Compiled by: Made Juliarta, S.SSIMPLE PAST TENSE NOMINAL
Read the dialogue!Ari: Were you at the party last night?Dwi: No, I was not. I was at home.Ari: Was your sister at home too?Dwi: Yes, she was. She was busy with her homework.Explanation:Simple Past Tense Nominal digunakan untuk menyatakan kejadian yang sudah lampau, tapi tidak menggunakan kata kerja. Melainkan menggunakan Kata Benda (Noun), Kata Sifat (Adjective) dan kata Keterangan (Adverb).Formulanya adalah:( + ) S + was/were + Complement (Noun/Adjective/Adverb)( - ) S + was/were NOT + Complement (Noun/Adjective/Adverb)( ? ) Was/were + S + Complement (Noun/Adjective/Adverb)?Contoh:( + ) My mother was a midwife.( - ) My mother was not a midwife.( ? ) Was my mother a midwife?SIMPLE PAST TENSE VERBALRead the following sentences!
Farmers in Jati Bali grew rice crops 6 months agoSome students conducted research on vegetative plant propagations last yearTranspiration started to increase 3 hours ago.
Simple Past Tense Verbal digunakan untuk menyatakan kejadian yang telah lampau.Keterangan waktuyang sering digunakan dalam Simple Past Tense, antara lain:a. yesterday(kemarin)b. ago(yang lalu). Misalnya: a minute ago, two days ago, a week ago, three months ago, two years ago, etc.c. last(yang lalu). Misalnya: last week, last year, last twodays, last Monday, last December, etc.d. this + morning/noon/afternoon/evening.Note: walaupunagodanlastmemiliki arti yang sama, perhatikan perbedaan letaknya. Agodiletakkan setelah noun yang diterangkannya (i.e. noun + ago), sedangkanlastdiletakkan sebelum noun (i.e. last + noun).
Formulanya adalah:( + ) S + V2( - ) S + did not + V1( ? ) Did + S + V1?
Contoh:( + ) The family had dinner at the restaurant last night.( - ) The family did not have dinner at the restaurant last night.( ? ) Did the family have dinner at the restaurant last night?
PAST PERFECT TENSE NOMINALRead the examples below!
Rita had been here before you came.He had been there.Had you been here?
Explanations:Past Perfect Tense Nominal adalah kalimat yang menggambarkan kejadian yang telah terjadi di waktu lampau sebelum ada kejadian lain yang tidak menggunakan kata kerja. Formulanya:( + ) S + had + been + Complement( - ) S + had not + been + Complement( ? ) Had + S + been + Complement?Ex:( + ) I had been an employee before I had my own business.( - ) I had not been an employee before I had my own business.( ? ) Had I been an employee before I had my own business?
PAST PERFECT TENSE VERBALRead the examples below!
I had washed my hands before I ate just now. I had lost my letter before I posted it. The students did their tasks after they had got the explanation. What did you do after you had finished studying at school? What had you done before you came here?
Explanations Past Perfect Tense digunakan untuk menggambarkan 2 kejadian dimana kejadian pertama lebih dulu selesai dan disusul oleh kejadian yang lain yang juga selesai diwaktu lampau. Formulanya: -( + ) S + had + V3-( - ) S + had + not + V3-( ? ) Had + S + V3 Dalam Past Perfect Tense, kejadian yang lebih dulu terjadi menggunakan Had + V 3, kejadian yang menyusul kemudian menggunakan Simple Past ( S + V 2 ).PAST CONTINUOUS TENSERead the following text and examples!
Yesterday was the busy day for my family. At 6 am, my mother was preparing the breakfast while I was helping my father to wash his car. While I was washing the car, my old friend Cyntia came. She surprised me. I didnt expect that she would come early morning. While we were talking about our activities at school, my father went to the office.-At noon, when he called me, I was working at the office.-The sun was shining brightly when I got up this morning.-You were attending the meeting when I telephoned you.-They were watching TV while we were talking about many things last night.Explanations:1. Past Continuous Tense digunakan untuk mengungkapkan kejadian yang sedang berlangsung di waktu lampau. 1. Past Continuous Tense dapat digunakan untuk menggambarkan suatu perbuatan yang sedang berlangsung di waktu lalu ketika suatu kejadian lain terjadi juga, dalam hal ini kita menggunakan WHEN dan WHILE.
1. Formulanya adalah :( + ) S + was / were + V ing + Adv.of time.( - ) S + was / were + not + V ing + Adv of time.( ? ) Was / Were + S + V ing + Adv of time.
1. WHEN digunakan untuk 2 aktifitas yang mana 1 kejadian sedang berlangsung kemudian disusul oleh kejadian lain, semuanya terjadi di waktu lampau.1. WHILE digunakan untuk 2 aktifitas yang sama-sama sedang berlangsung di waktu lampau.1. Formula untuk 2 kejadian adalah :WHEN S + was/were + V ing + O WHEN S + V2 + OWHILE S + was/were + Ving + O WHILE S + was/were + V ing + O
DESCRIBING PAST EXPERIENCERead the following passage!Last week I went to Bali Zoo Park by public transportation. I left home at 8 oclock in the morning and arrived there around 9 AM. I spent some hours there. I saw many kinds of animals. There were many wilds animals and many visitors too. It was nice since the weather was not bad.
Explanations: Memaparkan kejadian di waktu lampau menggunakan Simple Past. Kata keterangan yang digunakan seperti: -Last.. - ago -Yesterday -When I was..Etc. Jika tidak menyebutkan kata kerja, maka kita gunakan WAS dan WERE. Semua kata kerja menggunakan bentuk ke dua ( V2 ). Jika ingin menanyakan pengalaman orang lain bias menggunakan:-Tell me your last holiday!-Where did you go last ..?-What did you do .ago?-Could you tell me your last weekend? Etc.
1) Mum _washed up_ after lunch.2) The maid ___________________ the beds in the rooms.3) It ___________________ a lot yesterday.4) The boys ___________________ after school.5) The fortune teller ___________________ me my future.6) Dave ___________________ a slice of pizza.7) The couple ___________________ TV last night.8) Tim ___________________ the table.9) Dad ___________________ a fairy tale to his children.10) Dave ___________________ a bath.11) The ambulance ________________ the injured man to the hospital.12) Owen ___________________ the homework.13) Fred ___________________ a cold yesterday.14) Jane ___________________ in the disco last weekend.15) The couple ___________________ on the bench in the park.11) Daisy _skipped_ the rope in the garden?2) Anne ___________________ on her homework.3) The young lady ___________________ on the beach. 4) Mary ___________________ the litter into the recycling bin.5) Tom ___________________ lemonade.6) Joe ___________________ the paper into smaller pieces.7) The family ___________________ on holiday on Monday.8) The bus driver ___________________ the bus to the station.9) Robert ___________________ a birdhouse on the tree.10) Paul and James ___________________ presents to each other.11) The lorry driver ___________________ the wheel of the lorry.12) Jasmine ___________________ the piano.13) Hanna ___________________ for the test at home.14) Leila ___________________ in the sea.15) Kyle ___________________ home.1
Past Tense ExercisesChange to past tense.
Top of Form1. He (walk) to school yesterday.
Heto school yesterday.
2. They (do) their homework last night.
Theytheir homework last night.
3. You (are) lazy last week.
4. That woman (buy) a new book this morning.
That womana new book this morning.
5. The janitor (clean) the blackboard yesterday.
The janitorthe blackboard yesterday.
6. My mother (cook) food yesterday.
My motherfood yesterday.
7. This morning my teacher (teach) English.
This morning my teacherEnglish.
8. I (am) hungry yesterday.
9. The gardener (cut) the trees last month.
The gardenerthe trees last month.
10. She (drink) milk this morning.
Shemilk this morning.
11. Last month the man (ride) a horse.
Last month the mana horse.
12. Sakda (go) to Hong Kong last year.
Sakdato Hong Kong last year.
13. The birds (fly) in the sky this morning.
The birdsin the sky this morning.
14. I (know) Tom's house last year.
ITom's house last year.
15. The joiner (make) tables and chairs yesterday.
The joinertables and chairs yesterday.
16. The farmer (grow) rice last year.
The farmerrice last year.
17. Two weeks ago the boy (has) a new bicycle.
Two weeks ago the boya new bicycle.
18. He (feel) happy yesterday.
19. We (work) hard last week.
Wehard last week.
20. The students (meet) in the hall last week.
The studentsin the hall last week.Bottom of Form
1. A: What (you, do)when the accident occurred?B: I (try)to change a light bulb that had burnt out.
2. After I (find)the wallet full of money, I (go, immediately)to the police and (turn)it in.
3. The doctor (say)that Tom (be)too sick to go to work and that he (need)to stay at home for a couple of days.
4. Sebastian (arrive)at Susan's house a little before 9:00 PM, but she (be, not)there. She (study, at the library)for her final examination in French.
5. Sandy is in the living room watching television. At this time yesterday, she (watch, also)television. That's all she ever does!
6. A: I (call)you last night after dinner, but you (be, not)there. Where were you?B: I (work)out at the fitness center.
7. When I (walk)into the busy office, the secretary (talk)on the phone with a customer, several clerks (work, busily)at their desks, and two managers (discuss, quietly)methods to improve customer service.
8. I (watch)a mystery movie on TV when the electricity went out. Now I am never going to find out how the movie ends.
9. Sharon (be)in