Cold war begins

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  • 1. The Cold War Begins

2. Background:

  • After WW II, the US and USSR emerged as rival superpowers.
  • Each nation was strong enough to greatly influence world events.

Stalin Premier of USSR Harry Truman President of the USA 3. Satellite Nations

  • Stalin never allowed truly free elections.
  • Instead, communist governments were installed in many Eastern European nations.
  • Main Purpose?
    • Protect USSR from invasion from the West
    • Buffer Zone

4. Containment Policy

  • George Kennan, career Foreign Service Officer
  • Formulated the policy of containment:
    • US would not get rid of communism, but would not allow it to spread.
    • US would contain communism where it already existed.

5. The Iron Curtain

  • Winston Churchill coined this term
  • Famous speech on March 5, 1946 at Westminster College, in Fulton, Missouri
  • Click for video

6. 7. Churchills Warning

  • Churchill felt that behind the Iron Curtain, the USSR was planning to attack and conquer Western Europe
  • The world is nowpolarizedinto democracy vs. communism

8. Division of Germany

  • The Allies decided to divide Germany into 4 zones after the war.
  • Also, the capital of Berlin was divided into 4 sectors.

9. 10. 11. Problem with Berlin?

  • Berlin was in the Soviet Sector.
  • Stalin was not happy with a small piece of democracy in Eastern Europe.

12. Berlin Blockade

  • June 1948, Stalin attempts to starve West Berliners into submission.
  • All rail and street access was blocked.

13. Berlin Airlift

  • American and British planes flew food and supplies into Berlin for 327 days
    • Planes took off every 3 minutes for 10 months
  • Stalin relents in May 1949
  • Official start of Cold War

14. 15. The Marshall Plan

  • J une 1947, U.S. plan to give direct aid to European nations
  • Rationale: fewer poor nations = fewer communist nations
  • Canada contributed $706 million out of $12.5 billion over 5 years
  • Example ofcontainmen t

US Secretary of StateGeorge Marshall Labeling used on aid packages 16. The Berlin Wall

  • 1961 skilled workers crossing in huge numbers to West Berlin
  • East German economy about to collapse
  • Berlin wall built physical and symbolic barrier between East and West
  • Wall came down in 1989 signalled end of Cold War

Berlin wall in 1986 death strip Officer Conrad Schumann defectingto West Berlin during the wall's early days in 1961.