Text of Manifest Destiny. John O’Sullivan Newspaper Editor Coins the Phrase Manifest Destiny in 1845 "(It...
John OSullivan Newspaper Editor Coins the Phrase Manifest Destiny in 1845 "(It is)..our manifest destiny to over spread and to possess the whole of the continent which Providence has given us for the development of the great experiment of liberty"
Moses Austin 1820: He receives permission from Mexican government to establish a colony in Texas He is granted 200,000 acres and permission to bring 300 settlers. Unfortunately he dies on the return trip to begin recruiting settlers.
Stephen Austin Son of Moses Austin Takes over responsibility of organizing the colony in Texas Austin and his handpicked settlers begin to arrive in December of 1821 This original group of settlers is known as: The Old Three Hundred
Stephen Austin Father of Texas
Republic of Texas Over the next decade, nearly 25,000 more settlers come to Texas Upset the Mexican government based on the original agreement limiting the number of settlers allowed. 1833: Stephen Austin meets with Santa Anna requesting permission for Texas to become a separate state of Mexican Republic Austin is detained until 1835
Oct 1835 Fighting breaks out at the Battle of Gonzalez Sam Houston is appointed Commander-in-Chief of Texas forces Stephen Austin goes to D.C. as representative of Texas
Sam Houston Commander of Texas forces President of the Republic of Texas
Battle of the Alamo Feb 23-Mar 6 1836 Location of old Spanish Mission Santa Anna (Dictator/Military commander) puts the Alamo in siege status 6000 Mexican forces against roughly 250 Texans Defenders of the Alamo refused to surrender March 6 final attack all defenders are killed Remember the Alamo becomes battle cry
William Travis Commanded forces at the Alamo
JimBowie Inventor of famous Bowie Knife
Davy Crockett Tennessee volunteer Member House of Representatives from Tenn.
Massacre at Goliad March 27, 1836 Santa Anna follows up the Alamo with slaughter of Texan forces at Goliad Captured prisoners were divided into 3 groups and executed Remember Goliad added to the battle cries
Battle of San Jacinto April 21, 1836 Final battle of conflict Sam Houstons outnumbered army defeats Santa Annas troops Battle lasts around 20 minutes Santa Anna surrenders to a wounded Sam Houston
Treaty of Velasco Recognizes independence of Texas Spares the life of Santa Anna Sam Houston defeats Stephen Austin for president of Texas Houston later becomes a U.S. senator and governor of Texas Austin is appointed Secretary of State but dies shortly after Small skirmishes continued between Texas and Mexico up until the outbreak of the Mexican War.
James Polk and Expansion Two major issues pressing during his election and presidency: Annexation of Texas and Oregon Country Polk was much in favor or expansion Campaign slogan was 54 40 or Fight which was a reference to the dispute over the U.S./Canadian border
Oregon Treaty of 1846 Ended the dispute by establishing the permanent boundary at the 49 th Parallel
Annexation of Texas Texas statehood was creating sectional as well as foreign issues Adding Texas to the Union would stack the balance of power to slave states Adding Texas to the Union would likely start a war with Mexico Several bills to add Texas to the Union had been rejected
Texas Statehood December 29, 1845 President Polk signs documents admitting Texas as the 28 th state By doing so, the U.S. inherits the border dispute between Texas and Mexico Texas had claimed the Rio Grande River as the boundary where Mexico claimed the Nueces River as the boundary
Attempts at Negotiation November 10, 1845, Polk sends James Slidell on a secret mission to offer Mexican govt. 25,000,000 for territory to Rio Grande Mexican govt. refuses as an insult to national honor Polk sends General Zachary Taylor to the disputed area
Zachary Taylor Old Rough and Ready
April 25, 1846 Thornton Affair 70 man detachment led by Captain Seth Thornton was attacked by 2000 strong detachment of the Mexican cavalry 16 U.S. soldiers killed May 11, 1846, Polk addresses Congress to ask for a declaration of war against Mexico claiming American blood had been shed on American soil Congress declares war May 13, 1846
December 22, 1847 Abraham Lincoln issues the Spot Resolutions As a newly elected member of Congress, challenged President Polk to show the exact location of bloodshed of Americans
Winfield Scott Commander of U.S. forces during the Mexican War
Robert E. Lee Gained valuable military experience during Mexican War Commander of Southern forces during the Civil War
Ulysses S. Grant Gains valuable experience during Mexican War Commander of Union forces during Civil War
Thomas Jackson AKA Stonewall Gains valuable experience during Mexican War Lees most able general during the Civil War
Major Battles of the Mexican War Battle of Palo Alto: 1 st major engagement of the war Near present day Brownsville, Texas Battle of Buena Vista: Mexican army casualties totaled 3400 to Taylors 650 Mexican army claimed victory and retreated
Battles cont. Capture of Veracruz: Important port location for Mexican Army General Scott laid siege to the city Becomes important supply post for U.S. army Battle of Chapultepec: Mexican fort located outside of Mexico City and final protection Mexican casualties total 2000 while U.S. casualties total 450 Led to the capture of Mexico City and surrender of Mexican Army
Bear Flag Revolt Fighting in California against Mexican government Led by John C. Fremont Led to the formation of Republic of California
John C. Fremont Leader of the Bear Flag Revolt
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Signed Feb. 1848 Mexico cedes to the U.S. what is called: Mexican Cession Included all of present-day California, Nevada and Utah as well as most of Arizona, New Mexico and Colorado Mexico relinquished all claims to Texas and recognized the Rio Grande as the southern boundary of the United States
Gadsden Purchase 10 Million dollars to complete Manifest Destiny
Joseph Smith 1805-1844 Founder of the Mormon Religion Killed by an angry mob in Carthage, Illinois June 1844
Brigham Young 1801-1877 Leads Mormons to Utah 1847 Named president and prophet of the church inheriting authority of Joseph Smith 1851: Utah is organized as a territory with Young as the governor and head of Indian Affairs
Donner Party 87 pioneers left Missouri for California in May of 1846 Had planned on arriving in California by September but were trapped in the Sierra Nevada in November Mexican War delays attempts for rescue Reached by rescue party in February of 1847 Only 48 of the original party make it to California Survived by resorting to cannibalism.