Unit 1: Agrarianism to Industrialism Part 1 Notes . Chapters 13. Growth of the mining industry. Prior to the discovery of gold in the Dakota Territory, previous events in other western regions created similar industries. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Unit 1: Agrarianism to IndustrialismPart 1 Notes Chapters 13
Growth of the mining industryPrior to the discovery of gold in the Dakota Territory, previous events in other western regions created similar industries.The mining industry grew out of the discoveries in Colorado and Navada prior to the Dakota discovery.After the Civil War, many Americans headed west to build cattle ranches on the Great Plains (a regions extending west to the Rocky mtns)Many Americans thought the conditions were too harsh and challenging The Texas Longhorn (descended from Spanish cattle) adapted to the harsh conditions of the Great PlainsMexicans had begun cattle ranching in New Mexico, California, and Texas
Open RangeA vast area of grassland owned by the federal governmentallowed cattle ranching to growProvided areas for ranchers to graze their herds of cattle free of charge
A trail drive on the Matador Range of Texas, around 1910. Even long after the era of the great cattle drives, short drives like this one to the railhead at Lubbock, Texas, remained a part of cowboy life. Photographed by Irwin E. Smith.
4Range Warssheepherders moved their sheep onto the open range and began to block the cattle trails they caused "range wars" among those groups
Barbed wire was used to fence off the open ranges, which led to the end of the long cattle drives
Reasons for decline:Range wars, investors, bad extended winters
F. Inventions used to move out West Barbed wire- In 1873, Joseph Glidden developed a way of making fencing cheaply by twisting together sections of wire into barbed points.
With this invention, farmers could cheaply and efficiently fence in 160 acres of land. This caused a conflict between the ranchers, who grazed their cattle on the open range and managed long drive (transporting of cattle from ranges to the cow towns which had railroads.)6Ranching and cattle drivesThe Chisholm Trail was a trail that cowboys used to move cattle to a railroad line for sale.At first, ranchers saw barbed wire as a threat because it kept their herds from roaming freely.The long driveBy the end of the Civil War railroads had reached the Great Plains
Cattle ranchers made a ten times the profit by driving their cattle north to the railroad so they could be shipped east
1866-rancher rounded up thousands of longhorns and cattle and drove them to Sedalia, Missouri
the Chisholm Trail became a major trail north
Ranching becomes big businessThe Civil War and the building of railroads changed the demand for cattle
Large amounts of cattle were slaughtered to feed the armies
After the war beef prices soared making cattle driving the biggest business of the Mid-West
Geography of the PlainsIn the 1890s, some farmers tried to survive by mortgaging their land.Dry farming-the land was so bad that they had to dig deeper for moist land to grow crops
Sodbusters plowed the soil on the Great PlainsVery dry, only 20 inches of rain per year
Stephen Long-1819, he led an expedition through the GP and declared it to be a desert and not fit for settlement
Cornelius Vanderbilt owned the New York Central became rich from railroadInventions used to move out West Railroad This early mechanization of agriculture gave farmers the ability to produce for themselves a surplus supplies of grain and animal products. The best way to move these products to the major cities was by railroad. More than any other development, the railroad revolutionized the development of farming and industrial regions west of the Mississippi.
11The beginnings of settlementThe lifestyle of someone living in the Great Plains was very challenging and often difficult.RAILROADS advertised the plains as the ticket to prosperityNebraskan claimed farming would increase rainfall there1870s-rain fell increased above avg. and changed ideas of GP being a desertHomestead Acta law that helped support the growth of the Great PlainsPeople could register for $10 and own 160 acres of land and get the title to it after living there for five years
The Wheat BeltBonanzas-large profitable wheat farms1860s-farmers used new machines to farm the Great Plains-steel plows, reapers, and threshing machines
New technology allowed wealthy land owners to grow large tracts of wheat, or bonanza farms and this area became known as the Wheat BeltThe wheat-growing region that started at the eastern edge of the Great Plains and moved further westward
Closing the FrontierBuffalo Bill Cody:Men like Buffalo Bill Cody were hired to kill buffaloHe was an experienced and smart hunter who knew how to evade (escape from) Native Americans Some companies sold the hide and others wanted to free the plains of these animals for settlers
Native AmericansThe native American population in America suffered a dramatic decline between 1850-1900 as a result of the dramatic decline in the buffalo population.Most of the Native Am living in the GP were nomadsPlains Indians were divided into bands of 500 people each
A council headed each band
Gender determined their tasks
Religion was based on the power of the natural world
Charles Rath, famous buffalo hunter, seated on rick of 40,000 hides in Robert Wright's Dodge City hide yard in 1878 Stacks of buffalo hides towered along Front Street. - filthy buffalo hunters and traders filled the town's establishments - and the term "stinker" was coined. Train-masters would take their red caboose lanterns along when visiting the town's "soiled doves" - and the term "red light district" came to life. 16Cultures under pressureNative Americans resented broken promises & treaties by the US government, they attacked ranches and wagon trains-led to war
Annuities-payment given to the NA once a yearTraders usually tricked the NA out of their moneyWho was the leader of the Sioux?Chief Sitting Bull
18166. What event resulted in over 200 unarmed Sioux being massacred by US troops in 1890? What? Massacre at Wounded Knee Who? Sioux Indian leader, Sitting Bull and US Army Details - Wovoka, a prophet of the Sioux, developed a religious ritual called the Ghost Dance. The Sioux believed this dance would bring back the buffalo and return the Native American tribes to their land. White settlers were afraid and called on the US Army. They thought Sitting Bull was leading an revolt and arrested him. Why? The Ghost Dance alarmed white settlers around the Sioux reservations, and they called on the US Army for help. Result - While the Indians were handing over their weapons in surrender, someone fired a shot. The soldiers then opened fire, killing more than 200 unarmed Sioux (including nearly 70 women and children) 19Massacre at Wounded Knee
Ghost DanceThe Ghost dance replaced the Buffalo dance when the buffalo disappeared from the plains. It's practice swept across the west fanned by the desperation of a proud people destroyed by the humiliation of welfare. It culminated in the tragedy of Wounded Knee. In the belief that the dance would help to bring about the return of the buffalo, their ancestors and their way of life, they danced until they dropped unconscious to the ground.
200 unarmed Sioux killed Including nearly 70 women and children20Ranchers vs. IndiansChief Little Crow led an uprising against Dakota traders over foodSioux chiefs Red Cloud, Crazy Horse, and Sitting Bull rebelled and decided to fight to keep their lands1866-Red Cloud's forces defeated the US army in Montana (Fettermans Massacre)1864-Colonel John Chivington was ordered to attack Chief Black Kettle and his tribe who came to meet the US to discuss a peace treaty. His troops killed hundreds of women, children but he was never charged
Indian Peace Commision1867-two large reservations were created, one for the Sioux and the other for the Plains Indians
Indians refused to move to the reservations Those who did faced harsh conditions
The Dawes Act of 1887:Turning Tomahawks into PlowsharesAbove are before/after photographs of Tom Torlino, a Navajo who was "civilized" at an Indian Training School.
Below is a map showing land held by Native American tribes before the Dawes Act and 100 years later.
23The last Native American Wars1870s-many NA had left the reservationsThe could not hunt the buffalo and settlers had killed many of themProfessional hunters killed thousands of buffalo for their hides others just for sportRailroad Co. hired hunters to kill buffalo blocking the tracks
George A. Custer1876-gold miners raided reservations looking for gold minesJune 25, 1876-Custer attacked one of the largest groups of NA tribes (2,500) ever assembled with only 210 soldiers and they were all killed
Ghost DanceDancing welcomed the day the buffalo would returnUS government banned ghost dancingWounded Knee Creek25 Soldiers and more than 200 NA killed
AssimilationA Century of Dishonor (Helen Jackson)-describes the govts broken promises and attacks on NASome Americans believe NA situation would change if they could assimilate and become landownersAllotments-NA reservations were broken up into separate pieces of land Much of the land was not suitable for farming
Dawes ActGeneral Allotment ActThe US government attempted to settle Indians on plots of land to farmResult:Many Indians had no interest or experience in agricultureMany simply sold their lands to speculators for outrageously low pricesNative Americans were plunged deeper into poverty
Unit 1: Map ActivityYour mission: Label and color the map on your own paper!Label each stateabbreviate (RA6-7)Page 417:2 oceans, big lakes (blue)Rocky Mtns (brown triangles)Cattle Trails (red)6 major R