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Most tragic moment in American history---- the struggle for the heart and soul of America. Equality of all men in question Both sides fighting to preserve their traditions Brother vs brother---family vs family 1 out of 4 soldiers would die in this conflict 10,000 battles in the Civil War War has been called the War for Southern Independence and the War Against Northern Aggression.

Civil war from 1861 63

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  1. 1. Most tragic moment in American history----the struggle for the heart and soul of America. Equality of all men in questionBoth sides fighting to preserve their traditionsBrother vs brother---family vs family1 out of 4 soldiers would die in this conflict10,000 battles in the Civil War War has been called the War for Southern Independence and the War Against Northern Aggression.
  2. 2. War would destroy 1 America and buildanother. Almost as many died in this war as all warscombined before and since.It is Americas bloodiest war.1 out of 7 Civil War soldiers injured would diein field hospitals, whereas, in the Vietnam War,1 out of 270 injured soldiers would die in MASH units. First war of the Industrial Revolution---new weapons would cause massive destruction against outdated military tactics.
  3. 3. 50,000 books, hundreds of songs and poems written during the Civil War Schools, parks and streets named after heroes of the Civil WarConfederate Flag controversial in our society today. Preserved the Union and democracySlavery abolished, African Americans become citizens with the right to vote, but the equalityof all men continues to be a struggle in our country today.
  4. 4. DIFFERENT VIEWS ON THE WARSlavery was to blame (not initially)Agricultural vs. industrial societies(never)Sectionalism (yes) War was good (eh?)States Rights vs. NationalGovernment (always)Preserve the Union and Democracy(Lincolns stance)
  5. 5. 1. Confederate States of America----CSA Jefferson Davis---President Confederate Constitution2. Firing on Fort Sumter, April 12, 1861 Lincoln needed border states South fires first shotBorder states wereslave states but Suspends Constitution remained loyal to3. NORTH VS. SOUTHthe NorthLincolnneeded them.. Advantages Maryland, Delaware, Strategy Kentucky and Missouri.. Military leaders
  6. 6. 4. THE WAR YEARS: 1861 TO 1863-----Turning pointsBattle Fronts Western Theater------------------------Eastern theaterSummary: Summary: USA is defeating CSA is defeating the CSA becausethe USA because of General Grantof General LeeLincolns first steps to abolish slavery Emancipation Proclamation--Jan. 1863Freed slaves in states still in rebellion (useless)Kept Great Britain out the warFreed slaves can fight for the Union armyUnion troops: freedom fighters
  7. 7. Key Union victories in July 1863 Vicksburg GettysburgPicketts ChargeLincolns Gettysburg Address
  8. 8. BLUE/USA GRAY/CSA United States of America Confederate States of Americaor Union President Jefferson DavisPresident Abraham LincolnCapital: Richmond, VACapital: Washington, D.C. Rebs------Rebels---Johnny RebsFeds-----Federal Secessh-------Seccession Yanks-----Yankees GraycoatsBluebelliesYellow bellies Blue coats
  9. 9. Born in KentuckyBorn in Kentucky Self-educatedServed as Secretary of WarCongressmen from IllinoisSenator from Mississippi Abolitionist?SlaveownerFirst Presidential candidateServed as Secretary of Statefor the Republican PartyMinority president First and only President of the Lincoln/DavisCSA
  10. 10. Rebel Cabinet
  11. 11. When theConfederate Statesof America wasformed, itsfounders wrote aconstitutionsimilar to theUnited StatesConstitution. Itsdifferences,however, indicate
  12. 12. MAIN DIFFERENCES:States rightsTariffs are equalthroughout theCSASlavery is legaland is allowed toexpand!
  13. 13. Cartoon: Lincoln vs Davis
  14. 14. Cartoon: North thought of secession
  15. 15. Lincoln wrote to the antislaveryeditor Horace Greeley in August1862, even as he was about toannounce the EmancipationProclamation:If I could save the Union without freeing any slave, I would do it; and if I couldsave it by freeing all the slaves, I would do it; and if I could do it by freeing someand leaving others alone, I would also do that.
  16. 16. Regarding the Civil War, theLondon Times (November7, 1861) editorializedThe contest is really for empire on the side of the North and for independence on that of theSouth, and in this respect werecognize an exact analogy betweenthe North and the Government of King George III, and the South theThirteen Revolted Provinces.
  17. 17. Picture: Fort Sumter 1
  18. 18. Fort Sumter 2
  19. 19. Fort Sumter Lincoln told the Confederate states he would re-supply Fort Sumter in South Carolina afterSouth blockaded Major Andersen there andBuchanan literally did nothing. The Confederate states saw this as reinforcingthe fort and on April 12, they opened fire After 34 hours the fort surrendered Lincoln called for 75,000 volunteers and started ablockade of southern ports, and we have war
  20. 20. Hurrah for the choice of the nation.Our chieftain so brave and so true. Well go for the great reformationFor Lincoln and liberty too.Well go for the son of KentuckyThe hero of hoosierdom throughThe pride of the suckers so luckyFor Lincoln and liberty too. Then up with the banner so gloriousThe star-spangled red, white andblueWell fight til our banners victoriousFor Lincoln and liberty tooCome all you true friends of the nationAttend to humanitys callComeaid in the slaves liberationAnd roll on the liberty ball.And roll on the liberty ballAnd roll on the liberty ball Come aid in the slaves liberation. And roll on the liberty ball. Well finish the temple of freedomAnd make it capacious withinThat all who seek shelter may find itWhatever the hue of their skin Whatever the hue of their skinThat all who seek shelter may find itWhatever the hue of their skinSuccess to the old-fashioned doctrineThat men are created allfreeAnd down with the power of the despotWherever his stronghold may beWherever his stronghold may be.Wherever his stronghold may beAnd down with the power of the despotWherever his stronghold may be
  21. 21. Chorus:Advance the flag of Dixie Hurrah! Hurrah! For Dixies land we take our stand, And live or die for Dixie! To Arms! To Arms! And conquer peace for Dixie To Arms! To Arms And conquer peace for DixieChorus:Fear no danger! Shun no labor! Lift up rifle, pike and saber! To arms ! To arms! To arms, in Dixie! Shoulder pressing close to shoulder,Let the odds make each heart bolder! To arms ! To arms! To arms, in Dixie!Chorus:Swear upon our countrys altar. Never to submit or to falter,To arms ! To arms! To arms, in Dixie! Till the spoilers are defeated, Till the Lords work is completed! To arms ! To arms! To arms, in Dixie!Chorus: Dixie
  22. 22. 1000 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90opulationRailroadsFactories FarmsWealthIronCottonBased on %SouthNorth
  23. 23. 22 states 11 states 10,000,000 23,000,000 population includes 4 million slaves Industrial economy Agricultural economy Majority of transportation Exports, not food Limited manufacturing and Lincoln, a military novice.railroad lines. Asks Robert E. Lee to Davis, military experience.command Union troops and Better military leadersdeclines Belief war is about states Belief war is aboutrights, independenceslavery and mainly and preserving theirpreserving the Union.war of life. The Norths major advantage would be itseconomy and the Souths main disadvantage was its economy
  24. 24. Raised Armies
  25. 25. Picture: Draft riots
  26. 26. North South1. Tariffs 1. Wealthy lent over$100 million2. War bonds (extremely smart 5- 2. Foreign aid $15 20s from Sam Chase)million3. Income taxes (1st one 3. Income taxes passed) 4. Paper money which4. Paper money called caused over 1000% greenbacks inflation due
  27. 27. Eastern TheaterWestern Theater
  28. 28. Theater/Battles 1862
  29. 29. VA. 8West Virginia secedesfrom Virginia in 1863 andsides with USA.Border states/slaves statesremain loyal to the Union Secession
  30. 30. Suspended civil liberties orparts of the Constitution writ of habeas corpus: Protects fromunfair arrest and trial by jury. Occupation of Baltimore: Controlled bymilitary---- martial law Arrested over 15,000 civilians: Withoutprobable cause---suspicious Rebelsympathizers. Closed rebel newspapers: Violated 1stamendment rights of free speech andpress. First Income Tax passed Greenbacks 1st paper money issued nationally
  31. 31. Abolitionists pressured Lincoln to free the slaves. After the Battle of Antietam, he announced that the slaves would be freed.Became effective on Jan. 1,1863, in those states still in rebellion (blech).Emancipation Proclamation did not end slavery in USLincolns first step towards ending slavery.Final step 13th Amendment to the Constitution on Dec. 1865 would legally and constitutionally abolish slavery.
  32. 32. Freed all slavesin states in rebellionagainst the USDid not applyto slaves in border statesfighting for US No affect onsouthern areasalready underUS control.War was NOW fought to end slavery.US soldiers were Freedom Fighters
  33. 33. Kept GreatBritain from siding withthe South and becoming an ally.War was now a war to abolish slaverydestroy the South preserve the Union
  34. 34. Over 200,000 freed slaves fought for the US..Famous 54th Black Regiment of Massachusetts which was organized by Frederick Douglass..
  35. 35. Black Soldiers At the start of the war the unionarmy contained no blacksoldiers, other thancontraband (2 laws passedduring the war, the second ofwhich allowed for Africans wholeft or were captured tofight, as well as clean dishes slaves knew the war was aboutthem and ran away wheneverthey could to Union soldiers, butLincoln gave them back up) After emancipating theslaves, Lincoln enlisted themformally. By the end of the war nearly200,000 blacks had served andreceived 25 CongressionalMedals of Honor Death rates for black soldierswere much higher than white
  36. 36. Captured black soldiers were often executed The most famous black regiment was the 54thMass., which was the subject of the movie Glory The South would finally try to use slaves in1864/5, offering them freedom, but it was much too
  37. 37. African Americansin Civil War
  38. 38. Jefferson Davis Stonewall JacksonRobert E. Lee Jeb Stuart Pierre T. BeauregardJames LongstreetGeorge Pickett
  39. 39. Or failures? Abe Lincoln George McClellanUlysses GrantGeorge MeadeDavid Farragaut William T. Sherman Joseph Hooker George A. Custer
  40. 40. Aggressive offensive to crush the rebellion. War of attrition: South has less manpower Gen Winfield Scotts Anaconda Plan Control river systems: Ohio and Mississippi Blockade and seizure of ports War goal:Preserve Union and later abolish slavery Capture Richmond Dont allow Confederacy to rest. Napoleonic tactics at first----later trench warfare
  41. 41. Strategy
  42. 42. Defend and delay until Union gives up. Quick victories to demoralize Union Alliance with Great Britain Capture Washington, D.C. Defend Richmond Sought decisive battle that would convince the Union it wasnt worth it Use better military leadership to youradvantage and outsmart Union generals.
  43. 43. Theater/Battles 1862
  44. 44. Union Strategy Capture Richmond, Virginia Union LeadersSeveral different leaders: WinfieldScott, George McClellan, John Pope,Ambrose Burnside, Joe Hooker, George Meade, Ulysses Grant Union Army Army of the Potomac Confederate StrategyCapture Washington, D.C.Confederate LeaderCSA General General Robert E. LeeRobert E. LeeConfederate Army Army of Virginia
  45. 45. DATEBATTLE VICTOR RESULTJuly 1861 Bull Run SouthUnion retreats to Wash. D.C.ManassesJune 1862 7 Days SouthLee stops McClellan fromtaking RichmondAugust 1862 Bull Run SouthLee stops John Popefrom taking Richmond*Sept. 1862 Antietam Draw McCellan stops Lee fromtaking Washington, D.C.Lincoln issues EmancipationProclamation*Turning Point battle
  46. 46. Battle of Bull Run(1 st Manassas), July, 1861Lincoln sent 30,000 inexperienced soldiers to fight at Bull Run.
  47. 47. Battle of Bull Run(1 st Manassas), July, 1861Northern troops were pushed back to D.C.South won this battle but lost the war.WHY? Failed to capture Washington, D.C.Would never be so close to Washington, D.C.
  48. 48. Union StrategyControl river systems and split the Confederacy in half and isolate the 3 sections.Union Leaders: General Ulysses S. GrantUnion Army: Army of the WestConfederate Strategy Fight a defensive war and drive Unionout of South USA General Confederate Leader:Ulysses S. GrantSeveral different generalsConfederate Army:Army of Tennessee
  49. 49. DATE BATTLEVICTOR RESULTFeb. 1862Fort Donelson UnionControlled the Ohio RiverMarch 1862 Fort HenryUnionControlled Cumberland RiverApril 1862 ShilohUnionControlled Tennessee RiverApril 1862 New Orleans UnionControlled mouth ofMississippiJuly 1863Vicksburg UnionControlled Mississippi River *split Confederacy in half*Turning Point Battle
  50. 50. On July 4, 186330,000 Confederate troops defending Vicksburg surrendered their arms.Grant captured 260 cannons, 60,000 stand- of-arms, and more than 2 million rounds of ammunition.Former slavescelebrated Independence Day for the first time.4days later, the Mississippi River was in the hands of the Union armyEffectively cutting the Confederacy in two.
  51. 51. Grant capturesVicksburg, splits the CSA in half.USA controls the MississippiRiver.Vicksburg/Gettysburg
  52. 52. DATE BATTLE VICTOR RESULTDec. 1862Fredericksburg SouthLee stops Burnside from taking RichmondJan. 1863Chancellorsville SouthLee stops Joe Hooker from taking Richmond*July 1863 Gettysburg NorthGeorge Meade stops Lee from moving into Washington, D.C.*Turning point battle
  53. 53. General GeorgePickettGeneral Lee orders a frontal assault on Union lines to break through, surround and destroy the North.
  54. 54. Gettysburg Casualties The defeat of Lee at Gettysburg would be the last time Lee would invade the North and try to take Washington, D.C.Lees retreat at Gettysburg on July 3rd and Grants defeat of theSouth at Vicksburg on July 4th would lead to the eventual surrender of the South by 1865.
  55. 55. Gettysburg AddressOn November 19, 1863, some 15,000 people gatheredat Gettysburg to honor the Union soldiers who had diedthere just four months before.President Lincoln delivered a two-minute speechwhich became known as the Gettysburg Address.He reminded people that the Civil War was beingfought to preserve a country that upheld the principles of freedom, equality, and self-government. The Gettysburg Address has become one of the best-loved and most-quoted speeches in the English language.It expresses grief at the terrible cost of war and theimportance of preserving the Union.
  56. 56. Four score and seven years ago,our fathers brought forth upon this continent a new nation: conceived in liberty, and dedicated to theproposition that all men are createdequalNow we are engaged in agreat civil war. . .testing whetherthat nation, or any nation soconceived and so dedicated. . . canlong endure. We are met on a great battlefield of that war..
  57. 57. That from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the lastfull measure of devotion. That we here highly resolve that these deadshall not have died in vain. That thisnation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom and thatgovernment of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.
  58. 58. Professional development of officers.1802 West Point is formed55 of 60 largest battles, both sides were commanded byWest Pointers.Artillery and Infantry schools opened.Professional staff begins in earnest Greater independence for military leaders.Politicians focus on strategy and are less involved inoperational and tactical decisions. Mexican WarMany leaders on both sides gain valuable experience. First great post-Industrial Revolution war.