TEACHER EDUCATION DIVISION
MINISTRY OF EDUCATION
2002INTRODUCTIONThis RESOURCE BOOK is a compilation of materials obtained from various sources.It is hoped that it will be of assistance to Education lecturers and student teachers. This Resource book is not meant to be a text; it is more of an introductory guide towards the teaching of Education in English.
This RESOURCE BOOK provides an overview of the entire Education Syllabi for the KPLI and KDPM programmes. It consists of three components, namely, Pedagogy, Psychology and Teacher Profesionalism. The materials are arranged according to topics and not by semesters. Therefore, lecturers are encouraged to refer their respective syllabi and source for additional input from the reading list provided.This Resource book attempts to:
i. provide a general overview of the Education syllabus for the KDPM, KPLI (SM) and KPLI (SR) programmes;
ii. introduce key terms for the various topics in the three components, namely Pedagogy, Psychology and Teacher Professionalism;
iii. provide brief notes pertaining to the key terms identified;
iv. list the various sources where the notes have been obtained.
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Resource Book Compiling Panel
COMPONENTCHAPTER 1: CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT
In this Chapter, we shall cover,
Concept of classroom management
Teacher as a classroom manager
Factors affecting classroom environment
Preventive classroom management
Teacher as an effective classroom manager
Authoritarian leadership style Democratic leadership style
Laissez-faire leadership approach
Engaged time or time on-task
Academic learning time
Rules and procedures
Further ReadingArends, R.I. (2000). Learning to teach (5th Ed). Boston: McGraw Hill.
Kyriacou, C. (1991). Essential Teaching Skills. Hemel Hempstead: Simon &
Moore, K. D. (1995). Classroom Teaching Skills (3rd Ed). New York: McGraw Hill.
Slavin, R. E. (1991). Educational Psychology (3rd Ed). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Robiah Sidin (1993). Classroom Management. Kuala Lumpur: Fajar Bakti.
1. Classroom management : actions and strategies used to maintain order in the classroom
2. Teacher as an effective manager: able to get students cooperation, maintain their involvement in instructional tasks, and carry out the business of classroom smoothly. Example, the teacher has to lay down rules and procedures for learning activities. Sometimes this role is viewed as nothing more than that of disciplinarian, the person who must see that the classroom group and its individual members stay within the limits set by the school, the limits set by the teacher, and the limits set by the tasks at hand. In fact, the teacher must also manage a classroom environment. He organizes the classroom space to fit his goals and to maximize learning. Seating must be arranged; posters hung; bulletin boards decorated; extra books, learning carrels, and bookshelves installed. Classroom management for the teacher also involves modeling a positive attitude toward the curriculum and toward school and learning in general. Finally, a teacher needs to manage and process great amounts of clerical work. There are papers to be graded and read, tests to be scored, marks to be entered, attendance records and files to be maintained, notes and letters to be written, and so forth.
3. Factors affecting classroom environment: There are factors which affect classroom atmosphere Leadership style: Different leadership styles will affect the atmosphere of students learning. (i) Authoritarian leadership will discourage learning, the teacher tends to put down the students when they make mistakes. (ii) Democratic leadership, the sharing of responsibility, seeks compliance through encouragement rather than demands. The teacher is kind, caring, and warm, but also firm. Self-esteem is developed by sharing of responsibility. Research has shown that productivity and performance are high in well-run democratic classroom. (iii) In laissez-faire leadership approach, the teacher is completely permissive. Anything goes! Everyone does his or her own thing.This type of leadership often leads to chaos. It produces disorganization, causes student frustration, and results in little if any work. Physical environment: An attractive room is conducive to learning. As a teacher, you will in most cases have full responsibility for the appearance and comfort of you room. Room arrangement: Your room arrangement should aid teaching and learning and help maintain discipline. The seating arragement should focus on the chalkboard since most class instruction occurs there. You should also provide access to pencil sharpeners, reference books, learning centres, trash containers, etc. Place these accessories behind or to the side of the students focal points, since travel to and from them can be distracting. Motivation: The teacher should try to motivate the students by (i) expecting the best from students (ii) modelling desired behaviour (iii) establishing a positive atmosphere (iv) actively involving students (v) making learning seem worthwhile (vi) cultivating self-esteem (vii) capitalizing on curiosity (viii) use reinforcement n (xi) using competition (x) reducing anxiety Time in schools and classrooms: Schooltime is obviously limited. In fact school time can be divided into five different categories: mandated time, allocated time, instructional time, engaged time, and academic learning time.(i) Mandated time: the time set by the Ministry of Education. A typical school is in session from 7.45 in the morning until 2.05 in the afternoon for about 190 days. This set time must be used for both academic and nonacademic activities.
(ii) Allocated time: During the mandated time, a variety of subjects must be taught plus time must be used for lunch, recess, transitions between classes, announcements, etc. The time appropriated for each of these activities is called allocated time. The goal of classroom management is to expand the amount of time allocated for learning.
(iii) Instructional time: Teachers attempts to translate allocated time into learning through instructional time. They try to translate the available, tangible blocks of class time into productive learning activities. The students may not make full use of the instructional time to learn. Instead, they may be daydreaming during seatwork or some may be goofing off.
(iv) Engaged time or time on-task: It is the actual time individual students spend on assigned work. Students are actively (physically or mentally) participating in learning process during engaged time. So, one of the goals of classroom management is to improve the quality of time by keeping students on-task.
(v) Academic learning time: Time on-task isnt always productive. Indeed, students often engage in an activity at a superficial level, with the result that little understanding or retention takes place. If this is happening, the teacher must motivate the students to make time on-task more productive, they must maximize academic learning time. This means that the students performance must be at a high success rate (80 percent or more).
Communication: When problems arise in the classroom, good communication between teacher and students is essential. This means that more than just the teacher talks-students listen pattern must be taking place. Real communication is an open, two-way street, in which you talk but you must listen.4. Preventive classroom management: Many of the problems associated with student misbehaviour are dealt with by effective teachers through preventive approaches. Some of these approaches are briefly described below:
Establishing rules and procedures to govern important activities in the classroom. Rules are statements that specify the things students are expected to do and not to do. Usually, rules are written down, made clear to the students, kept to a minimum. Procedures, on the other hand, are the ways of getting work and other activity accomplished. They are seldom written down, but effective classroom managers spend considerable time teaching procedures to students in the same way they teach academic matter. Student movement, student talk, and what to do with downtime (occurs when lessons are completed early or when students are waiting for upcoming events, like moving to another class or going home) are among the most important activities that require rules to govern behaviour and procedures to make work flow efficiently.
Categories of rules: (i) Relations with the adults and peers be polite and friendly, be friendly and helpful; help your friends; (ii) Academic work work hard and quietly; do your best; try; (iii) classroom rutines put your hand up; settle down quickly and quietly; (iv) relations to self respect yourself; be smart; accept your own and others mistakes; keep trying; you can do it (v) safety take care; be safe; take care of your friends safety.
Example of classroom routines: going in and sitting down quietly when they arrive; collecting and returning books; ge