Light energy*  Chemical bond energy (ATP*) Energy is stored in the chemical bonds of glucose ATP* hydrolysis  ADP + Pi + energy* 6CO 2 + 12H 2 O (H source)

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  • Light energy* Chemical bond energy (ATP*)Energy is stored in the chemical bonds of glucoseATP* hydrolysis ADP + Pi + energy*6CO2 + 12H2O (H source) + energy* glucose*

  • To synthesize organic molecules, it takes energy and reducing power.ATPSource of attachable H.

  • To retrieve energy from glucose:1. strip away high energy electrons from the chemical bonds of glucose2. this is oxidation (loss of electrons)3. cellular respiration is a two-step process:remove electronsuse the energy in those electrons

  • Glycolysisoccurs in the cytoplasm of all living organismsenzymatic splitting of glucoseyields 2 pyruvatesnet gain of 2 ATP and 2 NADH*

  • Substrate-level phosphorylationNet gain of 2 ATP per glucose

  • 2 electrons removed and carried on NADH x2

  • Pyruvate oxidized (by NAD+)One C removed as CO2Coenzyme A is addedLeaves acetyl-CoA

  • Acetyl-CoA can have many fates:ATP synthesis (in mitochondrial matrix)fat synthesislipid synthesisamino acid synthesis

  • 2 CO23 NADH1 FADH21 ATPoriginal 4-C sugar

  • Electron Transport System

  • Photosynthesis vs. Cellular Respirationsource of high-energy electronsused electrons cannot be recycled in mitochondria

  • Net results

  • ATP production decreases when ATP is plentiful.

  • Animal cells convert pyruvate to lactic acid in the absence of O2Makes NAD+ available so glycolysis can continue

  • Yeast cells convert pyruvate to ethanol in the absence of O2


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