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Welcome to Module 2
Listening and Feedback Intrapersonal and Interpersonal
Communication Conflict Management Negotiations Group Communications Mass Communications Intercultural Communications
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Difference between listening and hearing. Hearing is a physical ability. Listening is a skill. Listening skills allow one to make sense of and
understand what another person is saying.
In other words, listening skills allow you to understand what someone is "talking about.
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Listening and Feedback
Art of hearing and understanding Making sense out of what we hear LLook IIdentify SSet-up TTune in EExamine NNote
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Reasons for poor listening
Fatigue Stress Lack of time
Intentional barriers Tuning out Wanting to be entertained Avoiding the difficult Letting emotions take over
Reasons for poor listening
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Good listening skills make workers more productive. The ability to listen carefully will allow you to: better understand assignments and what is expected of you; build rapport with co-workers, bosses, and clients; show support; work better in a team-based environment; resolve problems with customers, co-workers, and bosses; answer questions; and find underlying meanings in what others say.
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Why You Need Good Listening Skills
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Business Communication Feedback
Feedback can be oral or written message, or action, or simply silence.
Receiver reacts with either the desired response based on clear understanding or undesired response because of miscommunication.
Feedback is needed to determine the success or failure of the communication.
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Praise and criticism are provided: during the speech (nonverbally) after the speech (applause, explicit discussion, written comments by the instructor and peers)
You are responsible and accountable for the praise and criticism you provide.
Criticizing the speech is not criticizing the person.
Interpersonal skills - these skills refer to face to face or person to person communication
It is often direct and interactive The message is orally communicated with words as well as through body language, facial expressions, tone, gestures and action. Effective interpersonal communication calls for good insight into human behavior and a clear understanding of how people react under different situations
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Training and other HRD efforts focus on developing interpersonal skills How you say what you say Good leaders use their interpersonal skills to create the right impression Effective communication builds trust and gains confidence.
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The word intra means inside or within.
It refers to the communication within the self involving the process of thinking and feeling.
It can also be understood as self talk.
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Self talk is recognized as a self dialogue or inner speech. What u say to yourself during your waking hours.
Self talk when used properly can help overcoming emotional distress. Understanding audience psychology Building your confidence Reading skills
What is Conflict?
Conflict is when two or more values, perspectives and opinions are contradictory in nature and haven't been aligned or agreed about yet.
Conflict is inevitable and often good.
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Environmental Stress- Scarcity- Uncertainty
Causes of Conflicts
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Business CommunicationConflict is often needed
Helps to raise and address problems.
Energizes work to be on the most appropriate issues.
Helps people "be real", for example, it motivates them to participate.
Helps people learn how to recognize and benefit from their differences.
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Conflict is not the same as discomfort.
The conflict isn't the problem - it is when conflict is poorly managed that is the problem.
smoothing Compromise Competition/forcing Collaboration/
Common Conflict Response Patterns
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Listen. Understand the other point of view. Show concern for the relationship. Look for common ground. Invent new problem-solving options. Reach a fair agreement.
Six-Step Procedure for Dealing With Conflict
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Clear the air. If youre on a team with someone who seems
consistently irritated with you, ask for a private meeting.
Solicit feedback; listen without interrupting and with an open mind.
Request permission to respond with equal openness.
Strategies for Effective Conflict Resolution
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Business CommunicationConflict is destructive when it -
Takes attention away from other important activities
Undermines morale or self-concept
Polarizes people and groups, reducing cooperation
Increases or sharpens differences
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Business CommunicationConflict is constructive when it -
Results in clarification of important problems and issues
Results in solutions to problems
Involves people in resolving issues important to them
Causes authentic communication
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Helps release emotion, anxiety, and stress
Builds cooperation among people through learning more about each other
Joining in resolving the conflict
Helps individuals develop understanding and skills
Conflict is constructive when it -
Business CommunicationApproach Objective Your Posture Supporting
Rationale Likely Outcome
Forcing Get your way. I know whats right. Dont question my judgment or authority.
It is better to risk causing a few hard feelings than to abandon a position you are committed to.
You feel vindicated, but other party feels defeated and possibly humiliated.
Avoiding Avoid having to deal with conflict.
Im neutral on that issue. Let me think about it.
Disagreements are inherently bad because they create tension.
Interpersonal problems dont get resolved, causing long-term frustration manifested in a variety of ways.
Accommodating Dont upset the other person.
How can I help you feel good about this encounter? My position isnt so important that it is worth risking bad feelings between us.
Maintaining harmonious relationships should be our top priority.
Other person is likely to take advantage of you.
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Approach Objective Your Posture Supporting Rationale Likely Outcome
Compromising Reach an agreement quickly.
Lets search for a mutually agreeable solution.
Prolonged conflicts distract people from their work and engender bitter feelings.
Participants become conditioned to seek an expedient, rather than effective solution.
Collaborating Solve the problem together.
This is my position. What is yours? Im committed to finding the best possible solution.
The positions of both parties are equally important (though not necessarily equally valid). Equality emphasis should be placed on the quality of the outcome and the fairness of the decision-making.
Participants find an effective solution.
Styles of Conflict Management
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Negotiation is any form of meeting or discussion in which you and / or the persons you are in contact with use argument and persuasion to achieve an agreed decision or action.
Negotiation is a process of bargaining in which two parties each of whom have something that the other wants, try to reach an agreement, on mutually accepted terms.
Eg; A brother and a sister debating on the choice of a movie A salesman trying to arrange a meeting with a prospective
wholesaler/ dealer Two friends trying to settle the amount for which one wants
to sell his old car to the other
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Negotiation takes place between two parties. Both the parties are equally interested in an agreed action/result.
Negotiation reaches agreement through discussion, not instruction, orders or power/influence/authority.
Negotiation is a form of communication where the objective is agreement.
The Nature of NegotiationNEGOTIATION
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PLACE: The Place of meetings for negotiations influences the
level of confidence Choosing a place, like your own office has many
advantages. You are in the area of great strength You can get whatever information/material Is needed
during the course of negotiations
Factors affecting NegotiationNEGOTIATION
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TIME: The choice of time for holding discussions should be
fixed according to mutual convenience. Time should be adequate for the smooth exchange of
ideas through different stages of negotiation. Exchanging initial views. Exploring possible compromise. Searching for common ground. Securing Agreement.
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Factors affecting Negotiation
Continued. The time to prepare for negotiation & time for
implementing the agreement should also be carefully fixed for action before & after the meeting.
To be effective, negotiations should be timely. That means it should be done before it is too late to secure an agreement.
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Personal Relationship Conduct of negotiation is influenced not only by the real
situation of the matter but also by the relationship between two persons /parties involved in the process of discussion.
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The final outcome of negotiation is determined by subjective factors of influence & persuasion.
Fear Our bargaining power is conditioned by our fear of power,
authority, higher connections & the capacity to harm enjoyed by the other party.
Future considerations When personal relationships are at stake we may not wish
to win the argument in the negotiations in case the good relations between the parties are likely to be affected.
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Mutual Obligation The memories of good done in the past by the
other party also acts as negative influence, fear on us.
Practical Wisdom Fear of losing good future chances is a strong
factor in our bargaining /negotiation positions & power.
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Skills for convincing other people of the need to accept or agree to a course of action.
This is essential element of effective business communication.
It helps in resolving the issues about which 2 persons have different views but they need to agree about solutions in the interest of all.
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Persuasion is not just one single thing.It is mixture of skills--- attitude, psychology, language, tone, body language.
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Style. Your attitude. Talking & listening. Probing & questioning. Using breaks when necessary. Using Concessions & Compromise. Summarizing. Reaching an agreement
NEGOTIATIONPersuasion - Different Persuasive skills
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Stages of negotiation process
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Negotiator has to be prepared before the actual process of negotiation starts in two respects.
Assessing the relative strength of the two parties
The setting of negotiating objectives. At this stage the negotiator should try to answer the following 2 questions.
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What are the real Issue? Which parties should be involved? Be realistic about the objectives
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The parties begin by defining the issues. They argue about the scope of negotiation.
Each side then puts forward what is seeking or first the party that makes a claim presents its case, the other party gives a initial response. Thus both the parties define their initial positions.
The Negotiating Phase
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After that comes a more open phase in which the initial positions are tested through argument.
The partiers then move to a possible solution that could be the argument's outcome.
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The Negotiating Phase
Firm proposals in more specific terms are then made, discussed & often modified before both the parties accept them.
Finally an agreement is spelt out & concluded.
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The Negotiating Phase
The purpose of negotiation is to achieve an agreement; the purpose of an agreement should be to implement the agreed decision/outcome.
If due attention is not paid to the implementation part of a negotiation, negotiations will fail
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Mass Communication(Communicating with large audience Presentation)
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Mass communication occurs when a message is sent to large group of people via the medium of newspaper, radio, or television.
In this process each person becomes a faceless individual with almost no opportunity for personal response or feedback. The distance between the sender and the audience is also massive.
Modes of mass communication
NEWSPAPERS AND MAGAZINES NOTICE BOARD HOARDINGS AND BILL BOARDS RADIO TELEVISION FILM INTERNET
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A presentation is a live mode of sharing information with a select audience.
It is a form of oral communication in which person shares factual infor...