Ecology Study of the relationships between organisms and their environments Study of the relationships between organisms and their environments Their interactions

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Biosphere: levels of organization

Text of Ecology Study of the relationships between organisms and their environments Study of the...

Ecology Study of the relationships between organisms and their environments Study of the relationships between organisms and their environments Their interactions with each otherTheir interactions with each other Their ability/methods of obtaining energy to surviveTheir ability/methods of obtaining energy to survive Evolutionary trendsEvolutionary trends Distribution of organisms in the environment Organisms are not distributed evenly in a given area Organisms are not distributed evenly in a given area Biosphere: levels of organization Aquatic Biomes make up the largest part of the biosphere Aquatic biomes are stratified Aquatic Biomes look up the major characteristics of each Lakes Lakes Rivers Rivers Estuaries Estuaries Intertidal zones Intertidal zones Coral reefs Coral reefs Oceanic pelagic Oceanic pelagic Abyssal zones Abyssal zones Terrestrial Biomes geographic distribution based on climate Terrestrial Biomes look up the major characteristics of each Tropical forest Tropical forest Savanna Savanna Desert Desert Polar and high-mountain ice Polar and high-mountain ice Chaparral Chaparral Temperate grassland Temperate grassland Temperate deciduous forest Temperate deciduous forest Coniferous forest Coniferous forest Tundra (arctic and alpine) Tundra (arctic and alpine) Ecosystems contained within biomes biotic and abiotic components biotic and abiotic components Biotic = living Biotic = living Abiotic = environmental factors Abiotic = environmental factors Abiotic components of ecosystems Sunlight Sunlight Temperature Temperature Minerals Minerals Rainfall Rainfall Temperature Temperature Water chemistry/soil chemistry Water chemistry/soil chemistry Biotic components of an ecosystem Producers Producers Decomposers Decomposers Primary consumers Primary consumers Secondary consumers Secondary consumers Tertiary consumers Tertiary consumers Population Group of individuals of a single species occupying the same area Group of individuals of a single species occupying the same area characterized by a specific density (# per unit area) and dispersion (spacing) characterized by a specific density (# per unit area) and dispersion (spacing) Size of population is limited by both biotic and abiotic factorsSize of population is limited by both biotic and abiotic factors Community Group of populations in a specific area Group of populations in a specific area Communities vary in diversityCommunities vary in diversity Populations within a community are linked by competition, predation, mutualism and commensalismPopulations within a community are linked by competition, predation, mutualism and commensalism Community Food Webs How do organisms obtain energy to survive and function in their environments?? Food Webs Describe trophic structure within community Describe trophic structure within community Food webs are made up of multiple food chains Food webs are made up of multiple food chains Food Chains Food Web Ecosystems All of the organisms in a community and all of the abiotic factors that affect them All of the organisms in a community and all of the abiotic factors that affect them Range in size Range in size Multiple ecosystems make up a biome Multiple ecosystems make up a biome Ecosystems: energy flow Ecosystem: nutrient cycling Earths carbon cycle Ecosystems: nutrient cycling The nitrogen cycle Primary Production The sun is the ultimate source of energy in an ecosystem The sun is the ultimate source of energy in an ecosystem The amount of light energy converted to chemical energy by an ecosystems autotrophs is called Primary Production The amount of light energy converted to chemical energy by an ecosystems autotrophs is called Primary Production Gross Primary Production Amount of light energy converted to chemical energy by photosynthesis per unit time Amount of light energy converted to chemical energy by photosynthesis per unit time Net Primary Production Equal to the gross primary production MINUS the amount of energy used by primary producers for cell respiration Equal to the gross primary production MINUS the amount of energy used by primary producers for cell respiration Is important because it represents the amount of stored chemical energy available to consumers in an ecosystem Is important because it represents the amount of stored chemical energy available to consumers in an ecosystem Primary production: limits In aquatic ecosystems: In aquatic ecosystems: LightLight NutrientsNutrients In terrestrial ecosystems: In terrestrial ecosystems: TemperatureTemperature Availability of waterAvailability of water NutrientsNutrients LightLight Secondary Production Amount of chemical energy in consumers food that is converted into their own new biomass during a given period of time Amount of chemical energy in consumers food that is converted into their own new biomass during a given period of time Secondary production Food energy available to humans