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Secession and the Civil War

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South Carolina and…?. Secession and the Civil War. Secession of the South . Reasons for secession (First State, Leaders, Constitution) Emotional-North wants to establish black rule in the South. Goal was not equality, but the reversal of roles for the races. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Secession and the Civil War

Secession and the Civil WarSouth Carolina and?Secession of the South Reasons for secession (First State, Leaders, Constitution)Emotional-North wants to establish black rule in the South. Goal was not equality, but the reversal of roles for the races. Economic-policies of a Republican president-protective tariffs, free homesteads in the west, etc.--will prevent the South from prospering.

Northern reaction to secession Most opposed forcing the South to return to the Union Buchanan refused to act when a federal supply ship was attacked in Charleston Harbor in January 1861 Crittenden Compromise proposed the prohibition of slavery north of the Missouri Compromise line (36 30), but allowing it south of the line in addition to compensation to owners for runaway slavesSecession of the South Lincolns reactionInaugural AddressProtect Federal PropertyNation indissolvableWould retaliate if forcedFort Sumteremployed force because the South was denying the democratic principle that formed the basis of the Union.sent supplies to Ft. Sumter in Charleston Harbor (April 12, 1861) Confederates opened fire on the fort, starting the war

Lincoln Declares WarUnion GeneralsWinfield Scott, George McClellan, Ambrose Burnside, Joseph Hooker, George Meade, Ulysses S. GrantConfederate GeneralsRobert E. Lee

North vs. SouthNorth's advantages over the South Potential fighting and working force: 20 million citizens Population: 2.5:1 Free male population (ages 18-60): 4.4:1Wealth produced: 3:1 Factory production: 10:1 Iron production: 15:1 Coal production: 38:1 Transportation--superior in every respect Railroad mileage: 7:1 Naval tonnage: 25:1 Merchant ship tonnage: 9:1North vs. SouthSouth's advantages over the North Fighting a defensive war Local support familiarity with terrain Positive goal: seeking independence Short communication lines and friendly population United public in contrast to the NorthNon-slaveholders eager to volunteer to fightExperienced officer corpsmany veterans of the Mexican-American War joined the ConfederacyCotton (24:1 advantage over North)necessary for textile factories of England and France

Union Home frontMobilization and FinanceConscription -poor fight, rich get out of it-Draft riots (NYC 1863) http://youtu.be/x5kil3PfkngMoney-Increase tariffs, income tax, greenbacksWar Profiteers-Manufacturers and industrialists made lots of money, many through corrupt means.Union Home frontWhat Civil Liberties?Save the UnionBlockadeIncrease size of ArmyKeep the Border statesSuspends habeus corpus Supervised voting Newspapers/editors influenced/pressured

Not in the ConstitutionSouthern Home frontDeclared martial lawSuspended habeus corpusConfederate Constitution Strong Constitution vs. states rightsMobilization and FinanceConscription Conflict, Rich vs. PoorConfederate currencyNot currency, bills of credit

Leading to EmancipationLees first mistakedecision to invade the NorthBattle of Antietam (Sharpsburg, MD)Gain support from border states and England.Decrease morale of NorthLees second mistakeLost plans for battleFound by NorthDecisive/Important victory for NorthNo British supportSet platform for EmancipationEmancipation ProclamationMoral Cause for the WarEmancipated slaves in the South, not border states.Must win the war to have impactPrelude to the 13th AmendmentGave slaves a reason to rebel and join Union army.GettysburgThe beginning of the end3 days of battleSouth won first twoNorth won the thirdPushed Lee out of the North and put South back on the defensive.Turning point of the war.

War in the SouthGrant becomes Northern commanderCaptures Vicksburg, MSCoincides with GettysburgShermans March to the SeaTotal WarScorches Atlanta to SavannahGrant outlasts LeeWilling to continue the fightKnew North had more troops and suppliesTakes Richmond

Shermans March to the Sea

Southern Surrender?Appomattox Court HouseLee surrenders to Grant in April 1865 (VA)Lincoln assassinatedApril 14, 1865Fords TheatreJohn Wilkes BoothLincoln MartyredRadical Republicans use death to support their cause.

Outcome of Civil WarCosts600,000 lives$15 millionAnimosity b/t North and SouthBenefitsUS resilienceAbolished slaveryUS now major player in the world