TCI Industrialism&the Progressi

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    TCI: Industrialism and theProgressive Response

    California State Standard: 11.2 Students analyze the relationship amongthe rise of industrialization, large scale rural-to-urban migration, and

    massive immigration form Southern and Eastern Europe

    United States HistoryMr. Albert Celis

    NOW Academy

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    California State Standards:11.2 Students analyze the relationship among the rise of

    industrialization, large scale rural-to-urban migration, and massiveimmigration from Southern and Eastern Europe

    1. Know the effects of industrialization on living and workingconditions.

    2. Describe the changing landscape, including the growth ofcities linked by industry and trade, and the development of cities

    divided according to race, ethnicity, and class. 4. Analyze the effect of urban political machines and responsesto them by immigrants and middle class reformers

    5. Discuss corporate mergers that produced trusts and cartelsand the economic and political policies of industrial leaders.

    6. Trace the economic development of the United States and itsemergence as a major industrial power, including its gains fromtrade and the advantages of its physical geography.

    9. Understand the effect of political programs and activities ofthe Progressives.

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    2.2A: The Rise of Industrialism

    What do you see in this slide?

    How many women do you see? What are theydoing?

    How was this kind of work done before sewingmachines were invented?

    How do you think using sewing machines changedthese womens work?

    How might widespread use of machines havechanged American society?

    In this slide we see seamstresses working in a textilefactory around the turn of the century.

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    2.2A: The Rise of Industrialism

    The rise of industrialism - a change in productionfrom hand craftsmanship to machine manufacturing -meant that more goods began to be produced bymachines. Sweeping technological developmentsbrought about major societal changes, ranking theUnited States first in the world for industrial goods.

    Key factors in Industrial Growth:

    First, an abundant supply of natural resources suchas coal, oil, and iron.

    Second, improved transportation methods expandedtrade from coast to coast.

    Third, the American population shifted from ruralareas to urban centers.

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    2.2B: Invention and Innovation

    What do you see here?

    What do you see on the top of the building?

    Why do you think the builders are making it higher?

    What technological advancements allowed theconstruction of such buildings?

    Why do you think buildings such as this one werenecessary in an increasingly urbanized age?

    In this slide we see a skyscraper that was built inNew York City in 1901.

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    2.2B: Invention and Innovation

    The Spirit of Innovation - between 1860 and 1900,the U.S. Patent Office granted over 676,000 patentsto inventors of machines, techniques, and tools.

    Steel Is King - No single innovation affectedtechnological change more than the development ofsteel production.

    Electricity Becomes Widespread - The introduction ofelectricity for widespread commercial and domesticuse spurred innovation in technology.

    Machines Increase Production - Inventors attention tomachines created a rush of new production methods.

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    2.2C: Industrial Leaders

    What do you see here?

    Describe the man on the left? What are the other people doing? Why do you thin

    the man is the focus of so much attention?

    What do you think he does for a living?

    This is John D. Rockefeller; founder of Standard OilCompany, one of the largest U.S. corporationsaround 1900.

    How might men like Rockefeller have helped

    industrialize the United States.

    In this slide we see John D. Rockefeller, founder ofStandard Oil Company.

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    2.2C: industrial Leaders

    Industrial Giants - Industrialism led to enormousbusiness enterprises, pioneered by men whopossessed a combination of leadership, bold risktaking, long-range vision, and competitive drive. Astheir companies became wealthy and powerful, so

    did the owners, whose names acquired householdfame that overshadowed that of former statesmen.

    John D. Rockefeller and Oil - Came to control 90percent of the oil industry in the country. Heattempted to monopolize the oil industry

    Andrew Carnegie and Steel - A contemporary ofRockefellers, was equally successful in big business.Carnegies company produced one fourth of thenations steel.

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    2.2D: Trust and Government Corruption

    What do you see here?

    Whom do the men standing, wearing top hats,represent?

    Who are the men at the desks?

    What is the significance of the closed door in the

    upper left corner? What is the intended message of the cartoonist?

    In this slide we see a cartoon entitled Bosses of the

    Senate from Puck magazine. The cartoon showsthe huge trusts and monopolies overseeing the workof the U.S. Senate - which, according to the cartoon,is of, by, and for the monopolists.

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    2.2D: Trusts and Government Corruption

    The Rise of Industrial Trust - As industrialismprogressed, businesses combined competingcompanies into monstrous firms called trusts. Trustshad centralized management; stockholders placedtheir stocks in trustees hands to make all decisions

    for the firm about prices, use of raw materials, andlabor relations.

    Trusts Influence Government Affairs - As theybecame rich and powerful, owners of trusts

    manipulated the government at the federal, state, andlocal levels. Industrial giants ran for governmentoffices, made generous contributions to politicalcandidates, and bribed legislators.

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    2.2E: Criticism and Defense of Big Business

    What do you see here?

    How are these men dressed?

    What does their appearance reveal about their statusin society? Who do you think is the richest man in

    the group? Why? How do you think these men became so wealthy?

    Do wealthy businessmen benefit the United States?

    In this slide we see Andrew Carnegie (center, withthe white beard) surrounded by a group of businessleaders.

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    2.2E: Criticism and Defense of Big Business

    Wealthy Americans Face Criticism - By the turn of thecentury, the grand monopolies and their wealthyowners began to face public criticism. Critics of bigbusiness decried the wide gap between the wealthand power of industrialists and average Americans.

    The material worth of 1 percent of the population wasgreater than that of the other 99 percent combined.

    Industrialists Defend Big Business - They argued thatthey had taken the greatest risks in investing their

    resources into industries and therefore were entitledto business profits.

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    2.2F: The Impact of Industrialism

    What do you se here?

    Where are these men working?

    Under what conditions do they work?

    What hazards might they face?

    How would you feel if you had to work long hours in

    this steel mill?

    In this slide we see steel workers in AndrewCarnegies steel mill in Homestead, Pennsylvania.

    Hard manual labor, dangerous working conditions,low pay, and long hours were typical of the jobs inmost of the factories that flourished during theIndustrial era.

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    2.2F: The Impact of Industrialism

    Industrialization Benefits the Middle Class - Nationalwealth and income grew significantly between thelate 1800s and the 1920s. Many middle-classAmericans experienced greater comforts andconveniences in daily life.

    Life for Average Americans - Viewed industrialismthrough a lens of drudgery and hardship. Themajority of the population still used candlepower intheir homes, had no indoor plumbing or heating,cooked on wood-fed stoves, and could not afford a

    telephone. Industrial Working Conditions - American laborers

    often faced deplorable working conditions. Men andwomen regularly worked 10 to 12 hours a day, sixdays a week.

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    2.2G: Change and Discrimination in the Work Force

    What do you see here?

    Where was the photograph taken?

    Describe the people in the photograph?

    How old are they? What are they doing?

    How many hours do you think they work a day? What would it be life to work under these conditions?

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