architect of the royal veteran's

    hospital in Paris known as Les Invalides. Hardouin-Mansart

    served as Louis XIV's chief architect, first enlarging the royal

    chteau of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, then at Versailles from 1675.He became the surintendant des Btiments du Roi

    (Superintendent of royal works). He designed all the extensions

    and rebuildings at Versailles for the King, including the north and

    south wings, the Royal Chapel (with Robert de Cotte, 1710), and

    the celebrated Hall of Mirrors decorated by Charles Le Brun his

    collaborator. Outside the chateau proper he built the Grand

    Trianon and the Orangerie, as well as subsidiary royal dwellings

    not far away, such as Marly (begun 1679).

    Among his other best-known worksall in Parisare the Pont-

    Royal; the Church of Saint-Roch; the great domed royal chapel

    Eglise du Dome dedicated to Saint Louis at Les Invalides

    (designed in 1680); the Place des Victoires (168486) followed

    by the Place Vendme (1690). Most of these works still set their

    stamp on the character of Paris and can be seen by a modern-day tourist.

    Barocul tarziu

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    Mansart used the mansard roof, named for his great-uncle, at the chteau of Dampiere-en-Yvelines,

    built for the duc de Chevreuse, Colbert's son-in-law, a patron at the center of Louis XIV's court.

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    Les Invalides, Paris: Jules

    Hardouin-Mansart, 1676.

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    Malta

    Valletta, the capital

    city of Malta, was laid

    out in 1566 to fortify

    the Knights of

    Rhodes, who hadtaken over the island

    when they were

    driven from Rhodes

    by Islamic armies.

    The city, designed by

    Francesco Laparelli

    on a grid plan, and

    built up over the next

    century, remains aparticularly coherent

    example of Baroque

    urbanism. Its massive

    fortifications, which

    were considered state

    of the art, until the

    modern age, are also

    largely intact. Valletta

    became a UNESCOWorld Heritage Site in

    1980.

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    Netherlands

    There is little Baroque

    about Dutch

    architecture of the

    17th century. The

    architecture of thefirst republic in

    Northern Europe was

    meant to reflect

    democratic values by

    quoting extensively

    from classical

    antiquity. Like

    contemporary

    developments inEngland, Dutch

    Palladianism is

    marked by sobriety

    and restraint. Two

    leading architects,

    Jacob van Campen

    and Pieter Post, used

    such eclectic

    elements as giant-order pilasters, gable

    roofs, central

    pediments, and

    vigorous steeples in a

    coherent combinati...