1. Theoretical Preamble
2. Introduction –The Novel into Film; Mira Nair and the
3. Changez and his American Dream
4. Erica & Underwood Samson
5. The Development of his Anti-Americanism
6. Bobby Lincoln
7. Fundamentalism Defined
3: BEYOND EUROCENTRISM:
TRAUMA THEORY IN THE GLOBAL
1. Eurocentrism as exemplified in Caruth’s work (e.g. her
treatment of Hiroshima mon amour)
1.PTSD – a Western artefact (Allan Young)
2. “psychiatric universalism”
3. event-based, ignoring “normative, quotidian aspects of
trauma” Type II trauma, complex PTSD, etc. (49)
4.Beyond trauma aesthetics
3. Memory of Love by Aminatta Forna:
1) PTSD --disorder is their reality ("You call it a disorder, my
friend. We call it 1ife")
2) "witch doctor's treatment
3) silence as a coping mechanism
4: AFFECT, BODY, PLACE: TRAUMA
THEORY IN THE WORLD
1. Talk cure and mourning may not be ways out of
2. The use of songs – e.g. the post-Partition
trajectorγ of ‘viraha' or ‘longing caused by
3. ‘Bodhi‘ in front of a Cambodian museum--
4. kuduro, the Angolan electronic music-dance
Ananya Jahanara Kabir
-- born in 1971 in Lehore, Pakistan.
-- lived in the United States from age 3-9.
-- attended Princeton, spent a year at the Woodrow Wilson School of
Public and International Affairs, and then graduated from
Harvard School of Law in 1997.
-- worked for a while as a management consultant in New York City.
-- A secular Muslim, Hamid became a British citizen and, as of 2010,
lived in London with his wife, Zhara, where he worked part time
as a freelance journalist and brand analyst.
Moth Smoke – one man’s career of drug abuse, which
ends in a scandalous trial; fundamentalists (Fundo) in
Reluctant Fundamentalist – the writing started before
911, and continued after it.
"As someone who is naturally split between two cultures,
the fact that the cultures are becoming so increasingly
hostile to each other makes me much more unsettled
within myself." NPR Fresh Air interview with Terry
Gross on The Reluctant Fundamentalist (audio)
"I believe that the core skill of a novelist is empathy: the
ability to imagine what someone else might feel. And I
believe that the world is suffering from a deficit of
empathy at the moment." Harcourt interview on The
•Born in Orissa (Odisha), went to
Dehli U. and Harvard U
•11 years in Uganda, now in New
•Father raised in Lahore before
•Started with documentaries;
•Salaam Bombay! -- Camera d‘Or at
Cannes 坎城金棕櫚大獎 in 1988 and an
Academy Award nomination
•Mississippi Masala: America as a
big Masala, conflicts between the
two specific group of diaspora, Afro-
Americans and Indians.
Bollywood film is called masala film
MIRA NAIR (2)
10Kama Sutra: A Tale of Love (1996)
性典 –very controversial
Vanity Fair (2004) (浮華世界)
1. Changez’s American Dream? How is he disillusioned?
2. How is American culture presented by Changez in
terms of its Corporate culture and Erica? How about
its Pakistani counterpart?
3. Changez vs. Bobby: Similarities/Empathy & Differences?
Are they respectively involved in the local Asal
Mujahideen and CIA? What does the thriller genre add
to the sense of suspense?
4. Who are the fundamentalists?
5. Filmic presentation of the cities and their cultures?
CHANGEZ’S AMERICAN DREAM
1. Underwood Samson: Becoming a manager at the
age of 30, crying when given a tie pin
2. Erica: “I don't recognize my own voice anymore.”
0:33 Pretend I’m him.
3. Self-belittling humor –
• 00:21 -- “I'm gonna be the dictator of an Islamic Republic...
with nuclear capability.”
• 00:32 -- "Changez, throw a Burqa on me...and confiscate
my college degree, and take me home to Mama."
ERICA = AM-ERICA
1) Erica’s trauma 30:16 (Chris, who died 23
2) Her work 1:18 –What are the problems?
US = UNDERWOOD SAMSON
UNDERWOOD SAMSON –CHANGEZ
SOCIAL CLIMBING AND ALIENATION
Manila, Philippines -- 00:36
hide your virgins and your extra
layers of middle management...
'cause we're not here to play.
Istanbul, Turkey – 1:13
We're upping you.
You're the youngest associate in the history of
The father’s work
CHANGEZ BECOMES ALIENATED
• Before 911: at a party, welcome by Jim,
Erica’s father and Erica.
• 00:41 -- Seeing 911 attacks on TV “all I
felt was awe… a split second of pleasure”
• being targeted–
• asked to strip;
• violent verbal attack
• sent to the police station and interrogated
– modern-day janissaries 1:26
-- Teaching in college, he is engaged in anti-American protests
“00:41 Bobby: You teach a course in violent revolution at
Lahore University. Your lectures are full of anti American
1:42 Fazil: “The Americans speak of equality...then take a
hundred Muslim lives to avenge one life of their own.
They speak of democracy, then support kings and dictators.”
CHANGEZ’S VIEWS OF PAKISTANI
• his family: father a poet
• No “Pakistani dream”
• History of dictators and American intervention
SIMILARITIES & DIFFERENCES
BETWEEN THE TWO CITIES
Lahore and New York –congested, maze-like
C: You think I had something to do with
this kidnapping, Bobby?
B: I'm not the one you have to convince.
C: Is that the first lie you've told me today?
BOBBY – IN CHANGEZ’S EYES
0:44 These are the people who tore my office
apart. … you were there.
1:30 I see a man with hash under his
fingernails who likely smokes it alone.
I see the odd white man who lives in the old
quarter... and only ventures out to buy local
fruit and local girls. He's been here so long his
own blood family have forgotten him.
WHO IS THE RELUCTANT
1. “Focus on the fundamentals” to expand
2. Religious fundamentalists
3. Fundamentalists discriminating against or
eliminating the other races or cultures in
4. Changez: 01:44
Our only hope as a people are the fundamental
truths... given to us in the Q'uran.
We do that by focusing on the fundamentals
THE RELUCTANT FUNDAMENTALISTS -- CHANGEZ
AND BOBBY’S DIALOGUE FOR EMPATHY –IN A
For Understanding -- offering tea, Your book on Massoud,
fighting the Taliban. Great stuff
Thriller: Bobby’s unease, CIA surveillance, and impending
danger amidst many strangers, bats, students protest
-- “You're exposed and the clock is ticking on Rainier.”
Plea for understanding –
Bobby: Raineir -- We can protect your family, relocate
them… He's a friend, a mentor, like Jim Cross was to you.
These young men were engaged in their own valuation.
Just like Underwood Samson.
Moving human beings in and out of binary columns.
• eight minute duet called "Kangna", sung
by Ayaz and Mohammed for the opening
scene. creating both pleasure &
• Faiz Ahmed Faiz poetry based songs were
used in the film
SYMPATHY AND UNKNOWN NETWORK
THE FILM’S ENDING
Bobby writing the story
Buelens, Gert, Samuel Durrant &a