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  1. 1. CONTENTS 1.Introduction 2.A City 3.Investigation & Data Collection: Ancient and Old Cities 4.Investigation & Data Collection: Present Cities 5. Investigation& Data Collection: Future Cities 6.The New X City-GALAXTY 7 .The Conclusion
  2. 2. Introduction In this Element in Natural and Built Environment (ENBE) Final Project, we are assigned to design our own better future city.which are sustainable. Before designing the new city, students are required to differentiate and analyze the different development of the built enviroment by looking at the natural topography,landscape,space,building and infrastructure. The Project is split into two parts which is Part A and Part B -Part A(individual,20%) :an A4 report and presentation slide of both our understanding along with the proposed town. -Part B (Group,20%) :Maximum of 3 A2 presentation board and a physical model of the chosen town. We will need to establish certain condition and rules as follows; -The size of XCity Should be 20-40kilometer square -The population in between 150,000-300,000 -The people of XCity are Malaysian -You should create a new name for XCity Besides that, students are required to investigate, collect data and understand the type of city that our group have selected. Throughout the process of this project, we can understand elements of natural and built environment better as well as the symbiotic co-relationship of the elements.
  3. 3. 2. A CITY 2.1 What is a City A city is a large and permanent human settlement. Although there is no agreement on a city is distinguished from a town within English Language,cities have been called the highest form of social organisation which include systems of sanitation,utilities,housing, and transportation. 2.2 What is the brief history? In 1950 Golden Childen attempted to define a historic city with 10 general metrics.[9] These are: 1. Size and density of the population should be above normal. 2. Differentiation of the population. Not all residents grow their own food, leading to specialists. 3. Payment of taxes to a deity or king. 4. Monumental public buildings. 5. Those not producing their own food are supported by the king. 6. Systems of recording and practical science. 7. A system of writing. 8. Development of symbolic art. 9. Trade and import of raw materials. 2.3 What makes a good city -Excellent public transport -Public Infrastucture(public drinking fountain ) -Excellent parks -Great clean public spaces -well laid out neighbourhood -Zones markes out for residential,commercial purpose -less carbon emission -sustainable environment
  4. 4. Zoning Zoning describes the control by authority of the land use of land,and the buiding thereon.Zoning is a technique of land- use planning as a tool of urban planning used by local goverments in most develop countries.Zoning may include regulation of the kinds of activities which will be acceptable On particular lots such as: -open space,residential,recreational,agricultural,commercial or industrial -densities at which those activities can be performed -the height of building -the amount of space structures may occupy -the location of a building on the lot(set backs) -the proportions of the types of a space on at lot -greenspace Components i)Commercial Commercial areas in a city can take up about 5% of a citys land.Eventhough these commercial activities use only small amount of land, they play an important role to a communitys economy. -Office Complex -Shopping malls -Service station -Restaurants -Bank -Sports arena -Healthcare(Medical Centre,Pharmacy,Dentists.Vets) ii)Open Space In land use planning, open space is areas for parks, green space and other open areas.The benefits that urban open space provides to citizen can be broken into three basics form:recreation,ecology and aesthetic value.
  5. 5. iii)Residential There are different type of residential buidings such as: -Apartment Block -Asylum -Condominium -Duplex -House -Nursing home -townhouse -Villa -Bungalow Infrastructure Transportation i)Transport infrastructure consists of the fixed installations including -roads -railways -airways -waterways -canals i)Public Transport consist of: -buses -trolleybuses -trams -rapid transit(metro/subways) -taxi -high speed train ii)Human-Powered Human powered transport is a form of sustainable transportation such as walking,running and cycling
  6. 6. 3.Investigation & Data Collection Ancient/Past Cities 1)Tenochtitlan/Mexico What was significant about the city? Tenochtitlan was an Aztec altepeti(city state) located on an island in Lake Texcoco,in the Valley of Mexico.It was the largest city in the Pre-Columbian Americas.Tenochtitlan covered an estimated 8 to 13.5kilometer square,situated on the western side of the shallow Lake Texcoco.It was connected to the mainland by causeways leading north,south and west of the city.These causeways were interrupted by bridges that allowed canoes and other traffic to pass freely.The bridges could be pulled away, if necessary, to defend the city.Besides, the city was interlaced with a series of canals, so that all sections of the city could be visited either on foot or via canoe.The city was divided into four zones,each zones was divided on 20 districts and each big house was crossed by streets.There were three main streets that crossed the city,each leading to one of the three causeways to the mainland .Surrounding the raised causeways were artificial floating garden with canal waterways and gardens of plants,shrubs, and trees. The big house were divided by channels used for transportation,with wood bridges that were removed at night.In the centre of the buildling were the public builiding,temples and prostis. What information will you consider for your better city? They did not have proper places to builf farms and gardens so they made garden on platforms in the water called chinmapas.Their road connected to the main land.
  7. 7. 2)Mohenjo-daro/Pakistan Mohenjo-daro is an archeological site in the province of Sindh,Pakistan, it built around 2600 BC.It was one of the worlds earliest major urban settlements,contemporaneous with the civilizations of the ancient Egypt,Mesopotamia and Crete.Mohenjo-daro has a planned layout bases on a street grid of rectilinear buildings. Most of that were built of fired and mortared brick; some incorporated sun dried mud brick and wooden superstructures.The area covered by the city is estimated at 300 hectares.The estimation of peak population is at around 40,000.The provision of public buildings and facilitiesa and the sheer size of the city ,suggest a higher level of social organization.The city is divided into two parts, so-called Citadel and the Lower City.The Citadel- a mud- brick mound around 12 meters(39ft) high is known to have supported public baths,a large residential structure designed to house about 5,000 citizens, and two large assembly halls.The city had a central marketplace,with a large central well.Individual households or groups of households obtained their water from smaller wells. Waste water was channeled to cover drains that lined the major streets. CITY PLAN
  8. 8. THE COURTYARD HOUSE The house was planned as a series of rooms opening on to a central courtyard providing an open space inside for community activities. There were no openings toward the main street only rathr small openings to the side streets. . Brick stairways provided access to the upper floors or rooftop gardens. The houses are believed to have flat, timber roofs. Houses built with a perimeter wall and adjacent houses were separated by a narrow space of land. There were just a few fairly standardized layouts, perhaps an indication of a fairly egalitarian society. But not all houses had two stories and only the larger houses have their own wells. There are also rows of single-roomed barracks, perhaps for singles, soldiers or slaves.
  9. 9. Almost every house had a bathroom, usually a fine sawn burnt brick pavement, often with a surrounding curb. Waste water was directed to covered drains, which lined the major streets. First floor bathrooms also built. There is also evidence of vertical drains which were probably their toilet. The house drains start from the bathrooms of the houses and join up to the main sewer in the street, which was covered by brick slabs or corbelled brick arches. On the streets we can find manholes for cleaning; some drains flow to closed seeps, others flow out of the city. What information will you consider for your better city? The Drainage system they apply in the city.
  10. 10. 4)Investigation &Data Collection Present Cities 1)Venice,Italy Venice has been known as the The Floating City .Venice is built on an archipelago of 117 islands formed by 177 canals in a shallow lagoon,connected by 409 bridges.In the old centra ,the canals serve the function of roads ,and almost every form of transport is on water or on foot.Venice is Europes largest urban car-free area.The classicals Venetian boat is the gondola which is now mostly used for tourists or for weddings tp cross the Canale Grande in the absence of nearby bridge.The main public transportation are motorised waterbuses which play regular routes along the Grand Canal and between the citys islands.Venice is serviced by regional and national trains which can connect the city to Rome and Milan.Venice is also served by the Marco Polo International Airport which is possible to reach by public transport. What information will you consider for your better city. Zero Carbon emission from motor car because almost every form of transport in on water or on foot.
  11. 11. 2)Amsterdam, Netherlands Amsterdam is located in the western Netherlands,North Holland.The river Amstel terminates in the city centre and connects to a large numbers of canals that eventually terminate in the IJ.Amsterdam is situated 2 metres below sea level.The surround