The scientific study of interactions among organisms and their environments.
THE LAYER OF PLANET EARTH THAT SUPPORTS LIFE IT INCLUDES LANDMASSES, BODIES OF FRESHWATER & SALTWATER, AND ALL LOCATIONS BELOW EARTHS SURFACE THAT SUPPORT LIFE CONTAINS LIVING & NON-LIVING FACTORS: BIOTIC: LIVING FACTORS PLANTS & ANIMALS ABIOTIC FACTORS: NON-LIVING FACTORS TEMPERATURE, SOIL TYPE, RAINFALL, AIR CURRENTS, WATER CURRENTS, AVAILABLE NUTRIENTS
LARGE GROUP OF ECOSYSTEMS THAT SHARE THE SAME CLIMATE LAND BIOMES TUNDRA, BOREAL FOREST, TEMPERATE FOREST, TEMPERATE WOODLAND & SHRUBLAND, TEMPERATE GRASSLAND, DESERT, TROPICAL SAVANA, TROPICAL SEASONAL FOREST, TROPICAL RAIN FOREST
INTERACTION BETWEEN A BIOLOGICAL COMMUNITY AND ALL OF THE ABIOTIC FACTORS THAT AFFECT IT AN ECOSYSTEM CAN BE LARGE OR SMALL THE BOUNDARIES OF AN ECOSYSTEM ARE SOMEWHAT FLEXIBLE, CAN CHANGE, AND MIGHT OVERLAP OTHER ECOSYSTEMS
GROUP OF INTERACTING POPULATIONS THAT OCCUPY THE SAME GEOGRAPHIC AREA AT THE SAME TIME ORGANSIMS MAY OR MAY NOT COMPETE FOR THE SAME RESOURCES
ORGANISMS THAT LIVE TOGETHER IN A COMMUNITY CONSTANTLY INTERACT COMPETITION FOR A RESOURCE (EXAMPLE: FOR WATER or A MATE) PREDATION ONE ORGANISM EATS ANOTHER ORGANISM FOR FOOD
OTHER RELATIONSHIPS MUTUALISM RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TWO ORGANISMS THAT BENEFITS BOTH ORGANISMS COMMENSALISM RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TWO ORGANISMS THAT BENEFITS ONE AND THE OTHER IS NOT HELPED NOR HARMED PARASITISM RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TWO ORGANISMS THAT BENEFITS THE ONE AT THE EXPENSE OF THE OTHER
ORGANISMS OF A SINGLE SPECIES THAT SHARE THE SAME GEOGRAPHIC LOCATION AT THE SAME TIME INDIVIDUAL ORGANISMS OFTEN COMPETE FOR THE SAME RESOURCES
AN INDIVIDUAL ORGANISM
PRODUCERS (or AUTOTROPHS): Make their own food by using energy from the sunexample: plantsCONSUMERS (or HETEROTROPHS): Dont make their own food. They eat other organisms.examples: carnivores, herbivores, omnivores, scavengers, decomposers
CARNIVORES eat meat (other animals)HERBIVORES eat plantsOMNIVORES eat meat & plantsSCAVENGERS feed on already dead organismsDECOMPOSERS break down dead & decaying material into simpler molecules
Simple linear model to show how matter and energy move through an ecosystem.
Algae fish heron
The food chain shows how nutrients & energy move from autotrophs to heterotrophs and eventually to decomposers. A food chain usually has 3 links, but never more than 5. A portion of energy is lost as heat at each link. Each step in the food chain is called a trophic level or feeding step. Only 10% of energy is passed on from one trophic level to the next.
Food chains do not show the complex interactions between species. A food web shows all the possible feeding relationships at each trophic level in a community.
GrassSeedsBerriesChipmunk Deer Marmot GrouseHawk CoyoteGrizzly Bear Mountain Lion3rd Order Consumers
2nd Order Consumers
1st Order Consumers
Shows the decreasing amounts of energy or number of organisms needed at each trophic level.