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Ontario High School Latin Book

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MERRILL D. MUTTART1220] Jasper Ave.Edmonton, Alberta
























Authorized by the Minister of Education for Ontario



Entered according to the Act of Parliament of Canada, in the Office of the

Minister of Agriculture, by W. J. Gage & Co. Limited, Toronto, in the

year one thousand nine hundred and six




This book is tii6 result of a revision of tht Phimari Juatin Bookwhich was published in 1892. The Experience of the intervening

years and, in part, the changed conditions in our schools, have led

to a revision so thorough as to produce an altogether new book. Yet

in some important respects the point of view of the earlier work has

been retained. It is recognized throughout that the primary object

or an introductory Latin book is to prepare pupils for the reading of

Latin ; that the acquiring of a vocabulary, the mastery of accidence

and syntax, are to be regarded as means to that end;and, finally, that

the only way to learn how to read Latin is by much practice in

reading Latin. The temptation to dwell upon what is not essential

for beginners, merely for the sake of completeness, has constantly to

be resisted, and in an introductory Latin book merely to know whatto omit is itself a great merit, if a negative one.

The improvem’ents made in the order of the lessons do not involve

&UJ material change in principle. Most introductory Latin books

published in the last two decades follow a plan which some theorists

have criticized as disjointed and lacking in continuity. It is

claimed that the unsystematic and piecemeal presentation of forms

and syntax, which to-day directs attention to the verb, to-morrow to

the noun, and the day after to some rule of syntax, is a violation of

the laws of psychology and of pedagogy. Surety, however, there is no

psychological necessity for our learning a langiiage in the same order

in which reflective analysis and systernatized grammar present it; no

law of the mind bids us learn all our nouns before we venture uponthe verb, or prescribes that, after becoming acquainted with onepronoun, we shall forthwith master ail the rest. On the other hand,

experience, to which the final appeal must be made, has shown that

there is a distinct gain when topics are varied according to a well-

considered plan. If, for example, some lessons on the noun or

adjective intervene between the lesson on the perfect indicative andthat on the pluperfect, a much greater amount of drill in the perfect

ean be obtained than by the method in which practice in the perfect


in one lesson must of necessity give place to practice in the plu-

perfect immediately afterwards. The success of the method which is

now usually followed depends, however, on having, first, a well-

planned order of lessons which neither unduly separates matters that

should be closely connected, nor presents too great and too varied an

array of topics in one and the same lesson;and, secondly, a series of

exercises that never allows what has been learned at any stage to be

forgotten through having been too long neglected. This, with a

proper amount of review work, wfll secure all the systematization

that is necessary for the beginner.

To the vocabulary most careful attention has been given. Whetherconsciously or not, the authors of introductory books are, by their

choice of vocabulary, really preparing the beginner to read some

particular style of Latin. A selection being unavoidable, it has

seemed best to prepare for the reading of Caesar, not so much by

selecting sentences from the Gallic War, with little or no change, as

by familiarizing the pupil from the first with words and phrases of

frequent occurrence throughout Caesar’s narrative. At the same

time regard has been had to the usefulness of the vocabulary for

other purposes. But on the whole the words that are frequent in

Caesar are words that should form part of the vocabulary of every

student of Latin. The absence of such words as ancilla, coroTia and

Stella may be deplored, but fuga, rlpa and copia are quite as valuable

from any point of view, and for Caesar are incomparably more useful.

The rule has been followed of giving not more than ten new words

with each exercise. This has necessitated a careful selection of the

words and phrases that would prove most valuable both for im-

mediate and for later use. Especial care also has been taken that

words once introduced shall not after a time be disused;

it is within

the mark to say that the exercises of any group of ten consecutive

lessons employ more than ninety per cent, of all the words hitherto

learned. Wherever possible, related words have been so grouped in

one voeabulary a* not only to help the memory but also to give some

knowledge of the principles of composition and derivation.

At intervals of about five lessons are review word lists, given

alternately in Latin and in English, and variously classified ; each

list thus c^»tains the words that have been introduced in the preced-

ing tea lessons. The topical classification of the English lists will

be found especially useful, and will doubtless suggest to the teacher

other groupings and combinations which can be readily made.


The exercises are so graded, and the sentences call for so constant

an interweaving of old matter with new, that it is believed continuous

and rapid progress will be possible, with no sudden increase of

difficulty at any stage. In the latter part of the book the

exercises are given in a double series, A and B, either of which is

sufficient for a complete course. There is thus provided abundant

matter for review, for oral or sight work, for examination purposes,

for additional practice in difficult points, as well as for a change in

the routine of work from year to year. If the exercises, as well as

the whole book, seem longer by reason of the larger type used, that

is a fault that will be readily forgiven. Much difference of opinion

exists as to the respective value of translation from Latin and trans-

lation into Latin. In any case, sufficient material is provided in this

book for those who hold the view that translation from English into

Latin, when not too difficult, is an invaluable means of clinching

the knowledge of forms and syntax alike.

In order to relate the work in Latin more closely and more

profitably to what the pupil will already have learned of grammar,

or may learn at a later stage, care has been taken in the explanations

given, both to use the terminology already familiar from his study of

English grammar, and to keep in view the statements of Latin

grammar as they are given in more advanced books.

The constant translation of detached sentences may easily become

a source of weariness to the pupil, who, after much toiling, does not

seem to be arriving anywhere. To obviate this, a reading lesson in

the form of a continuous story has been inserted after each word list.

The stories are drawn from Roman legend, the order of chronology

being observed, and for the most part illustrate the resolution, sense

of duty and devotion to country so characteristic of the Romans.

These lessons are, in the strictest sense, reviews; they are not

adaptations of any existing narrative, but have been built up out of

the material afforded by the previous vocabularies and exercises.

They are sufficiently long to give the detail needed to make a story

interesting, and yet are in such close relation to the work just

completed that they can be read without a discouraging amount of

labor, and even, by at least the better pupils, at sight. • Apart from

the question of interest and practice, it is no small thing for a pupil

to have learned that he is able to apply successfully the knowledge

he already has to the work of translating continuous narrative.


For 8) .isses ia which ic may be desirable to take up some easier

liatin preparatory to the studj of Caesar, there have been added a

summary ot Caesar’s First Campaign in Gaul, and an adaptation of

the Storj oi Ulysses from Ritchie’s admirable Fahulae Faciles.

The illustrations in the book are intemied in part to furnish through

the & more accurate ideas of the meaning of certain Latin words

and expressions, and in part to interest the pupR rn the great

monuments of Rome, and thus in the achievements of that masterful

people whose language he is learning and whose literature he is about

to read. If the exercises are largely connected with military opera-

tions, the illustrations and the introductory sections will show that

the Romans were architects, engineers, law-givers and admmistra

tors, as well as warriors.

It remains for the authors to express their indebtedness for valuable

suggestions and criticisms both to their colleagues in the University

and to many of the teachers of Latin in the secondary schools of

Ontario, especially among the latter to Mr. H. I, Strang, Mr. H. J.

Crawford, Mr, F. C. Colbeck and Mr. D. A. Glassey.

Toronto, March, 1906.


' Introductory Lessons.


Introduction 1

I. First and Second Conjugations : Present Indica-

tive Active . . . . . . . 0 13

II. First and Second Declensions : Nominative Singu-

lar and Plural . ..

. x . . 16

III. First and Second Declensions : Accusative Singular

and Plural ....... 18

IV. First and Second Declensions : Genitive Singular

and Plural 20

V. First and Second Declensions : Dative Singular

and Plural. Accusative with ad ... 22

VI. First and Second Conjugations ; Imperfect Indica-

tive Active ....... 24

VII. First and Second Declensions; Ablative Singular

and Plural ....... 26

VIII. First and Second Declensions Reviewed : Vocative

Case. Predicate Nouns and Appositives , 28

AVord List I. Reading Lesson I. {Romulus and

Remus and the Founding of Rome) . . , 32

IX. Second Declension : Nouiis in -um. Gender . 34

X. Adjectives of the First and Second Declensions . 37

XL Second Declension : Nouns in -eP and -ir. Adjec-

tives of the First and Second Declensions in

-ep . . ... . . . . .40XII. Third and Fourth Conjugations : Present Indica-

tive Active . . . . . . .43Word List A. Reading Lesson II. {The Romans

and their Neighbours) ..... 46

XIII. Third Declension : Consonant Stems ... 47

XIV. Third and Fourth Conjugations : Imperfect Indica-

tive Active ....... 52

XV. Third Declension ; Consonant Stems (continued) . 54

XVI. Prepositions. .... . . . . . 57

















Perfect Indicative Active . . . . .59Perfect Indicative Active (continued) ... 61

Word List II. Reading Lesson III. (The Seizure of

the Sabine Maidens) . . . . .64Adjectives of the Third Declension . . .67Sum : Present Indicative 70

Present Infinitive Active. Complementary Infini-

tive 73

Pluperfect Indicative Active . . . . .76Fourth Declension 79

Word List B. Reading Lesson IV. {The Battle of

the Horatii and the Curiatii) . . . .81Principal Parts. Perfect Indicative Passive . . 84

Ablative of Agent. Ablative of Means... 88

Imperfect Indicative of Sum. Pluperfect Indica-

tive Passive 91

Fifth Declension. Ordinal Numerals ... 95

Accusative and Ablative of Time . . - . .97Word List III. Reading Lesson V. (The Battle of

the Horatii and the Curiatii—concluded) . 99

Present Indicative Passive ..... 101

Regular Comparison of Adjectives . . . 104

Dative with Adjectives. Partitive Genitive . . 107

First and Second Conjugations ; Future Indicative

Active 110

Word List C. Reading Lesson VI. (The Seven

Kings of Rome) 113

Third Declension : I-Stems 115

Irregular Comparison of Adjectives . . .120Third and Fourth Conjugations : Future Indicative

Active 123

Irregular Adjectives of the First and Second De--

clensions 126

Imperfect and Future Indicative Passive . .130Cardinal Numerals 132

Word List IV. Reading Lesson VII. (How Hora-

tius Kept the Bridge) . . . . . 135

Future Perfect Indicative, Active and Passive . 138

Mille. Accusative of Extent of Space . 142























Present) Infinitive Passive. Adverbs ; Regular

Formation and Comparison ....Quam with Comparatives. Ablative of Com-


Adverbs ; Irregular Formation and Comparison-.

Quam with Superlatives ....Word List D. Reading Lesson YIII. {Th& Story

of Mucius Scaevola)


. . .

Relative Pronoun. QuodPerfect Participle Passive .....Personal Pronouns . . . . .

Present Participle Active. Dum ....Reflexive Pronoun. Possessives ....Word List V. Reading Lesson IX. {Camillus and

the Schoolmaster of Falerii) ....Third Conjugation : Verbs in -io ....Demonstrative Pronouns ; Hie, Ille, Is

Ablative Absolute

Perfect Participle Passive (continued). Demon-

strative Pronouns : Ipse, IdemDeponent Verbs

Word List E. Reading Lesson X. {Rome Takenhy

the Gauls) . . . . .

Accusative and Infinitive

Accusative and Infinitive (continued) -


Accusative and Infinitive (continued) .

Questions. Interrogative Pronoun

Active and Passive Periphrastic Conjugations

Word List VI. Reading Lesson XI. {Rome De-

liveredfrcm the Gauls)

Dative of Agent. Dative with Special Intran-

sitive Verbs. Ablative with utOP .

Subjunctive of Sum. Indirect Questions

Subjunctive Active

Subjunctive Passive. Subjunctive of Result

The Compounds of SumWord List F. Reading Lesson XII. ( Titus Manlius


Genitive and Ablative of Quality.
































LESSON PAGELXV. The Subjunctive in Clauses of Purpose . . . 254

LXVI. Fero 258

LXVII. Subjunctive with Cum . . . . . . 261

LXVIII. Volo, Nolo, MMo. Dative of Purpose and In-

terest ........ 265

LXIX. Subordinate Clauses in Indirect Discourse . . 270

Word List VII. Reading Lesson XIII. [The Self-

Devotion of Deems)...... 273

LXX. Ablative of Specification. Ablative of Manner . 276

LXXI. E6, Fio 279

LXXII. Substantive Clauses of Purpose .... 284

LXXIII. Review of Genitive and Dative Cases . . . 287

LXXIV. Review of Accusative and Ablative Cases . . 291

Word List G. Reading Lesson XIV. [The Honor

of Fabricius) ....... 296

LXXV. Gerund .300LXXVI. Gerundive Construction...... 304

LXXVII. Indefinite Pronouns. Review of Pronouns . . 307

LXXVIII. Imperative. Subjunctive in Independent Clauses . 312

LXXIX. Supine. Review of Verb-forms . . . . 315

LXXX. Conditional Sentences. Review of Subjunctive . 319

Word List VIII. Reading Lesson XV. (The Story

of Regulus) ....... 324

Supplementary Reading Lessons

Caesar’s First Campaign in Gaul...... 328

The Story of Ulysses ........ 335

Tables of Declensions and Conjugations .... 346

Description of Illustrations 362

Latin-English Vocabulary . 366

English-Latin Vocabulary '. 385

Index 397


Italy and Gaul .


. 345

Rome.... . 362


{For description see p<x§e 363.)

Tomb of Hadrian ' Frontispiece.

Appian Way ... . , . . Facing 17

Tomb of Caecilia Metella ,1 32

Pantheon . n 64

Colosseum n 81

Claudian Aqueduct and Cloaca Maxima n 113

Trajan’s Column II 128

Arch of Severus II 160

Baths of Caracalla II 177

Forum, looking east II 209

Forum, looking west...... ,1 224

Forum, restored 11 256

Arch of Constantine II 273

Basilica of Constantine , . , . . .1 321

Spoils of Jerusalem II 336


Roman Coins - , 4

Roman Eagle . . . . 12

Sword . 15

Soldier . 21

Spear . 25

The Wall of Romulus ..... . 36

Remains of Roman Camp . 39


Oaius Julius Caesar. {Bust in the Louvre, Paris) . 51

Soldiers on the March ..... . 62

Arms and Weapons . 66

Writing Implements and Materials. (Wall-painting at Pompeii) 78

Porta Appia

Rampart and Trench

Military Standards . . . . , . 94


PAGETomb of the Horatii and Curiatii near Alba .... 101

War-galleys. {Wall-painting at Pompeii) . . . . .119War-ship. {Praeneste Relief) 127

Roman Coin .......... 137

Statue of Augustus.( Vatican Museum, Rome).... 145

Transport Ship. {Ancient Relief) 172

Cicero Addressing the Senate. {Fresco in Palace of the Senate,

Rome) 192

Soldier’s Pack 197

Attack on a Walled City ........ 232

Aqueduct at Nismes . 239

The Dying Gaul. {Museum of the Capitol, Rome) . . . 261

Soldiers Crossing a Bridge of Boats. {Trajan’s Column) . . 269

Coin of Hadrian . 283

Roman Pleet in Harbor ........ 303

Temple at Nismes 327

Coin of Antoninus Pius 344

Latin Lessons for Beginners,



1 . Latin is the languag'e that was spoken by the

people of ancient Rome. The word Latin is derived

from the adjective Latinus, meaning" belonging to

Latium. Latium was the district occupying" the plain

south of the river Tiber, and its inhabitants, the

Latins, possessed several towns and strongholds, amongwhich was Rome. In time Rome came to be the

strongest of all these Latin towns, so that the other

Latins, at first the kinsmen and allies of the Romans,became at length their subjects. Accordingly from a

very early date the word Latin ceased to be applied to

the people and city of Rome, and was used only of the

other inhabitants of Latium, although it was always

retained in speaking of the language common to

Romans and Latins.

2 . For several centuries after the founding of their

settlement, the Romans were but an inconspicuous

people, holding amid constant struggles a very small

portion of Italian territory. From about 350 B.C.,

however, their power extended rapidly;within a cen-

tury they had conquered the whole peninsula of

Italy; and by the beginning of the Christian era,


2 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

Rome was mistress of all the lands bordering on the

Mediterranean, virtually, that is, of the then knownworld. The Roman empire thus established lasted

unbroken for over 400 years, and for more than 1,000

years thereafter the influence of Rome was paramount

in Europe.

3i This supremacy of the Roman people was based

on certain qualities which we find them possessing from

the beginning of their history. The Romans were

extremely resolute, daunted by no reverse or mis-

fortune, strenuous and untiring;stem and mthless,

though on the whole honorable in their dealings;they

were conspicuous for their self-denying patriotism and

their high sense of duty;they lacked refinement and

imagination, but were clear-headed, business-like and

efficient;and finally they were not a mere fighting

race, but one gifted above all other nations with the

power of governing, framing laws and organizing.

Roman law, Roman organization and Roman institu-

tions persist to this day over most of continental

Europe;and when in the middle ages the power of

the Roman empire passed over to the Roman church,

this genius for organization and government was not

lost. Quite as important, too, as these contributions

to modern civilization is the fact that Rome, after

conquering the ancient world, gathered up into her

own civilization all that Greece, Egypt and Asia had

of value for mankind in science, literature, art, philo-

sophy and religion, and preserved it for the modemworld,

4 , During the long centuries of Roman supremacy

in Europe, Latin came to have a peculiar preeminence

which no other language has ever enjoyed. French,

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 3

Italian, Spanish and Portugfuese are merely the modern

representatives of Latin as it was spoken in various

parts of the Roman empire (whence they are known as

the Romance languages). Moreover all through the

middle ages and down to quite modern times, Latin

was the language of learning and diplomacy;an edu-

cated man in any part of Europe knew Latin as well as

his own language” and both wrote and spoke it freely.

Partly for this latter reason, and partly because of

England’s close relations with France from the time of

the Norman Conquest, the English language also has

been profoundly influenced by Latin.* Countless words,

originally Latin, have been introduced from French,

especially during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries;

and innumerable words also have been taken directly

from Latin during the whole period from the time of

the Roman occupation of Britain to the present day,

but particularly since 1500 A.D. It has been estimated

that fully forty per cent, of our English vocabulary has

thus come, directly or indirectly, from Latin.


5 . The Latin alphabet is the same as the English,

except that W is never used. K occurs in but a few

words and always as an initial letter;even here it is

replaced by C in many books;as Karthago or Carthago,


* English belongs to a different group of languages from Latin andFrench, and is more akin to Dutch, German, Danish and Norse. This groupof languages is called Teiitonic, and the Teutonic and Latin groups seem to

have descended from some still earlier common language. Hence there are

resemblances between English and Latin words, even where it is certain

that the English word has not come even indirectly from Latin ; as e.g,

mother and mater, two and duo. Such related words are called cognates


words which have come to us from Latiu are called derivatives.

4 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

Y and Z began to be used in the first century B.C.,

in a few words borrowed from the Greeks, to represent

sounds foreign to Latin. The Romans themselves used

but one sign V for both the vowel U and the semi-

consonantal V (pronounced w), and similarly one

sign I for both the vowel I and the semi-consonantal J

(pronounced y'). For the sake of convenience and

clearness, however, many modern books (especially

those for beginners in Latin) follow the custom that

arose in the middle ages, of using distinct signs for the

different sounds.

Only the capital letters Onajuscules') were used bythe Romans

;while the use of the snialler

‘ Roman ’ ’

letters {^minuscules') dates from the eighth century A.D

DIWS IVLIVS IVDAEA CAPTADivus Julius : The DivineJulius. Judaea Capta: Judea Conquered.

Roman Coins.


Vowels. <

6. Each of the five* vowels, a, e, i, o, u, has but two

sounds, a long and a short. The long sounds differ

from the short chiefly in requiring a distinctly longer

time to utter them.

*Y, which rarely occurs, has a sound between u and i (French u or

Gorman u).

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 5

a is sounded like

Si li n II







•fi II II II


a in father or ameyi (pronounced as

in singing'), when these words

are uttered slowly, or like the

second a in aha.

a in father or amen when uttered

briskly, or like the first a in aha.

e in they, veil, or a in fate,

e in met, end.

i in machine, police,

i in sit, is.

the second o in oho or propose, or

like o in melodiotcs, heroic.

the first o in oho or propose, or like

o in melody, herohie,

u in rule, or oo in cuckoo, boot, poor,

u in pull, cuckoo, or oo in foot, good.

N.B.—It is especially important to avoid the English

short sounds of a, o and u as in hat, hot, hut, or khQ you

sound of u as in pure, use.

7. It should also be observed that in Latin a long

vowel often precedes a combination ofconsonants before

which, in English, a single vowel is regularly short;

as, infensus, ademptum, cresco.

Many foreign geographical or biographical namesillustrate the values of the Roman vowels

;as, Tokio,

Rio, Pisa, Upsala, Tripoli, Yenisei, Yokohama, Amur,Mikado, lago, Galileo, Rossini, Hegel, Buddha, Hindu


so als^ many musical terms borrowed from the Italian;

as trio, do, re, mi, fa.

6 Latin Lessons for Beginners.


8 . The diphthongs in Latin have all arisen from twovowels sounded in their proper order, but slurred so

that they occupy the time of a single long vowel. Latin

has six diphthongs, of which only ae and au occur


ae is sounded like ai in aisle.

au It *« *' ou in house.

06 »» oi in boil.

ei »» " ei in vein.

CU « »' e-oo in rapid succession,

ui It oo~i in rapid succession.

Among the Romans themselves in Imperial times,

there was a tendency to replace the diphthongal sound

of ae by the long sound of e (like ai in pain), and this

from about 300 A.D. became the regular pronunciation.


9. The consonants have each a single sound, which

in most cases is that usual in English. The following

points deserve special attention :

c is sounded as in come, sceptic, never as in cent, sceptre.

g " H II II get, give, never as in gem, gin.

S It II II II this, gas, never as in his, has.

t It II II II mightiest, never as in righteous.

X II It II II exercise (a- ks), never as in exert


j” II II y in yet, or as j in Hallelujah.

V " II II w in wet, beware.

r is distinctly sounded in all positions.

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 1

n before c, g, qu, x, is sounded as ng, or as ?i in ankle.

b " s or t, is sounded as p.

u in the combinations qu and ngu, as also in the words

suadeo, suavis and suesco, has the sound of w.

ch is sounded as

10 . A consideration of the following- may help to

throw some light on the sounds of certain of the con-

sonants as pronounced in Latin :

c, Kaiser from Caesar ; Aciles and pulcer^ the older

spelling of Achilles and pulcher; the variant spellings

recuperd and reciperb.

g, Non Angll sed Angelt (the exclamation of Pope

Gregory);related words like genu, gonu and knee

or genus, gonos and kin.

j, related words like jugum and yoke ; juvenis, junior

and young / the identity of major-and mayor; Janand Ian ; yawl and jolly boat; Yiddish and Jiudisch ;

the pronunciation of such foreign words as Jena,

Jungfrau, Pompeii.

s, caussa and hiemps, variant spelling's for causa and


V, related words like vlcus and -wick (as in Berwick,

Wickham} ; ventus and wind ; vallum and wall


vlnum and wine; void and will ; vespa and wasp


vastus and waste; vir and wer (in werwolf} ; pru-

dens shortened from prbvidens, junior from juvenior,

auspex from avispex, nolo from ne-volb


the con-

fusion of Cauneas with cave ne eas (Cicero), or of

the cawing of a crow with Ave (Phaedrus).

* It is properly not a Latin combination, but being borrowed from theGreek to represent a character in the Greek alphabet, it came to be used in

a few Latin words in place of an earlier c.

s Latin Lessons for Beginners.


11. In dividing written or printed Latin words into

syllables, the rule is to place at the beginning of each

syllable all the consonants that could be pronounced at

the beginning of a word;

* as, su-pe-ri-or, su-pre-mus,

se-pa-ra-te, mon-strum, ser-vo, mit-to. In compounds,

however, the several parts are kept distinct;as ab-est,

dis-turbo, di-stant.

12. When a consonant is doubled in a Latin word,

the sound of the consonant is heard in each syllable;

as, ap-pel-16, com-mit-to (contrasted with the English

words appellayit, committee, in which the consonant,

though occurring twice, is pronounced but once).t

13. The last syllable of a word is called the ultimate,

the one next to the last the penult, and the last syllable

but two the antepenult.


14. Illustrative Examples.

de'-dit, va'-do, an'-nus, su-6,

de'-dit, ri'-pas, con'-sul, nau'-tac.

These representative words will show on which syl-

lable (penult or ultimate) the accent falls in Latin

words of two syllables.

15. Illustrative Examples,

spe-ra'-mus, Ro-ma-no'-rum, c6n-sen'-su,

re-li'-qui, sa-lu'-tem, po-ten'-tis.



ex-cel'-si-or, con-sen'-se-ras,

i-do'-ne-us, ci'-vi-tas.

* Some authorities hold that in the case of two or more consonants the

division comes before the last consonant, except in the case of a mute fol-

lowed by a liquid, and would divide thus, mdus-truiii, cas-tra.

t So in English contrast tattoo with tatter, soulless with solace, peu-

knife with penny, unknown with unowned, missent with missing.

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 9

These representative words of more than two syl-

lables are arranged in two groups. In the words in

the two upper lines the vowel of the penult is either

a long vowel, or a short vowel followed by two con-


in the two lower lines the vowel of the

penult is a short vowel not followed by two consonants.

On which syllable (penult or antepenult) does the

accfent fall in these two classes respectively ?

N.B.—In the matter of accent, x is treated as a

double consonant, qu as a single consonant. So also

when the two consonants consist of r or 1, preceded bya different consonant, the word is accented as though

there were but one consonant : for example, ar'bitror,

mul tiplex, ten'ebrae ; but impul'sus, vexillum, adver'tb,

incur ro, according to the general rule

For the purposes of accentuation a diphthong is

treated as a long vowel.

16. There are no silent letters in Latin; it follows

that there are as many syllables in each Latin word as

there are vowels and diphthongs.

Pronounce accordingly the following Latin words :

Miles, fine, consumes, furdre, beatus, excelsior, designo,

honor, legionis, scena, sahe, oratio, alienus, militia.

17. Practice in the pronunciation of Latin may be

obtained from the measured and careful reading of the

following lines, which are a portion of the version byProfessor R. Y. Tyrrell, of Dublin, of Hood’s “ Bridge

of Sighs,” in the metre of the original


' A ! misera sortis

_ Pondere fessa !

A ! temere mortis

Viam ingressa !

10 Latin Lessons for Beginners

Tollite facile

Onus tam bellum,

Onus tam gracile

Tamque tenellum.

Ne fastidientes

Corpus atting-ite,

Sed flebilem flentes

Animo fingite;

Quod fecerit male

Donate tam bellae;

Nil restat ni quale

Decorum puellae.

A ! humanarumQuam rar5 homullos


_ Miseret ullos !

Ebeu, quam flebilis,

Urbe tam plena,

Jacuit debilis-,

Tecti egena.


18 . The pronunciation of Latin in use in ancient

times came to be gradually modified in certain respects,

but in all its essential features it was retained for

centuries;and as Latin was a constant medium for

oral communication between various parts of Europe

throughout the middle ages, the pronunciation was

practically uniform over Europe. By the sixteenth

century, however, England had become so isolated

from continental Europe, through her separate political

11Latin Lessons for Beginners.

and religious development, that the traditional pro-

nunciation of Latin was abandoned, and Latin words

were treated as if they were English.

As a result of this, in our English speech Romannames and many familiar expressions and phrases

borrowed from the Latin have long been pronounced

according to the English method, e.g. Caesar, Julius,

Augustus, Horatius, sine die, et cetera, prima facie, viva

voce, excelsior, e pluribus unum, vox popull. In such

cases even those who do not follow the English methodof pronunciation in reading Latin, yet retain the

English pronunciation when these names or phrases

are used in English.*

19 . (a) In the English method of pronouncing

Latin, the vowels are given the common long or short

English sounds


a as in cane. a as in can.

e It me. e " met.

i If pine. i " pin.

5 It no. 0 f not.

u II use. u II us.

But very often vowels really long are sounded as short,

and vowels really short as long, either through the

influence of similar English words or for ease of utter-

ance. No absolutely fixed rules can be given for these

exceptions, but some of the more regular variations are

as follows :

* Exactly the same thing occurs in the case of such modern foreignnames as Paris, Napoleon, Pyrenees

; Luther, Berlin, Munchausen; Madrid,

Manila, Don Quixote. We give each of these words one pronunciationwhen we are reading or speaking English, and quite another when we arereading or speaking the foreign language to which it belongs.

12 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

Long- vowels are sounded as short (a) before two

consonants or x;

(S) in most final syllables ending

with a consonant;e.g. densus, duxit, brevitas.

Short vowels are sounded as long (a) before another

vowel or diphthong or h;

(d) in the first syllable of

dissyllabic words before a single consonant, e.g. aluit,

nihil, senex. caput,

(b) The diphthongs ae and oe are sounded as e

in me / au as in author; eu as in feud


ei and ui as i

in pine.

(c) Of the consonants, c and g are given the soft

sound of s and / respectively before e and i sounds

(that is before e, i, y, ae, oe);

e.g. Cicero, regina; s

when final is often sounded like z, as it is occasionally

in other places also through the analogy of some

English word, e.g. pars, causa; and c, s, and t are

often sounded as sh before i (unaccented) followed by

another vowel, e.g. socius, ratio; j is sounded as in jar.,

and v as in vine.

N.B.—The rules for accent in the English method

are the same as are given above in 14 and 15.

Roman Eagle.

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 13


First and Second Conjugations : Present

Indicative Active.

20. Illustrative Examples.

Pugnatj he fights,

Vocat, he calls.

Habet, he has.

Videt, he sees.

Pugnant, they fight,

Vocant, they call.

Habent, they have.

Vident, they see.

a. Notice (l) that in these Eng-lish sentences the subject

of the verb is expressed by a separate word.

(2) that in the Latin equivalent the change of subject

is indicated by a change in the final letters of the


21. Illustrative Examples.

Pugnamus, wefight. Videmus, we see.

Vocas, you call. Habes, you have.

(addressed to one person)

Vocatis, you call. Habetis, you have.

(addressed to more than one person)

a. What final letters in these Latin words serve to

express the idea of we and you (singular and

plural) ?

Such final letters, indicating changes of person and

number in the subject of the verb, are called

Personal Endings.

*This change in the form of a word to show its grammatical relation is

called inflection. Latin is an inflected language, while English is almostwholly an uninflected one.

14 Latin Lessons for. Beginners.

b. In two of tliese Latin verbs the personal endings,

it should be noticed, are preceded by the vowel a,

and in the other two verbs by the vowel e. This

common part (e.g. voca-, habe-) to which the

various personal endings are attached is knownas the Present Stem.

Before which personal endings are these vowels a

and e shortened ?

22. Illustrative Examples.

PugnO, Ifight. Video, I see.

Voco, / call. Habeo, I have.

a. What personal ending expresses / in these verbs ?

Notice that before this ending, a is dropped, while

e is shortened.*

23. These two classes of verb (the a- verbs and the e-

verbs) are ordinarily called verbs of the First and

Second Conjugations respectively, t In Latin vocabu-

laries or dictionaries are is added to indicate a verb

of the First Conjugation, ere a verb of the Second

Conjugation, t

24. Paradigms.

Present Indicative Active.

First Conjugation . Second Conjugation.


1. amo (/ love) -o moned (/ advise)) -e-o

2. amas -a-s mones -e-s

3. amat -a-t monet -e-t

* It is a rule of Latin that a vowel immediately preceding another vowelor diphthong is short.

t There are in all four conjugations in Latin, that is, four divisions of

verbs according to the form of the present stem.

t For the further significance of these endings are and €re see Lesson XXI.

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 15


1. amamus -a-mus monemus -e-mus

2. amatis -a-tis monetis -e-tis

3. amant -a-nt monent -e-nt


habeo, ere, have.

moveo, ere, move.

neco, are, kill, slay.

pareo, ere. be obedient.

pare, are, prepare, procure.

pugno, are, fight.

teneo, ere, hold.

vasto, are, lay waste.

video, ere, see.

vocd, are, call


26. i.

1. Vastat, necat, tenet, movet, 2. Necant, tenent

movent, vastant. 3. Vocamiis, voeatis, voc5. 4. Habes,

habemus, habetis, 5. Moves, vident, vastatis. 6. Videt,

pugnamiis, moved. 7. Neeatis, pugnant, video. 8.

Pard, pares, parent, paramus.


1. They call, they ^ prepare, they have, they see.

2. He sees, he fights, he holds, he slays. 3. You (sing.)

hold, you (plur.) fight, we lay waste. 4. He is

obedient, he prepares, I am obedient. 5. We slay,

I hold, you lay waste. 6. We move, he calls, I fight.

Gladius ? Sword,

16 Latin Lessons for Beginners.


First and Second Declensions : NominativeSingular and Plural.

27. Illustrative Examples.

Pugnamus, we fight or we arefighting.

Voco, I call or / am calling.

Movent, they move or they are moving.

Parat, he {she or ii) prepares or is preparing.

Tenet, he {she or it) holds or is holding.

a. Notice (l) the two-fold translation of each form in

the present tense.

(2) the use of the personal ending -t to indicate

also she or it.

28. Illustrative Examples.

Romanus, a Roman^the Roman.

Rom^i, Romans, the Romans.

Filius, son, a son, the son.

Filii, sons, the sons.

Nauta, a sailor, the sailor.

Nautae, sailors, the sailors.

Fflia, a daughter, the daughter.

Ffliae, daughters, the daughters.

a. By what change of the endings -us and -a, is the

plural of these Latin nouns formed ? Formsimilarly the plurals of the nouns in the following


b. Notice that, as Latin has no article, the words a or

the may be added or omitted in translating a

Latin noun, according to the requirements of the











Latin Lesscns for Beginners. 17

29 . Illustrative Examples.

the son prepares,

the sons prepare,

the daughter is obedient,

daughters are obedient,

the son and the daughter

are obedient.

Notice that the personal endingf of these Latin verbs

is retained when a noun is the subject, and whenin the English sentence he, she or they is no longer


Filius parat,

Filii parant,

Filia paret,

Filiae parent,

Filius et filia parent,

Rules.— (l) The verb agrees with its subject in

number and person.

(2) Two singular subjects may take the verb in the



Belga, Belgia?i. Gallus, ^ Gaul.'''^

Britannus, Briton. *' Germanus, Germa7i'.'-^

et, a?id. nauta, sailor.

filia, daughter. Romanus, Roman.filius, son. servus, slave, -rw.


31 . I.

1. Romanus pugnat;Romani pugnant. 2. Nauta

videt;nautae vident. 3. Britanni habent

;Belga habet.

4. Gain et German! r.ecant et vastant. 5. Filius et

filiae movent. 6. Nauta et servi

tenemus, movetis, voco.


1. He holds; the Briton is holding; the BritonS

hold. 2. She is calling; the daughter calls; the

daughters are calling, 3. A sailor is slaying;' slaves

parant. 7. Vocas,

18 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

prepare. 4. The Gaul and the German are figfhting-.

5. The Belgians are laying waste; the Germans see.

6. It has; we move; you (sing.) are obedient; you

(plur.) are preparing.


First and Second Declensions: Accusative

Singular and Plural.

32. Illustrative Examples.

Romanus nautam videt,

Romani nautas vident,

Nauta Romanum videt,

Nautae Romanos vident,

Filios et filias hab^,

Belgam et Galium necant .

the Roman sees the sailor,

the Romans see the sailors,

the sailor sees the Roman,the sailors see the Romans,

he has sons and daughters,

they slay a Belgian and a Gaul.

a. What differences are found in the endings of these

Latin nouns, in the singular and the plural, whenthey are used as the subject, and when they are

used as the object of the verb ?

b. The form used as the subject of a finite verb is said

to be in the Nominative case, that used as the

object, in the Accusa,tive case.*

c. How does the order of these Latin sentences differ

from that of the English ?

33. The order followed in the sentences of 32 (sub-

ject, object, verb) is the normal, but by no means the

* These correspond to the English nominative and objective cases. Fox

similar changes in the form of English words compare the pronouns him.,

them, whom.

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 19

invariable, order in Latin, and should be retained by

the beg-inner as being the general rule. It is most

important to observe that in Latin, unlike English, a

change of order will not involve a change of syntactical

relation. The first sentence in 32 will have the samemeaning (with slight differences of emphasis only) if it

be written Nautam Romanus videt or Nautam videt

Romanus or Videt Romanus nautam.


' ^ copia (in singular), plenty, nuntio, are,

supply, abundance; ntintius,

(in plural) forces, troops. prSvincia,

d6,^^,* give. terreo, ere,

"yy'fV f^orse.

fuga, flight.

locus, place.


messenger. .

province. ;lr



vulnero, are, wound.


35 . I.

1. Filium et filiam habet. 2. Belgas et Germandsterretis. 3. Copiae locum vastant. 4. German! copias

et equos parant. 5. Fugam nuntiamus;equum das


copiam habes. 6. Nuntios et nautas vulnerant.


1. You have horses; we have plenty. 2. I see the

place; they lay waste the provinces. 3. The messenger

is wounding the horse. 4. The forces hold the province.

5. The flight terrifies the forces. 6. They give a slave


a slave is announcing the flight.

* The verb <15 is exceptional, in having short a in the stem, except in theforms das. dans (271) and da (463).

20 Latin Lessons for Beginners^


First and Second Declensions: Genitive

Singular and Plural.

36. Illustrative Examples.

Fflium nautae videt, sees the sailor's son ; or,'

he sees the son of the sailor.

Filium servi videt, he sees the slave's son.

Fugam copiarum nuntiat, he annou7ices the flight of


Fugam Romanorum nuntiat, he announces the flight of

the Romans.

a. What endings in these Latin nouns indicate the

relation expressed by the English preposition ^orthe English possessive case ? _

b. Nouns with these endings are said to be in the

Geriitive case.

The genitive is placed more frequently after than

before the noun it modifies.

c. If the first sentence above were written in the order

Nautae filium videt, could it mean, The sailors see

the son? What two meanings could Servi filium

vident have ?


animus, spirit, heart.

c5nfirm6, are, encourage,


impero, are, give orders.

T legatus, ambassador,

envoy ; lieutenant.

porta, gate.

porto, are, carry, bear.

praeda, plunder, booty.

socius, ally.

supero, are, conquer.

victoria, victory,

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 21


1 . Copiam servorum habet;

socii copiam equommhabent. 2. Victoria animum Belgae confirmat


toriae anim5s Belgarum confirmant. 3. Copias legati


leg-ati imperant. 4. Praedam portas;portas

videmus, 5. Films legati copias sociorum superat.

6. Animds copiarum terret. 7. Belgae cdpias parant


copiae Belgarum parent. 8. Filii nautae nuntium vocant.


1. He is announcing the vietory of the lieutenant.

2. The horse is earrying the ambassador’s son. 3. Thetroops conquer the allies of the Belgians. 4. Heconquers the forees of the allies. 5. The forces of the

province are fighting. 6. The victory arouses the

Britons’ spirits. 7. They give a horse; he is giving

orders. 8. You are wounding the sons of the sailor

and of the messenger. 9. The slaves have the plunder


I see the slave’s booty;they kill the envoys’ slaves.

Milfei Soldier.

22 Latin Lessons for Beginners.


First and Second Declensions : Dative SingularAND Plural. Accusative with ad.

39. Illustrative Examples.

Legato victoriam nuntiat, he announces the victory to the


Praedam servis dat, hegives theplunder to the slaves.

Provinciae imperat, he gives orders to the province.

Belgis parent, they are obedient to the Belgians.

a. What endings in the Latin nouns indicate the

relation expressed in the English sentences by the

preposition tof

b. Nouns with these endings are said to be in the

Dative case.

The dative expressing the indirect object is morefrequently placed before than after the direct

object of the verb.

40. Illustrative Examples.

Ad locum copias movet, he moves theforces to the place.

Ad portam servos vocat, he calls the slaves to the gate.

Ad copias et socios praedam portant, they are carrying the

plunder to theforces and the allies.

a. When the preposition to is used in an English phrase

implying motion or direction, the dative should

not be used in the corresponding Latin. In what

way is to expressed in these sentences ?

23Latin Lessons for Beginners.

41 .




to, towards.




respondeo, ere, reply.

retined, ere, hold back,

reporto, are, carry back.

bring back

murus, wall.

oceanus, the ocean.

removeo, ere, move back.


revoco, are, call back,


specto, are, look, face.

remove, withdraw


N.B.— Observe that re- is used in compounds to

denote back or again; so renuutio, bring back word,



Legatus nautis imperat;nautae legato parent.

2. Socios ad insulam vocat;ad muros copias revocamus.

3. Legatus ad provincias c5pias reportat. 4. Legatis

servds et equum datis. 5. Belgae respondes;equum

Belgae removet;Belgae pugnant. 6. Ad oceanum

prdvinciae spectant.

1 . The slaves reply to the sailor;

the sailor is

replying to the slaves. 2. They are recalling the

ambassador to the island. 3. We announce to the

lieutenant the flight of the forces. 4. She is carrying a

supply of water to the place. 5. He moves the troops

back to the walls;

it restrains the allies. 6. The island

faces * towards the province;

I give orders to the


* The English verb face is more commonly used transitively, with thepreposition omitted, “faces the province.”


42 ,I.


24 Latin Lessoi^^s for Beginners.


First and Second Conjugations: Impeiu^ect

Indicative Active.

43. Illustrative Examples.

Pugnabant, they werefighting or they used to fight.

Movebat, he was moving or he used to move.

Tenebamus, we were holding or we used to hold.

Spectabat, it was facing or it used todace.

a. What new element is found in these Latin verbs be-

tween the present stem and the personal ending ?

b. Notice that these new forms may be translated in

two ways, past time being indicated in both eases.*

44. Paradigms.


First Conjugation. Second Conjiigation.


1. amabarn -a-ba-m monebam -e-ba-m

amabas -a-ba-s monebas -e-ba-s

3. amabat -a-ba-t


monebat -e-ba-t

1. amabamus -a-ba-mus monebamus -e-ba-mus

2. amabatis -a-ba-tis monebatis -e-ba-tis

3. amabant -a-ba-nt monebant -e-ba-nt

a. What -new personal ending is used instead of -o in the

first person singular of this tense ?

b. What is the quantity of the final a or e of the stem?

Before which endings is the a in ba short, and before

which is it long ?

* To thz teacher. The translation of the Imperfect .by the English simple

past tenso should not be referred to at this stage ; see 109.

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 25


Britannia, Britain.

firmo, are, strengthen.

fossa, treneh^ moat.

Gallia, Ganl (the coun-

hiemo, are, winter, pass the


Italia, Italy.

pugna, battle, fighting.

gladius, sword.

hasta, spear.

try now called France!.

Germania, Germany.


46 . I.

1. Firmabant, firmabamus, firmabat. 2. Tenebas,

tenebam, tenebatis. 3. Parebant, parabat, paret,

parant. 4. Gladios et hastas reportabat. 5. Ad Ger-

maniam et Italiam copias removebam. 6. Nautae

gladium dabas;nautis respondebant. 7. Britannia ad

Galliam spectat;pugnam Germanis nuntiat. 8. Hie-

mant;copiae hiemabant.

1. He was giving; they used to give; they give.

2. They were terrifying; it used to terrify; she terri-

fies. 3. You were strengthening the place;

I waswintering. 4. It used to have walls and trenches.

5. We were procuring an abundance of swords andspears. 6. The lieutenant was holding Gaul andBritain

;the Gauls and Britons were fighting. 7. We

were replying to the messenger;

the slave used to

carry water to the trench.


Hasta ; Spear.

26 Latin Lessons for Beginners.


First and Second Declensions: AblativeSingular and Plural.

47. Illustrative Examples.

Servum hasta necat, he kills the slave with a spear,

Servum gladio necat, he kills the slave with a sword.

Nuntium cum nauta et servo necat, he kills the messenger

together with the sailor and the slave.

Locum murls et fossis firmat, he strengthens the place

with walls and trenches.

Cum copils hiemat, he is wintering with theforces.

Cum Gallis pugnant, they arefighting with the Gauls.

a. What endings in these Latin nouns indicate the

relations expressed in the English sentences by the

preposition with f

Notice where, in these examples, this new case (known '

as the Ablative) has forms identical with the dative.

Notice also the difference in the quantity of a in

the ablative and in the nominative.

b. Observe that in some of these sentences with has the

force of by means off in others of together with or

along with. In which sense is the Latin pre-

position cum used with the ablative case ?

48. Illustrative Examples.

In Gallia hiemat, he is wintering in Gaul.

In muro pugnant, they arefighting on the wall.

Copias ab Italia revocat, he recalls the troopsfrom Italy.

Cbpias a pugna revocat, he recalls the troopsfrom battle.

Ab legato et socils equos parat, he procures horses fromthe lieutenant and the allies.

* Often by means of may be replaced by the preposition by instead of bywith; as, to perish by (means of)the sward ; to restrain by(means of)force.

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 27

a. What ideas does the ablative case express in these

sentences? What prepositions are used with the

ablative to express these ideas?*

b. Notice that, while ab is found before vowels and

consonants alike, a is not used before a vowel.


collocd) ^e, place together^


comparo, ^e, get together,


compleb, 6re, Jillfull, Jill.

comporto, are, bring together,


confirmo. ^e, strengthen

fully'), encourage.

contineo, ere, hold together,

confine, restrain.

convocS, are, call together,


injuria, wrongdoing,


natura, nature.

silva, wood, forest.

N.B.—In Latin compounds com, con or col, repre-

senting cum, denotes (a) together or (b) completely.


50. I.

1. Cum copiis in Italia hiemabamus. 2. Belgae

locum muro et fossa confirmabant. 3. Romanos a silva

revocabam. 4. Gallos in portis et in muro collocat;

equos gladiis vulnerant. 5. Fossas aqua complemus


copias cum sochs a loco removes. 6. Socids ab insula


socios ad insulam revoco. 7 . Legatus

copias ab injuria continebat. 8. Praedam ad locumcomportabant.

*The Latin Ablative case represents three main ideas (at one timerepresented by three distinct cases) : that of from, which gives it the nameablative; that of with, called the instrumental use ; and that of in, on or at,

sailed the locative use. The prepositions ab, cam and lu, are used with theablative to make clearer the particular use intended.

28 Latin Lessons for Beginners-


1. The slave was fighting with the sailor; he woundsthe sailor with a spear. 2. He used to procure troops

and horses from the provinces. 3, We see islands in

the ocean;

I see a forest on the island. 4. He fills the

walls and the gates with troops;they fight with swords

on the walls. 5. You used to winter in Britain with

the lieutenant and the allies. 6. The nature of the

place restrains the Britons from fighting. 7. From the

walls they announce the victory to the ambassador.

8. They were summoning the messengers to the wall.


First and Siscond Declensions Reviewed: Voca-

tive Case. Predicate Nouns and Appositives.

51. To give all the forms of a Latin noun in the

order in which the cases are usually arranged is called

declining the noun, and the different series of endings

found in Latin nouns are called the Declensions. These

are five in number;the nouns already learned which in

the nominative singular end in -a belong to the First

Declension, tlmse which end in -us to the Second


As it happens that no two of the declensions have

the same ending in the genitive singular, in Latin

vocabularies and dictionaries the nominative and geni-

tive singular of each noun are regularly indicated, in

order to show to which of the' five declensions the

ooun belongs. (Compare 56.)

Latin Lessons for Beginners 29

52. Paradig^ms.


Singular. Plural.

Nominative mensa {table) -a mensae -ae

Genitive mensae -ae mensarum -arum

Dative mensae -ae mensis -is

Accusative mensam -am mensas -as

Vocative mensa -a mensae -ae

Ablative mensa -a mensis -is


Singular. Plural.

Nom. servus {slave) -us servi -i

Gen. servi -i servorum -drum

Dat. servo -6 servis -is

Acc. servum -um servos -6s

Voc. serve -e servi -i

Abl. servo -6 servis -is

53. The Vocative case (like the nominative of

address in English) is used in speaking to a person;as,

Victoriam, Rom^i, nuntiamus, we announce a victory^


• Except in the singular of nouns of the second

declension ending in -us, the vocative is in form always

identical with the nominative, and is accordingly often

omitted in giving the paradigms of declension.

54. Illustrative Examples.

Britannia est insula, Britain is an island.

insulam Britanniam vocant, they callthe islandBritain.

Nuntium, filium legati, vident, they see the messenger, a

son of the lieutenant.

30 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

a. In each of these sentences are two nouns referring’ to

the same person or thing, and in each' sentence

the two nouns are in the same case.

b. In the first sentence, insula forms part of the pred-

icate and describes or defines the subject of the

verb est, and is called a Predicate Nominative


c. In the second sentence, Britanniam forms part of the

predicate and describes or defines the object of the

verb vocant, and is called a Predicate Accusative.

d. In the third sentence, filium* while describing or

identifying nuntium, is not brought into relation-

ship with it through the verb vident. Such a

noun is called an Appositive and is said to be in

apposition with the noun it describes.

Rule.—'Predicate nouns and appc-sitives agree in case

with the noun which they describe.

55. Illustrative Examples.

F£i5 impemt$ he gives orders to Ms son,

or '^he gives orders to her son.

GMtVOCant) they summon their allies.

Cum cOpllS hiemamus* we are wintering with our troops.

a. Notice how in these La itin sentences no special word

is used to express his, her, their our. Latin has

words meaning my, our, your, his, her, its and

their, but seldom uses them when it can readH'

be gathered from the context to whom the person

or thing spoken of belongs.*

m translating' from Latin, these v.oiMg have often to be

iUisested and until Lesson XLVIII. is reached, to be

Tegular in ^anslatmg into Latin. At first these words wfli u*.

out UD paueiiOn'i ^ ineiicace tbeu- onsission.

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 31


amicitia, ae, friendship.

amicus, i, friend.

fluvius, i, river.

habito, are, dwell.

est, he (she or il) is /

incola, ae, inhabitant.

Rbenus, i, Rhhie.

ripa, ae, 3a;z/^(ofariver).

vicus, i, village.

sunt, they are; non, not.



amicitiam confirmo, establish friendship.


57. I.

1. Britanni sunt incolae Britanniae. 2. In Gallia,

provincia Romandrum, habitamus. 3. Copias a ripa

fiuvii revocat. 4. Gallia non est insula;

RomaniGalliam provinciam vocabant. 5. Fili5s et filias in

silvis collocant. 6. Amicitiam cum Gallis, Romani,

confirmatis. 7. Germanos, socios Belgarum, superat.

8. Galli sunt Romanorum amici;Rdmani Gallos amicos

vocant. 9. Vicus muros habet;vicum muris firmamus.

10. Copiae in ripa fiuvii piignabant.

1. We call the inhabitants of the island Britons; an

inhabitant of the island is a Briton. 2. The Romansused to dwell in Italy. 3. They call the Belgians

friends; we summon (our) friends, the Belgians.

4. The flight of the Germans, (their) allies, terrifies the

inhabitants. 5. We are establishing friendship with

the province. 6. You used to have friends, lieutenant.

7. They used to call the ocean a river;the ocean is not

a river. 8. You were not obedient to (your) lieutenant.

9. They lay waste the villages from the banks of the

Rhine to the ocean. 10. He stations (his) troops on

th^ banks.

$2 Latin Lessons for Beginners.


nouns: first declension

amicitia fossa injuria praeda

aqua fug-a insula prdvincia

Belga Gallia Italia pugna

Britannia Germania natura ripa

copia hasta nauta silva

filia incola porta vietdria


amicus fluvius loeus Rdmanusanimus Gallus murus servus

Britannus Germanus nuntius socius

equus g-ladius deeanus vicus

filius legatus Rhenus


oolloco firmd pard speetd

compare habitd portd superd

comporto hiemd pug-nd vastd

confirm© imperd reportd voed

convoco need revoed vulnerd

d5 nuntid


compleo moved removed tened

confined pared responded terred

habed refined video



non est sunt









Latin Lessons for Beginners. 33


ROMOiLUS AND Remus and the Founding of Rome.

(753 B.c.)

59. (Amulius, the rightful king of Alba, an ancient

town of Latium in Italy, was supplanted by his brother

Numitor. To secure himself on his throne, Numitor

slew the sons of Amulius, and when twin sons were

bom to his daughter Rhea Silvia, he ordered them to

be thrown into the river Tiber. As it turned out, the

children were not drowned, but being cast ashore were

found and suckled by a she-wolf as if they had been

her own young. Soon they were discovered by a

shepherd, who brought up the children in his ownhome, until they became hardy youths and leaders

among their comrades. At last their parentage wasrevealed

;and, slaying the usurper Numitor, the

brothers placed their grandfather once more upon his

rightful throne, and then set out to found a city upon

the spot where they had so wonderfully been preserved.)


Roma, Rome. Socius, comrade.

In Italia habitabat Rhea Silvia. Rhea duo {two)

filios habet,* Romulum et Remum. Romulus et Remus,filii Rheae, amicos et socios convocant. Locum in ripa

fluvii occupant {they seize). Dum {while) locum muris

firmant, Romulus et Remus controversiam {dispute)

habent, et pugnant. In pugna Romulus Remum necat.

Turn {then) Romulus regnat {is king), et amici et socii

filidram Rheae Romulo parent. Itaque {and so) locumRomam ex {from, with abl. case) R6mul5 vocamus, et

incolas vocamus R5man5s.* In Latin, as in English, the present may be used to represent vividly

past events or situations. This is known as the Historical Present,

34 Latin Lessons for Beginners.


Second Declension : Nouns in -um. Gender.

60 . In the Second Declension are found not only

nouns like servus, ending in the nominative singular in

-us, but others also which end in -um and which differ

from servus in certain other case-endings.



Singular. Plural.

Nom. templum {temple) -um templa -a

Gen. tempi! -i templdrum -drum

Dat. templo -6 templis -is

Acc. templum -um templa -a

Voc. templum -um templa -a

Abl. templo -6 templis -is


Castra, camp^ a plural noun with singular

meaning, is declined like the plural of templum; viz.,

Nom. castra, Gen. castrorum, Dat. castris, Acc. castra,

Voc. castra, Abl. castris.

61 . Gender in Latin has certain peculiarities not

found in English. As in English, all names of males

are masculine, and all names of females are feminine.

But the gender of what is neither male nor female is not

always neuter, as we regard it in English grammar,

but, as a rule, is determined by the ending of the noun.

This is sometimes called Grammatical Gender as dis-

tinguished from Natural Gender.

In the First Declension the nouns ending in -a are

feminine, with the exception of words like incolaj

nauta and Belga which, as they usually refer to males,

are masculine ^

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 35

In the Second Declension the nouns ending in -us are

masculine, and those ending in -um are neuter.

In Latin vocabularies and dictionaries the gender is

regularly indicated by the letters m.,f. and n.


helium, i, n. wa/'. oppidum, i, n., town.

castra, drum, n., camp. oppugno, are, attack,

expugno, are, storm, assault.

take by stomn. praesidium, i, n., garrison,

frumentum, i, n,, grain, proelium, i, n., battle.

cor7i. -que, \ and.

imperium, i, n., command, renovo, are, renew,

control, rule.


-que never stands alone, but is always

appended to the second of the two words grouped

together;as Romanus Gallusque ( = Romanus et Gallus)

a Roman and a Gaul.*



1 . Frumentum comportabant;copiam frumenti com-

portant. 2. Portam castrorum videmus; portas oppidi

videtis. 3. Praesidium in oppidd colloeat, 4. Castra

fossa firmabat. 5. Oppida vicosque habemus. 6. Copias

a proelio continet. 7. Praesidid imperd. 8. Cdpiae

pugnant;murum oppidi oppugnant

;cdpiae oppidum

castraque expugnant. 9. Imperium prdvinciae filid

dat. 10. In castris Rdmandrum hiematis. 11. Im-

perium in bellis habent.

*When a word has -que appended, the accent is shifted to the syllable

preceding -que ; e.g. Cial'las but Ciallus'que.

36 Latin Lessons for Beginners. ^


1. They renew the war with the Romans. , 2. Wehold the towns with garrisons. 3. He recalls"the

Romans from battle. ' 4. They were killing the garri-

sons of the towns. 5. We station the troops in the

camp. 6. You are obedient to the rule of the Romans.7. He summons (his) allies, the Britons, to the town.

8. The Gauls move (their) camp. 9. We used to fight

with the Britons;we were attacking the -place; we take

the village by storm. 10. An abundance of water and

grain is in the town. 11. He recalls the troops from

the camp to the towns.

The Wall of Romulus.

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 37


Adjectives of the First and Second Declensions.

64. Illustrative Examples.

Magnus vicus,

Magnus est vicus,

Magna insula,

Magnum oppidum.

In magno vico,

Magnae insulae.

Ad magna oppida.

a large village,

the village is large,

a large island,

a large town,

in a large village,

large islands,

to the large towns,

a. Notice how the Latin adjective, unlike the English,

changes its forms when used with nouns differing

in gender or in number or in case.

Rule.—The adjective agrees with its noun in gender,

number and case.

65 • Paradigm.


Singular. Masculine. Feminine. Neuter.

Nom. bonus (good) bona bonumGen. boni bonae boni

Dat. bond bonae bond

Acc. bonum bonam bonumVoc. bone bona bonumAbl.Plural.

bond bona bond

Nom. boni bonae bona

Gen. bondrum bonarum bondrumDat. bonis bonis bonis

Acc. bonds bonas bonaVoc. boni bonae bonaAbl. bonis bonis bonis

38 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

Notice that the masculine of bonus is declined like

servus, the feminine like mensa and the neuter like


66 . The position of the adjective is freer in Latin

than in English. Very frequently the adjective follows

its noun;

so regularly, populus Romanus, the Romanpeople, while a good slave is either bonus servus or

servus bonus. When emphatic or when denoting size,

the adjective commonly precedes;

as magnae cbpiae,



altus, a, um, high, deep.

latus, a, um, broad, wide.

longus, a, um, long.

magnus, a, um, great, large.

multus, a, um, much ;

(in plural) many.

Romanus, a, um (as

numerus, i, m., number.

parvus, a, um, small.

pauci, ae, a, few (used

in the plural only),

periculum, i, n., da7iger.

populus, i, m.,people, nation.

adjective), Roman.


68. I.


The island (sword, garrison) is large. 2. Theislands (swords, garrisons) are small. 3. The swords

(wars, spears) are long. 4. The trench (river, gate) is

wide. 5. The danger (number, abundance) is great.

6. The river (trench) is deep;

the walls are high.

7. Many (few) provinces (towns, villages.)


1. Parvas insulas et magnum oppidum habent.

2. Multa oppida oppugnat;

paucds vic5s expugnat.

3. Locum fossa lata etmurd alto firmant. 4. Periculum

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 39

popull Romani videmus. 5. Mag-nis cum copiis* helium

renovant. 6. Multae provinciae populo R6man5 pare-

bant. 7. Longas hastas et parvos gladios habebatis.

8. Multa oppida muros et portas habent. 9. Magnumnumerum longarum hastarum parat. 10. Fluvii alti

latique Romanos continent.


1. We have many provinces and few allies. 2. Theywere strengthening the camp with broad and deep

trenches. 3. They establish friendship with the Romanpeople. 4. It encourages the hearts of many Gauls.

5. To many friends he gives a large number of slaves.

6. The camp has a wide gate. 7. He recalls the troops

from the small camp to the large camp. 8. The Romanpeople is in great danger. 9. In {literally, by meansof) a long war he conquers many nations. 10. Hestations a large garrison in the small island.

*This order (adjective, preposition, noun) is very frequent. Translate as

If the order were cum iiisignls coplis.

Remains of Roman Camp.

40 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

LESSON XLSecond Declension : Nouns in -er and -ir. Ad-

jectives OF THE First and SecondDeclensions in -er.

69. Besides the nouns ending in -us or in -um, the

second declension has others which in the nominative

singular end in -er or -ir. These nouns are all masculine,

and are declined as follows :

70. Paradigms.



Nom. puer {boy) ager {field) vir {man)

Gen. pueri agri viri

Dat. puer5 agr5 viro

Acc. puerum agrum virum

Voc. puer ager vir

Abl. puero agroPlural.


Nom. pueri agri viri

Gen. puerdrum agrorum virorum

Dat. pueris agris viris

Arc. pueros agrds virds

Voc. pueri agri viri

Abl. pueris agris viris

a. Notice that these nouns have the same case-endings

as the nouns in -us (52), except that in the

nominative and vocative singular, case-endings are


b. Most nouns in -er are declined like ager (having e

befoj'e r only in the nominative and vocative

singular), rather than like puer (with e retained


Latin Lessons for Beginners. 41

71. There are also adjectives of the first and second

declensions which end in -er in the nom. sing, masc.;

of these some are declined like puer and retain e before

r in all genders throughout;

others are declined like

ager and have e before r in the no'minative and vocative

singular masculine only.

72. Paradigms


Singular. Masculine Feminine. Neuter.

Nom. liber {free) libera liberum

Gen. liberi liberae liberi

Dat. libero liberae liberd

Acc. liberum liberam liberum

Voc. liber libera liberum

Abl. liberd libera liberd


Nom. liberi liberae libera

Gen. liberorum liberarum liberdrum

Dat. libeiis liberis liberis

Acc. liberos liberas libera

Voc. liberi liberae libera

Abl. liberis liberis liberis

Singular. Masculine. Feminine. Neuter.

aeger {sicl^ aegra aegrumGen. aegri a.egrae aegri

Dat. aegro aegrae aegro

Acc. aegrum aegram aegrumVoc. aeger aegra aegrumAbL aegrd aegra aegro

42 Latin Lessons FOR Beginners.

Plural. Masculine. Feminine. Neuter.

Nom. aegri aegrae aegra

Gen. aegrorum aegrarum aegrorum

Dat. aegris aegris aegris.

Acc. aegros . aegras aegra

Voc. aegri aegrae aegra

Abl. aegris aegris aegris

73. A Latin vocabulary or dictionary shows whether

a noun ending in -er is declined like puer or ager, byindicating the form of the genitive singular

;and also

shows whether an adjective ending in -er is declined

like liber or like aeger, by indicating the form of the

feminine and neuter nominative;

as, faber, -bri, a work-

man ; vesper, -eri, evening; asper, era, erum, rough;

pulcher, chra, chrum, beautiful!^

74. When an adjeetive agrees with its noun, it does

not necessarily follow that the adjeetive ends with the

same letters as the noun, as may be seen in such

combinations as puer bonus, a good boy ; ager parvus, a

small field; multi nautae, many sailors ; paucorum Bel-

garum, of a few Belgians. In what, then, does the

agreement consist ? See 64.


ager, agri, m., land,field, liberi. Drum, m. (in plural

territory. only), children.

creber, bra, brum, puella, ae, f., girl.

frequent. puer, eri, m., boy.

integer, gra, grum, reliquus,a,um,

liber, era, erum, free. vir, viri, m., man.

^Neither the nouns nor the adjectives of the second declension ending in

•cr are nearly so numerous as those ending in -iis.

t Usually rcllqiius may be best translated by “ the rest of” ; for example,

rellqui Belgae, the remaining Belgians, or better, the rest of the Belgians.

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 43


76 . I.

1. Periculum viri videtis. 2. Pueri puellam terrent.

3. Oppida expugnant agrosque vastant. 4. Integris

cum copils murum oppugnabat. 5. Liberi viris nonparebant. 6. Pauci Belgae multos nautas superant.

7. Reliquis Germanis agios dant. 8. Crebra praesidia

agrum Romanum tenent. 9. Imperium reliquae pro-

vinciae tenebam. 10. Ad parvum agrum reliquam

praedam comportant. 11. Pueros puellasque liberos

vocamus. 12. Liberum populum superabamus.


1. The Germans were laying waste the lands of the

Belgians. 2-. He announces numerous victories. 3. Theslaves are obedient to the man, not to the boy. 4. Withthe rest of the troops we winter in the eamp. 5. Hegives fresh horses to the men. 6. He was ealling

together the rest of the Belgians. 7. You wereannouncing the flight of many sailors. 8. They call

the man a slave, not free. 9. He recalls (his) troops

from the Roman territory. 10. They reply to the

frequent messengers. 11. He stations fresh forces

in the town. 12. The boy he calls (his) son, the girls

(his) daughters.


Third and Fourth Conjugations : PresentIndicative Active.

77. Latin has in all four conjugations of the verb.

In the first and second conjugations the present stem

ends in -a and -e respectively (21. 3.) ;in the third

44 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

conjugation in -e (preceded by a eonsonant or u)*;in the

fourth eonjugation in -L In vocabularies, verbs of the

third conjugation are indicated by ere (not ere as in the

second conjugation);verbs of the fourth conjugation

by ire.

78. Paradigms.


Third Conjugation.Singular.

Fourth Conjugation.

1. rego {I rule) -0 audio (/ hear) i-6

2. regis i-s audis i-s

3. regit i-t

Plural.audit i-t

1. regimus i-mus audimus i-mus

2. regitis i-tis auditis i-tis

3. regunt u-nt audiunt iu-nt

a. Notice (l) that in the third conjugation, as given

above, the stem vowel -e is lost before -5, becomes -u

before -nt and elsewhere becomes -i;and (2) that

in the fourth conjugation, -i becomes -iu before -nt.

b. In all four conjugations long stem vowels (-a, -e, -i)

are shortened before -t and -nt, and are either

shortened or omitted before o. See also 24.


audio, ire, hear. mitto, ere, send.

cogo, ere, bring together^ munio, ire, fortify,

collect. protect.

con'vrenio, ire, come together, reduce, ere, lead back.

assemble. relinquo, ere, leave behind,

duco, ere, lead. leave.

gero, ere, conduct. venio, ire, come.

Phrase : helium gero, wage war.

* There are also a few verbs of the third conjugation in -16. See 287.

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 45


80. I.

1 . Copias cogit;copias ducis

;copias mittunt


reducimus;copias relinquitis. 2. Copiae conveniimt


bellum gerunt;castra muniunt

;agros vastant


terrent. 3. Nuntius venit; nuntiumaudimus. 4. Castra

lata fossa munit. 5. Bellum longum in Gallia gerimus.

6. Copias a proelio reduce. 7. Legati a reliquis Britan-

nis veniunt. 8. Magnum numerum amicorum cogis.

9. Crebros nuntids ad castra mittunt. 10. Legates

Germanorum auditis. 11. Pauci liberi ad locum con-

veniunt. 12. Praedam in silva relinquit.


1. They fortify;they send

;they leave

;they give


they see. 2. You hear; you lead; you call; you

hold. 3. We come; you assemble; he collects; welead

;I lead back. 4. They come with the plunder to

the camp. 5. We are fortifying the place with a wall.

6. He sends the lieutenant to the province with a large

number of Gauls. 7. I collect the rest of the men.

8. She is leading a small horse to the bank. 9. Theboys and girls come from the fields to the gate of the

camp. 10. You are leaving a large garrison in the

camp. 11. They wage wars with the Roman people.

12. He leads the rest of the allies back to (their) lands,

Signum : Standard.

46 Latin Lessons for Beginners.


boy man ally lieutenant

girl children ambassador inhabitant

son slave messenger- people

daughter friend sailor ( = nation)


place wall water forest

village gate ocean river

town field island bank

WAR.Nouns. Verbs.

troops war fight wage (war)

camp battle kill renew (war)

trench fighting wound summon (troops)

garrison danger conquer procure (troops)

spear flight lay waste station (troops)

sword victory fortify restrain (troops)

command plunder attack collect (troops)

take by storm pass the winter


horse grain province abundance


have lead call collect

give move carry assemble

hold see fill give orders

come hear prepare be obedient

send reply frighten strengthen

leave announce recall establish

remove carry back face dwell

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 47


The Romans and their Neighbors.

82. Primo {at first) Roma parvus _est vicus, et

pauc5s incolas habet. Multi populi in Italia habitant,

et bella proeliaque sunt crebra. Oppida murbs por-

tasque habent;incolae parvis gladiis et longis hastis

pugnant. Romani parvos agros habent et multos finiti-

mos {neighbors)


Saepe {ofteii) finitimi agrum Romanumvastant et Romanos servosque in agris necant. Nuntius

ad reliquos Romanos venit;periculum populb nuntiat


Romani copias cogunt;paucos viros in muris relinquunt

et cum reliquis copiis finitimos oppugnant.

Romani fortiter {bravely) pugnant et victbriae sunt

crebrae. Etiam {also) saepe oppida finitimorum ex-

pugnant, et multos liberbs populbs superant. Postremb

{at last) populus Rbmanus imperium Italiae habet;ad

pauca oppida praesidia mittit;agrbs Rbmanis dat et

oppida magnis praesidiis tenet. Haec {these, neut. ace.)

oppida Rbmani colbnias {colonies) vocant. Cum reliquis

finitimis amicitiam cbnfirmant et incolas socibs vocant.


Third Declension ; Consonant Stems.

83. Nouns of the third declension have their genitive

singular ending in -is, and the great majority have

their stem ending in a consonant. This consonant stem

may be obtained by omitting the genitive ending -is.

The regular endings of masculine and feminine nouna

are shown in the following paradigm.

48 Latin Lessons for Beginners.



Masculine a^id Feminine Nouns.

Singular. Plural.

Nom. hiems {winter) -s hiemes -es

Gen. hiemis -is hiemum -umDat. hiemi -i hiemibus -ibus

Acc. hiemem -em hiemes -es

Voc. hiems -s hiemes -es

Abl. hieme -e hiemibus -ibus

84. Very few nouns of this declension, however, are

declined exactly like hiems. The combination of a stem

ending in a consonant with the -s of the nominative

singular leads to various changes, among which the

following are the most important and frequent

I. Stems ending in g or c have their nominative

singular in x ( = gs or cs); as, rex, regis (stem

reg-);dux, duds (stem due-).

II. Stems ending in t or d omit these letters before -s

of the nominative singular;

as, virtus, virtutis

(stem virtut-);pes, pedis (stem ped-).

III. Stems ending in 1 or r omit s in the nominative


as, consul, consulis (stem consul-)


agger, aggeris (stem agger-).


Pater {father), mater {mother^ and frater

{brother), whose stems end in tr, insert e before

r in the nominative and vocative singular;


pater, patris (stem patr-).

rv. Stems ending in n omit both n and s in the

nominative singular and change the vowel pre-

ceding n to 5; as, legio, legionis (stem legion-);

homo, hominis (stem homin-).

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 49

V. Further, with very few exceptions, the words of

more than one syllable whose stem ends in p,

g, c, t, or d, and which have short e in the

final syllable of the nominative and vocative

singular, have in the other cases short i ; as,

princeps, principis (stem princip-) ; mfles, militis

(stem milit-) ; obses, obsidis (stem obsid-).

85. It follows, therefore, that in order to decline a

masculine or feminine noun of the third declension, it

will be necessary to know both the nominative and the

genitive singular, both of which are clearly indicated in

Latin vocabularies and dictionaries.

86. Paradigms


Mute*" Stems.


Nom. rex virtus princeps miles

Gen. regis virtutis principis militis,

Dai. regi virtuti principi militi

Ace. regem virtutem principem militem

Voc. rex virtus princeps miles

Adi. rege virtute principe milite

_ Plural.

Nom. reges virtutes principis militis

Gen. regum virtutum principum militum

Dat. regibus virtutibus principibus militibus

Ace. reges virtutes principis militis

Voc. reges virtutes principis militis

Adi. regibus virtutibus principibus militibus

* Consonants are classed as mules, includingp b, d, g, p, t. c t liquids

1) I Tiasala <m. n) ; and spirants (a, t}»

50 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

Liquid and Nasal Stems.


Nom. consul pater legid homdGen. cdnsulis patris legidnis hominis

Dai. consul! patri legidni homini

Acc. consulem patrem legidnem hominemVoc. consul pater legid homdAbl. cdnsule patre


legidne homine



cdnsules patres legidnes homines

Gen. consulum patrum legidnum hominumDat. consulibus patribus legidnibus hominibus

Acc. cdnsules patres legidnes homines

Voc. cdnsules patres legidnes homines

Abl. cdnsulibus patribus legidnibus hominibus


Caesar, Caesaris, m., Caesar, obses, obsidis, m., hostage.

contendo, ere, hasten, princeps, principis, m.,

eques, equitis, m., horse- ingman, chiefman,chief,



plural, cavalry, rex, regis, m., king.

legio, legionis, £., legion, signum, i, n., signal;

miles, militis, m., soldier. standard.

munitio, munitionis, i., fortification.


88. I.

1. Milites equitesque mittit;

leg-ionem militum cumequitibus mittit. 2. Milites a rege veniunt

;ad Caesarem

conveniunt. 3. Praedam legioni dat;reliquam prae-

dam equitibus dabat. 4. Amicitiam cum principibus

confirmant; bellum cum Caesare gerunt. 5. Periculum

legionis video; legio signum videt. 6. Milites cum

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 51

equitibus castra muniunt;

castra munitionibus firma-

mus. 7. Rex obsides Caesar! dat;principes mag-num

numerum obsidum ad Caesarem mittunt. 8. Caesar

multas le-giones cogit;

paucos equites in provincia

cogunt. 9. Signum proelii (literally of^ freely /<?r) dat


copiae ad munitiones contendunt.


1 . The king is waging war with the chief men;the

chiefs are waging war with the king. 2. He is recall-

ing the legion from the fortifications;he is leading

back the soldiers of the legion. 3. We are sending

hostages to Caesar;we give the control of the legions

to Caesar. 4, He hastens with a legion to the camp


he fills the camp with soldiers. 5. A few soldiers were

fighting with a large number of cavalry;we conquer

the soldiers, 6. He gives orders to the chief men;the

chief men are not obedient to the king. 7. We see the

king’s standard;we hasten to the standard. 8. The

cavalry have a large number of horses;he gives the

horses of the cavalry to the hostages. 9. He is winter-

ing in the camp with the cavalry;

the rest of the

soldiers he leaves in (their) fortifications.

Caius Julius Caesar. (100-44 B*C.)

52 Latin Lessons for Beginners.


Third and Fourth Conjugations: Imperfect

Indicative Active.

89. Paradigms.


Third Conjugation. Fourth Conjugation.


1. regebam -e-ba-m audiebam 'ie-ba-m

2. regebas -e-ba-s audiebas -ie-ba-s

3. regebat -e-ba-t audiebat -ie-ba-t


1. regebamus -e-ba-mus audiebamus -ie-ba-mus

2. regebatis -e-ba-tis audiebatis ;ie-ba-tis

3. regebant -e-ba-nt audiebant -ie-ba-nt

a. Compare these forms with the imperfect indicative

active of the first and second conjugations (44),

and observe that in the third conjugation the final

-e of the stem is lengthened to -e, and that in the

fourth conjugation the final -i of the stem is

replaced by -ie. Thus in all four conjugations the

tense-sign -ba- is preceded by a long vowel.

90. Illustrative Examples.

Agros non habent, they have not lands., or they do not have


Non reggbat, he was not ruling, or he did not rule.

a. The present and imperfect indicative may be trans-

lated also by means of do and did respectively,

chiefly with a negative or in a question, but some-

times also for the sake of emphasis.

53Latin Lessons for Beginners.


arma, orum, n., ^in plural only) arms.

auxjilium, i, n., aid, help; in plural, auxiliaries, rein-


defends, ere, defend.

discedo, ere, depart, withdraw.

hiberna, orum, n., (in plural only) / winter


impedimentum,i,n., hindrance; in plural, baggage.

impedio, ire,

peto, ere,

pono, ere,

trado, ere,


hinder, impede,

ask, seek,


give up, surrender


castra pono, pitch a camp.

N.B.—Review the declension of castra (60),


92. I.

1. Portam castrorum defendebamus;castra munieba-

mus. 2. Castra ponebant, Iccumque munitionibus

firmabant. 3. Ab hibemis discedit;

ad Caesarem

venit. 4. Auxilium a Caesare non petebam. 5. Obsides

popul5 Rdmano tradunt. 6. Silva equites non impedie-

bat. 7. Amicds ad arma vocabas. 8. Legidnes cumimpedimentis veniebant. 9. Viri liberos Caesari trade-

bant. 10, Auxilia magnd in periculd sunt. 11. Regemab injuria defendebatis. 12. Legiones in silva ponit.

13. Ab agris discedebant et ad hibema contendebant.

14. Impedimenta armis defendant. 15. Impediebam;


;n5n audiunt.

54 Latin Lessons for Beginners.


1. They surrender (their) arms and bag-gfag-e. 2. Wewere seeking the friendship of the king and the leading

men, 3. A deep trench hinders the flight of the

auxiliaries, 4, They were withdrawing from the war,

5. You were not waging war; we do not. wage war,,

6. We were pitching (our) camp, 7. They were forti-

fying (their) winter camp. 8. The legions with the

auxiliaries defend the fortifications. 9. It did not

hinder the war. 10. They used to leave (their) baggage

in the woods. 11. We place a garrison in the island.

12, She announces the victory of the legion to the

cavalry. 13. They were withdrawing from Britain to

their winter quarters. 14. Few* defend the king;

many seek flight;the rest give up (their) arms.


Third Declension : Consonant Stems (continued).

93. In the third declension, as in the second, neuter

nouns have the nominative, accusative and vocative

cases alike in each number, and in the plural these

cases end in -a. In the nominative singular, neuter

nouns of the third declension have no case-ending,

but consist merely of the stem, generally with some

change in the vowel of the final syllable;

as, caput,

capitis (stem capit-);

flumen, fluminis (stem flumin-)


jus, juris (stem jur-);tempus, temporis (stem temper-);

opus, operis (stem oper-).t Especially irregular is iter,

itineris (stem itiner-).

*The adjective is often used with the force of a noun ; few=few men.

tThe stems of Jus, tenipiis and opus really ended in -s, but it was the

rule in Latin for s between vowels to become r.

55Latin Lessons for Beginners.

94. Paradigms.


Neuter Nouns.


Nom. n5men corpus iter “Gen. n5minis corporis itineris -is

Dat. nomini corpori itineri -i

Acc. nomen corpus iter —Voc. nomen corpus iter —Abl. nomine corpore itinere '6


Nom. nomina corpora itinera -a

Gen. nominum corporum itinerum -um

Dat. nSminibus corporibus itineribus -ibus

Acc. nomina corpora itinera -a

Voc. nomina corpora itinera -a

Abl. nSminibus corporibus itineribus -ibus


ag-men, -minis, n., line of

march, column.

flu-men, -minis, n., river.

iter, itineris, n.,road, march,

lat-us, -eris,n., side,fla7ik.

op'Us, -eris, n., work.

pal-us, -udis, f., marsh.

pec-us, -oris, n., cattle,


sal-us, -utis, f., safety.

virt-us, -utis, f., valor.

vuln-us, -eris, n., wound.

Phrases : magnis itineribus, byforced marches.

in itinere, 07i the anarch.

a latere, on theflank.*

* Latin tends to look upon many actions as proceeding or as viewed/romft certain quarter, where in English they would be considered as happeningwthat quarter; as, ex cqao pfignabat, he was fighting on horseback.

56 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

N.B.—Nouns of the third declension are regularly

neuter when they end in -men, or in -us with genitive

in -ris. Those ending in -us with the genitive in -dis

or -tis are regularly feminine. Feminine also are

nouns ending in -tas, -tudo, -i5, -x, or in -s preceded bya consonant. Nouns ending in -or, -er, or in -es are

regularly masculine. (But nouns referring to males are

of course masculine, as rex, a king, and nouns referring

to females are feminine, as mulier, a woman. See 61.)


96. I.

1. Ab opere discedunt. 2. Salutem non petebant.

3. Paludes iter agminis impediebant. 4. Magna cumvirtute in flumine pugnat. 5. In paludibus silvisque

pecora relinquunt. 6. Multa vulnera habent;multi vul-

nerahabent. 7. Agmen alatereoppugnant. 8. Britanni

magnum pecoris numerum habebant. 9. Magnis iti-

neribus ad ripam fluminis contendimus. 10. Flumenpaludesque reliqua latera castrorum muniunt.


1. They see the long columns. 2. The rivers did not

hinder the march of -the soldiers. 3. On the marchthey come to a river and a large marsh. 4. The herds

and the rest of the plunder he gives to the soldiers.

5. In valor is safety. 6. They see the great works of

the Romans. 7. He has a wound in (his) side. 8. Theremaining side of the island looks towards Gaul.

9. They were leading the cattle to the marshes.

10. The columns did not have an abundance of grain,

horses and cattle.

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 57



97. Besides the four prepositions ab, ad, cum and in,

Latin has many others, some governing the accusative

-case, some the ablative, and a few both accusative and

ablative. No prepositions govern the genitive or the

dative case.

98. Illustrative Examples.

A flumine contendunt.

Ad ripam veniunt.

Ante pugnam discedit.

Contra Gallos pugnat.

Cum legione contendit,

De proelio audit.

Ex agris conveniunt,

In provincia hiemat.

In prdvinciam venit.

Inter silvas est flumen.

Per silvam venit.

Post pugnam discedit.

Propter paludes discedit.

Sine periculo venit,

Trans Rhenum contendunt.

they hastenfrom the river,

they come to the bank,

he withdraws before the battle,

hefights against the Gauls,

he hastens with a legion,

he hears about the battle,

they assemble out of (orfrom)

the fields.

he winters in the province,

he comes into (or to) the


the river is between theforests,

he comes through theforest,

he withdraws after the battle,

he withdraws on account of the


he comes without da^iger.

they hasten across the Rhine.

a. The meaning of each of these prepositions should be

learned, and also the case which follows it. Notice

especially the difference between in with the accu-

sative, and in with the ablative;ab and ex with

the ablative;and ad and in with the accusative.

58 Latin Lessons for Beginners.


cognosco, ere, learn, find inopia, ae, f., want, scarcity.

out, ascertain. magnitu-do,-dinis, f .


consilium, i, n., plan, design. ness, extent.

expl6ra-tor,-toris, m., scout, pax, pads, i., peace.



de pace (with veiiio or mitto) to treatfor peace,

to seek peace.


100. i.

1 . Sine impedimentis per provinciam in Italiam con-

tendebamns. 2. Post proelium legati ad Caesarem de

pace et amicitia veniunt. 3. Auxilia ex hibernis et a

Caesare conveniunt. .. 4. Propter magnitudiiieLi muni-

tionum castra n5n oppugnant. 5. Copias trans ‘''henum

contra Germanos ducis. 6. Ante proelium eqi te-- 'uter

legidnes et auxilia collocat. 7. Propter per in

insula cum copiis n5n hiemabat. 8. In ^ ir.2 per

exploratores de salute legidnis cognoscit. '. Fi i.ncn-

tum ex agris in castra comportabatis. 10 S :n .;:qui-

tibus a Caesare ad legatum veniunt. 11. V/X ob ' nbu^^

iter cdgnoscimus. 12. Crebros expldratdi cs trs _s flu

mina mittebat.


1. We used to have lands across the river Rhine in

Gaul. 2. On account of the scarcit}'^ of corn he leads

the troops baek from Britain into Gaul 3. They comewithout danger through the woods and marsh js to

Caesar. 4. He stations the auxiliaries on the bank of

the river. 5. Envoys come from the Britons to treat for

peace. 6. They were fighting between the rivers

against the cavalry. 7. Before the war they ask aid

59Latin Lessons for Beginners.

from the Roman people. 8. After the victory we were

ascertaining’ from scouts the plans of the leading’ men.

9. On account of the g’reatness of the danger they

strengthen the place with extensive {magnus) fortifica-

tions. 10. Out of a large number few surrender (their)

arms to Caesar. 11. Without a wound we defend the

camp against the legions. 12. On account of the

wounds of the soldiers he leads the column back across

the marsh into the land of (his) allies, the Belgians.


Perfect Indicative Active.

101. Illustrative Examples.

Pugnavi, I havefought^ or Ifought.Pugnavistif you (s.) havefought^ or you fought.Pugnavit, he hasfought^

or hefought.

Pugnavimus, we havefought, or wefought.Pugnavistis, you (pi.) havefought, or youfought.Pugnaverunt, they havefought, or * theyfought.

The personal endings of this tense, known as the

Perfeet Indicative Active, are -I, -isti, -it, -imus,

-istis, -erunt. Observe the twofold translation,

both by the present perfect tense (with have) and

by the simple past tense of English.

102. In the same way as pugnavi is formed frompugno, may be formed the perfect indicative active of

colloco, firmo, nuntio, pare, supero, vasto, voco, vulnero,

and their compounds. Similarly the perfect of compleo

is complevi; of peto, petivi, and of munio, munivi.

The personal endings of all perfects in -vi are iden-

tical, no matter to which conjugation the verb belongs.

60 Latin Lessons for Beginners.


appell5, are, avi, namcy call.

despero, are, avi, despair ;

(with de and abl., — of).

exspecto, are, avi, await.

homo, hominis, m., man.

multitu-do, -dinis, f.,

large number^ amount.

obtineo, ere, hold, possess.

occupo, are, avi, seize.

postulo, are, avi, demand.


104. I.

1. Frumentum in oppidum comportavemnt. 2. Cas-

tra oppugnavit. 3. Principes convocavisti. 4. Locumhominibus complevimus. 5. Imperium occupavi. 6.

Contra populum Romanum pugnavistis. 7. Praedampostulant. 8. Armis Galliam obtinemus. 9. Locummuniebas. 10. Auxilium petimus. 11. Auxilia petivi-

mus. 12. De salute desperavit. 13.- Multitudinem

hominum ex agris convocaverunt. 14. Copias exspec-

tavimus. 15. Insulam Britanniam appellant. 16. Agrosvastavistis. 17. Locum munitionibus firmaverunt.


1. They have not despaired of victory. 2. We have

seized the town. 3. You conquered the Belgians. 4.

He recalled the soldier. 5. He has taken the town bystorm. 6. They wounded a man. 7. He was ascer-

taining the number of men. 8. They seek safety. 9.

They have sought safety by flight. 10. We have called

the king friend. 11. AVe fortifled the camp. 12. Theydemanded aid. 13. They hold control of the province.

14. You announced the battle. 15. We have laid waste

the rest of the island. 16. He summoned the soldiers.

17. They filled the trench with water.

, Latin Lessons for Beginners. 61


Perfect Indicative (continued).

105. There are in all, four ways of forming- the

perfect tense in Latin.

(1) The perfect in -vi (lOl).

(2 ) The perfect in -ul, as

vet5, are, vetui {forbid). habeo, ere, habui {have).

cold, ere, colui {till). aperid, ire, aperui {open).

(3) The perfect in -si (often with euphonie changes

through combination with a consonant immediately

preceding), as

maned, eve, mansl {remain), jubed, ere, jussi {order).

scribd, ere, scrips! {write), ducd, ere, duxi {lead).

mittd, ere, misi {send). regd, ere, rexi {rule).

gerd, ere, gessi {conduct). sentid, ire, sens! {feel).

(4) The perfect in -I, as

defendd, ere, defend! cdnstitud, ere, cdnstitui

{defend). {determine).

Sometimes accompanied by reduplication, as

dd, dare, dedi {give). cadd, ere, cecidi {fall).

Sometimes accompanied by vowel lengthening, as

juvd, are, juvi {aid). moved, ere, mdvi {move).

vided, ere, vidi {see). legd, ere, leg! {read).

agd, ere, eg! {d(f. venid, ire, veni {come).

106. Notice especially that—

a. No one of the four methods of forming the perfect

is restricted to one conjugation;

nor does any

conjugation use only one method. It will be

found, however, that in the first and fourth con-

jugations, the perfect in -vi is most frequent;in

the second conjugation, the perfect in -ui ; in the

third conjugation, the perfeet in -si or in -L

62 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

b. Thougfh the methods of formation are so various, yet

all perfects have the same personal endings, viz.,

-i -imus

-isti -istis

-it -erunt



First Conj. Second Conj. Third Conj. Fourth Conj.


1 . amavi monui rexi audivi

2. amavisti monuisti rexisti audivisti

3. amavit monuit


rexit audivit

1. amavimus monuimus reximus audivimus

2. amavistis monuistis rexistis audivistis

3. amaverunt monuerunt rexerunt audiverunt

Agmen : Soldiers on the March.

- Latin Lessons for Beginners. 6?


C6gn5sc5, ere, cognovi, learn.

c5go, ere, coegi, collect.

compleo, ere, complevi,^?//.

contendo, ere, contend!,


defends, ere, defend!, defend.

discedo, ere, discess!,


do, dare, ded!, give.

duco, ere, dux!, lead.

gero, ere, gess!, wage.

mitto, ere, m!s!, send.

moved, ere, mov!, ?nove.

peto, ere, petm, ask, seek.

pono, ere, posu!, place.

relinquo, ere, rel!qu!, leave.

responded, ere, respond!,


tradd, ere, tradid!.


venid, !re, ven!, co7ne.

vided, ere, v!d!, see.

N.B.—The perfect active stem is got by omitting -i

of the first person singular as given in the vocabulary.




1. Gessimus, gesserunt. 2. Tradidit, tradidisti.

3.' Misi, misisti. 4. Movit, reliquit, relinquit. 5. Con-

venerunt, viderunt. 6. Coegimus, cogimus, disces-

simus, discedimus. 7. Respondet, respondit. 8. Move-

mus, mdvimus. 9. Venimus, venimus. 10. Defenditis,

contendistis, defendistis.


1. He has sent, we sent. 2. They have sought, you

have sought. 3. I placed, you have placed. 4. Wehave given, we have filled. 5. You left, you have

learned. 6. They surrendered, they withdrew. 7. Hesees, he saw. 8. We defend, we have defended,

9. They are collecting, they have collected. 10. Theyhave lands, they have had lands.

64 Latin Lessons for Beginners.



SLger frumentum liberi praesidium

arma hiberna numerus proelium

auxilium impedimentum oppidum puella

bellum imperium periculum puer

castra inopia populus signum

consilium vir


ag:men iter munitio princeps

Caesar latus obses rex

eques legio opus salus

explorator magnitudo palus virtus

fiumen miles pax vulnus

homo multitude pecus


altus latus magnus parvus

creber liber multus pauci

integer longus reliquus


appello expugno obtineo oppugno

desperb exspecto occupo postulS


audio defendo mitt5 reduco

cognosco discedo munio relinquo

cogo duco peto trado

contend© gero p5n5 veni5

convenio impedio

Interior of the Pantheon.

65Latin Lessons for Beginners.


The Seizure of the Sabine Maidens.


muli-er, -eris, f,, woman.

Sabini, orum, m., the Sabines, a tribe livingf near Romeo

Prim5 {at first) Roma mag'num numerum virbrum

habebat sed {bub) paucas mulieres. Propter inopiam

mulierum Romulus, rex Romanorum, hoc {this) con-

silium cepit {adopted). Incolas multorum oppidorum

ad ludos {games) convocavit. Magna multitudb Sabi-

norum cum mulieribus liberisque convenit. Dum {while)

Sabini in agris ludos spectant {are watching), subito

{suddenly) Romulus signum Romanis dat. Romani- ad

mulieres contendunt, et multas filias Sabinorum in

munitioneS portant. Turn {then) principes Sabinorum

legates ad Romulum miserunt et filias postulaverunt,

sed Romani praedam non tradiderunt. Itaque {therefore)

propter magnitudinem injuriae, Sabini bellum cumpopulo Romano gesserunt, et auxilium ab reliquis incolis

Italiae petiverunt.

Primb cbpiae Rbmanbrum Sabinbs superaverunt


multbs homines necaverunt, et pecora frumentumqueabripuerunt {carried off)


et multa oppida expugnaverunt.

Sed post multa proelia, Tarpeia, puella Rbmana, portam

explbratbribus Sabinbrum prbdidit {betrayed). Sabini

per portam magnas cbpias in munitibnes Rbmanbrummiserunt. Rbmani et Sabini acriter {fiercely) pugnant,

et proelium diu {for a long time) est dubium {undecided).

Subitb filiae Sabinbrum inter milites contendunt;nbn

sine magnb periculb cbpias a proelib retinent;Sabinbs

et Rbmanbs ad pacem et amicitiam vocant. Itaque

66 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

mllites arma deposuenint {laid aside)\

et Romuluspacem et amicitiam cum principibus Sablnorum c5n-

flrmavit. Sablni ex suis {their own) oppidis vicisque

discedunt et cum Rdmanis habitant. Ita {thus) Romanumerum incolarum duplicat {doubles).

(Tarpeia was punished for her treachery. She bar-

gained with the Sabine leader that for reward she

should receive what the soldiers wore on their left

arms, meaning their gold bracelets. They, howevei,

either mistaking her meaning or despising her treason,

threw upon her the heavy shields which also they wore

on their left arms. The weight of these soon crushed

her to death.)

Arma : Arms.

Latin Lessons for -Beginners. 67


Adjectives of the Third Declension.

112. Adjectives of the third declension are classified

as adjectives of one,, two or three terminations,

according to the number of forms used in the nomina-

tive singular for the different genders.

Adjectives of three terminations end in -er, m-, -ris,

f., -re, n., and are all declined like acer; adjectives of

two terminations end in -is, m. and f., -e, n., and are all

declined like fortis; adjectives of one termination, for

the most part end in -s or in -x, m., f., n., and are

declined like prudens and felix respectively.

113. Paradigms.


{a) acer, sharp.

ii'lNGULAR. Masculine. Feminine. Neuter.

Nom. acer acris acre

Gen. acris acris acris

Dat. acri acri acri

Acc. acrem acrem acre

Voc. acer acris acre

Abl. acri acri acri


Nom. acres acres acria

Gen. acrium acrium acriumDat. acribus acribus acribus

Acc. acres acres acria

Voc. acres acres acria

Abl. acribus acribus acribus

68 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

{b) fortis, brave.

Singular. Plural.

Mas. & Fem. Neut. Mas. & Fem. Neut.

Nom. fortis forte fortes fortia

Gen. fortis fortis fortium fortium

Dat. forti forti fortibus fortibus

Acc. fortem forte fortes fortia

Voc. fortis forte fortes fortia

AbL forti forti fortibus fortibus

(c) felix, happy.

Nom. felix felix felices felicia

Gen. felicis felicis felicium felicium

Dat. felici felici felicibus felicibus

Acc. felicem felix felices felicia

Voc. felix felix felices felicia

Abl. felici felici felicibus felicibus

{d) ’ptu&QVLSy prudent.

Nom. prudens prudens prudentes prudentia

Gen. prudentis prudentis’

prudentium prudentium

Dat. prudenti prudenti prudentibus prudentibus

Acc. prudentem prudens prudentes . prudentia

Voc. prudens prudens prudentes prudentia

Abl. prudenti prudenti prudentibus prudentibus

114. {a) Observe carefully the case-endings of these

adjectives as compared with the case-endings of the

nouns of the third declension, given in 86 and 94. In

which cases are the endings identical in noun and

adjective? In which cases are the endings different?

{b) Notice, further, that Latin vocabularies give

the nominative only of adjectives of two or three

terminations, but the nominative and genitive of adjec-

tives of one termination. See 115.

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 69


communis, e, common^ general^ public,

du-plex, -plicis, twofold^ double,

eques-ter, -tris, -tre, of cavalry^cavalry.

incolumis, e,

omnis, e,

par, paris,

ped-es, -itis, m.,

pedes-ter, -tris, tre,

pes, pedis, m.,

rec-ens, -entis,

safe^ unharmed^ intact,



foot-soldier; inplur., infantry.

of infantry^ infantry,


newy recent.


116. I.

1. Translate the following phrases Communis^alus, commune consilium, duplex fossa, duplex murus,

equestre proelium, omnes Galli, omnis Gallia, omnia

arma, omnes pedites, omnes pedes, incolumis legid,

par numerus, pedestres copiae, recens injuria, recens



1. Animds omnium socidrum cdnfirmat. 2. Pedites

omnia arma equitibus tradiderunt. 3. De communisalute desperavimus. 4. Cum pedestribus cdphs salu-

tem fugat petivit. 5. Parem numerum pedum omneshomines habent. 6. Omnes pedites trans duplicem

fossam ducebat. 7. Propter recentes injurias Galldrum

*These phrases all occur in Exercises ii. and in. These and similar com-binations should be given the pupil for practice in declension.

tTranslate fuga here by injliaht (literally, by means offlight).

70 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

obsides postulavit. 8. Cum incolumi legione ex oppido

discessi. 9. Ante equestre proelium auxilium a princi-

pibus petivit. 10. Pedestres c5pias in omnibus oppidis



1. They have fortified the camp with a double wall.

2. He does not see the danger of a cavalry battle. 3.

He has learned the common plan of all the Gauls. 4.

All came safe through the marshes. 5. Caesar has

terrified all Gaul by (his) recent victory. 6. With an

equal number of foot-soldiers and auxiliaries he waslaying waste all the lands. 7. He hastens into Italy

without (his) forces of infantry. 8. He replied to all the

messengers. 9. They wounded the soldier’s foot and

side. 10. After the cavalry battles they sent envoys

to treat for peace.


Sum : Present Indicative.

117. Paradigm.



1. sum, I am.

2. es, thou art^you are.

3. est, he {she or it) is.


1. sumus, we are.

2. estis, you are.

3. sunt, they are.

a. How far do the personal endings agree with those

already learned? (The stem is es-, from which,

in certain forms, e is omitted.)

b. Review 54 and 64 on the agreement of a predicate

noun or adjective with the subject.

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 71

118._ Illustrative Examples.

Iter est per provinciam, there is a roadthrough theprovince.

Sunt itinera per silvam, there are reads through the forest.

Non est copia frumenti, there is not a supply ofgrain.

a. Note that Latin has no equivalent for the unemphatic

introductory word there


the subject (which in

English is transposed) is, of course, in the nomma-tive case.

119. Hitherto the imperfect indicative has been trans-

lated quite differently from the perfect indicative; as,

ducebat, he was leadings he used to lead;

duxit, he led^ he has led


appellabat, he was callings he used to call


appellavit, he called^ he has called.

But in such a sentence as He led his forces annually

against the enemy^it is clear that he led has the force of

he used to lead, and the Latin equivalent would therefore

be ducebat, not duxit.

So in the sentence They called the island Britain, if the

meaning is that they were in the habit of so calling it,

we should use appellabant, but appellaverunt should beused if the sentenee refers to the first naming of the


The English past tense, therefore, when used to ex-

press what was habitual or repeated, will be translated

by the Latin imperfeet indieative;when used merely

to state that something happened in past time, by the

Latin perfect indicative’.

n Latin Lessons for Beginners.


aequus, a, um, fair, right. inimicus, a, um, unfriendly,

amicus, a, um, friendly. hostile.

certus, a, um, fixed, certain, iniquus, a, um, unfair,

fortis, e, brave. unjust.

gravis, e, heavy, severe, jubeo, ere, jussi, order.

serious. levis, e, light, slight,

iddneus, a, um, fit, suitable. unimportant.

N.B.—Notice the use of the prefix in- to negative the

meaning of the adjective to which it is joined;so also

incertus, uncertain, and impar, U7iequal,


121 . - I.

1. Belgae sunt fortes. 2. Amici sumus. 3. Noninimicus es. 4, Locus non est iddneus. 5. Aequumest. 6. Magnd in periculd estis. 7. Castra parva sunt.

8. Flumen est inter equites et castra. 9. Insula ad

Galliam spectabat. 10. Oppidum occupavimus;oppida

tenebamus. 11. Jubemus, jubebamus, jussimus. 12.

Equestria proelia sunt levia. 13. Grave est bellum.

14. Rex sum. 15. Oppida muris et fossis muniebant.

16. Certum numerum militum misisti. 17. Fossa est

ante oppidum. 18. Imperium Caesari, viro forti et

iddned, dederunt. 19. Consilium est iniquum. 20. In

Gallia sunt vici et oppida. 21. Imperium obtinebat.


1. The men are brave and free. 2. The danger is

slight. 3. The wounds are serious. 4. You are brave

soldiers. 5. You are the king’s daughter. 6. There is

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 73

great danger. 7. Yon are a leading man of the Britons.

8. You are leading. 9. They had lands across the

river in Gaul. 10. The Britons dwelt in villages. 11.

He ordered;he orders. 12. They were hastening.

13. There is a scarcity of grain. 14. The troops are

fresh. 15. Victory is certain. 16. The camp is in a

suitable place. 17. They brought their grain into the

towns. 18. He named the town Rome;they called the

inhabitants Romans. 19. There are brave men in the

legion. 20. It is unfair. 21. The garrisons are equal.


Present Infinitive Active. Complementary


122o The forrnation of the present infinitive in each

of the four conjugations and in the irregular verb summay be learned from the following paradigms.



First Conjugation.

Second Conjugation.

Third Conjugation.

Fourth Conjugation.

Irregular Verb sum.

amare, to love.

monere, to advise.

regere, to rule.

audire, to hear.

esse, to be.

a. Notice that it is the present infinitive endings that

are given in vocabularies, in order to show to

which of the conjugations a verb belongs.

74 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

123. Illustrative Examples.

Locum oppugn^e contendit, he hastens to attack the place.

Copias locum tenere jubet, he orders the troops to hold

the place.

Discedere contendunt, they hasteii to depart.

Socios jubent convenire, they order the allies to as-


a. In each of these sentences notice how one verb

completes the meaning of the other. The form so

used is in Latin, as in English, the infinitive.

b. In the first and third sentences the infinitive has the

same subject as the principal verb. In the second

and fourth sentences the subjects of the two verbs

are different, and that of the infinitive is in the

accusative case.

c. The infinitive used in this way is called the Com-

plementary Infinitive. Usually it precedes the

governing verb, and is itself preceded by its

subject and object (if expressed).

Rule.—The subject of the infinitive, when separately

expressed, is put in the accusative.

124. Illustrative Examples.

Aequum est respondere, it is right to reply.

Non aequum est Gallos bellum gerere, it is not rightfor

the Gauls to ivage war.

a. In these sentences notice (l) that the infinitive is

used as the subject of the verb est, (2) that neither

the introductoryfor nor the representative subject

it is expressed in Latin by a separate word, and

(3) that the predicate adjective modifying the sub-

ject infinitive is neuter.

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 75


audeo, ere. venture^ dare.

coepi* (used in the perfeet tenses only), began.

cogo, ere, coegi,* compel,force.

constit-uo, ere, -ui, determine.

cotidie (adverb),

difRcilis, e,

facilis, e,

per-moveo, ere, -movi,

perterreo, ere, ul.

daily, every day.

difficult, hard.


influence; alarm,

terrify, frighten.

per-venio, ire, -veni, come.

Phrases : pervenio ad or in with ace., arrive at, reach.

N.B.—In compounds per has the force of (l) through,

and (2 ) more frequently of thoroughly,completely.

1. Bellum gerere constituunt;

bellum cum populo

Romanb gerere non audemus. 2. Ab signis discede-

bant;milites ab signis discedere coeperunt. 3. Difficile

est Romands perterrere. 4. Frumentum ex agris

cotidie in castra comportabant. 5. Ad flumen perveni-

mus;ad flumen Rhenum pervenimus. 6. Non aequum

est Gallds agros sociornm vastare. 7. Legatum cumomnibus equitibus locum tenere jussit. 8. Britannos

arma tradere coegit et obsides dare. 9. Non facile est

Caesarem permovere. 10. Principes cotidie ad Caesarem


*In coepi, oe is a diphthong; in coegi, o and c belong to different


discedo ab with abl., leave.


126 . I.

76 Latin Lessons for Beginners.


The cavalry began to lay waste the lands of the

allies. 2. Daily, with all (his) cavalry, Caesar laid

waste the lands of the Britons. 3. They determined to

send ambassadors to treat for peace;

the envoys

reached the camp. 4. I determined to hasten to seek

safety by flight. 5. It is difflcnlt for the scouts to And

out the road. 6. He ordered the soldiers to leave

the fortiflcations. 7. It is not easy to compel the

legions to be obedient. 8. We began to be in great

danger. 9. It terrifles the chief men; it does not

influence the king. 10. They did not venture to pitch

(their) camp on the bank of the river.


Pluperfect Indicative Active.

127. Illustrative Examples.

Pugnavi, / havefought.

MisI, / have sent.

Jussi, / have ordered.

Veni, I have come.

Dedi, / have given.

Tenui, / have held.

Pugnaveram, / hadfought.

Miseras, you (s.) had sent.

Jusserat, he had ordered.

Veneramus, we had come.

DederatiSj you (pi.) hadgiven.

Tenuerant, they had held.

a. In the forms given in the second column of Latin

words, notice (l) the personal endings, (2) the newelement -era- added to the perfect stem in each'

form, (3) the translation by means of had. This

.tense is known as the Pluperfect Indicative Active.*

*The Latin pluperfect is equivalent to the English past perfect (orpin

perfect), and is used to mark an act as completed or taking place before

some point in past time mentioned or implied.

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 77

128. Paradigms.


First Conj. Second Conj. Third Conj. Fourth Conj.


1. amaveram monueram rexeram audiveram

2. amaveras monueras rexeras audiveras

3. amaverat monuerat rexerat audiveratPlural.

1. amaveramus monueramus rexeramus audiveramus

2. • amaveratis monueratis rexeratis audiveratis

3. amaverant monuerant rexerant audiverant

129. Paradigms.

PERFECT (OF sum. PLUPERFECT OF SUm.Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur.

1. fui fuimus fueram fueramus

2. fuisti fuistis fueras fueratis

3. fuit fuerunt fuerat fuerant


altitu-do, -dinis, £., height, depth.

com-mitto, ere, -misi, seyid or bring together.

dexter, tra, trum, right.

fortitu-do, -dinis. f., bravery.

latitu-do, -dinis, £., width.

littera, ae, £. ,letter (o£ alphabet)

;in plural, a despatch,

a letter, or despatches, letters.

longitu-do, -dinis, £., leyigth.

magnitu-do, -dinis, £., greatness, extent, size.

multitu-do, -dinis, £., large number, amount.

sinister, tra, trum, left.

Phrase : proelium committo, johi (or begin) battle, erigage.


The sufifix -tudo is used to £orm from adjectives

abstract nouns denoting- quality or condition. It

appears in English in the form -tude.

78 Latin Lessons for Beginners.


131. I.

1. Iter cognSverant. 2. Litterasmiseram. 3. Cotidie

litteras ad Caesarem mittebamus. 4. Copias proelium

committere jtisserat. 5. Proeliiim equestre commise-

ratis. 6. Legionem a dextrb latere oppugnaverant. 7.

Sinistrum latus vulneras;dextnim latus vulneraveras.

8. Cum fortitudine pugnaverunt;magna cum fortitu-

dine pugnaverant. 9. Propter latitudinem fossae

murique altitudinem oppidum oppugnare n5n audeba-

mus. 10. Magna cum multitudine equitum bellum

gesseras. 11. Copiis cotidie imperat;principibus im-

peraverat. 12. Ex nuntiis litterisque magnitudinem

periculi cognoverant. 13. Rex fuerat;amici fuistis.


1. He has hastened;he had hastened. 2. They were

pitching (their) camp;they had pitched (their) camp.

3. We had collected a large number of men. 4. Youhad compelled the men to surrender (their) arms'. 5.

On account of the depth of the river we had not reached

the island. 6. The chief man we called king. 7. They

Writing Implements and Materials.

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 79

had grain and cattle;

they had had an abundance of

grain and cattle. 8. They had begun to join battle on

the left flank. 9. The scouts had learned the length of

the right side of the camp. 10. It is not right to sur-

render (one’s) arms;we had surrendered (our) arms.

11. From despatches I had fourd out about the width

of the river Rhine. 12. On account of the extent of

the marshes we had determined to leave the place.


Fourth Declension.

132. Nouns of the fourth declension have their

genitive singular in -us. Most nouns of this declension

end in -us in the nominative singular and are masculine;

a few end in -u and are neuter.

133. Paradigms.



Nom. fructus {fruit) -us cornu {horn) -u

Gen. fructus "US cornus -us

Dat. fructui -ui cornu -u

Acc. fructum -um cornu -u

Voc. fructus -us cornu -u

Abl. fructu -u


cornu -u

Nom fructus -US cornua -ua

Gen. fructuum -uum comuum -uumDat. fructibus -ibus comibus -ibus

Acc. fructus -us corn.ua -ua

Voc. fructus -us cornua -ua

Abl. fructibus -ibus comibus -ibus

80 Latin Lessons for Beginners.


‘adventus, us, m., arrival^


cornu, us, n., horn ; (of an

army), wing.

discessus, us, m., departure,


equitatus, us, m., cavalry.

exercitus, us, m., army.

lacus, us, m., lake.

peditatus, us, m., infantry.

portus, us, m., harbor.

principatus, us, m., leader-


senatus, us, m., senate.

N.B.—Equitatus and peditatus are collective nouns,

used in the singular with the same meaning as the

plurals equites and pedites.


135. I.

1. Omnem senatum convenire jussit. 2. Legates ab

omnibus exercitibus convenire jusserat._ 3. In dextro

cornu omnem equitatum collocat. 4. A lacu ad oce-

anum contenderamus. 5, Caesari principatum et im-

perium tradunt. 6. Cum omnibus copiis peditatus

equitatusque ad portum perveni. 7. De adventu

Caesaris cognoveramus. 8. Post discessum exercitus

litteras ad senatum misit. 9. Cum equitatu proelium

commiserant, 10. De magnitudine portuum cognoscit.


1. We hastened from the harbor to the lake. 2. Theplunder he had given to the cavalry. 3. With the rest

of the infantry he hastened to the right wing. 4. Fewharbors are suitable. 5. We had determined to await

Caesar’s arrival. 6. He slew the leading men and all

the senate. 7. He holds the leadership of Gaul. 8.

He found out through scouts about the departure of

the armies. 9. He gave orders daily to the armies.

10 . All had come safe to the harbors.

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 81

136 . WORD LIST B.


plenty number safety bravery

scarcity extent peace valor

length amount friendship spirit

width arrival wrongdoing leadership

height departure nature design

depth aid


river marsh king manlake road chief cattle

harbor territory senate work


army scout baggage

legion auxiliaries standard

soldier right wing arms

foot-soldier left wing fortification

horse-soldier flank winter quarters

infantry column cavalry battle

cavalry march wound


pitch a camp send despatch ask aid

leave (a plaee) await reinforcements seize

reaeh (a place) demand hostages hold commandhinder the march surrender hostages defend

learn the plans come to treat for join battle

give the signal peace lead baek

byforced marches establish friendship fresh troops


order venture determine

began compel hasten

82 Latin Lessons for Beginners.


large many easy safe

small few hard suitable

high all heavy brave

long remaining light free

wide frequent fair double

deep fixed unfair new


The Battle of the Horatii and the Curiatii.


Albani, orum, m., the Albans, the people of Alba,

fra-ter, -tris, m., brother.

sed, conjunction, but.

Diu {for a long timfj fuerant Albani et Romani amici.

Sed Tullus Hostilius, tertius {third) rex Romanorum,propter leves injurias bellum cum Albanis gerere c5n-

stituit, et magnas copias equitatus peditatusque contra

Albanos misit. Principes Albanbrum, ubi {when) de

consilio regis cognbverunt, cbpias omnes convenire

jusserunt et socios cogere coeperunt. Exercitus n5n-

dum {?iot yet) proelium commiserant, cum {when) nuntius

a senatu Albanorum ad regem Tullum venit.‘

‘ Tulle,’ ’

inquit {said) nuntius, “me {me) miserunt Albani. Ami-citiam populi Romani petimus, sed adventus exercitus

Romani non nos {us) perterret. N5n de victdria despe-

ramus. Difficile est liberum populum superare;magnas

copias equestres pedestresque habemus, et milites

Albanorum fortes integrique sunt. Sed non aequumest multos amicos necare propter injurias paucdruminimicbrum {enemies)



Latin Lessons for Beginners. 83

Tullus nuntium audivit et respondit,‘

‘ Iniquum est,

Bt omnes incolae Italiae amici esse debent {ought)



populus Romanus principatum et imperium omnis

Italiae obtinere eonstituit, et Albani liberi esse con-

stituernnt neqiie {and not) impend populi Romaniparere. Sed facile est exercitus a proelid revocare et

parvnm numerum militum jubere prd {on behalf of,

prep, with abl. case) reliquis de principatu pugnare.”

Hdc {this) cdnsilium Albani probaverunt {approved). In

exercitu Rdmandnim fuerunt tres {three) fortes fratres,

quds {whom) appellabant Horatids. Hds {these) Tullus

jussit prd reliquis Rdmanis pugnare. Albani paremnumerum fratrum delegerunt {chose), quds appellabant


(Concluded in 163.)

, Murus et Porta : City Wall and Gate.

The Porta Appia in the Aurelian Wall, Rome.

84 Latin Lessons for Beginners.


Principal Parts. Perfect Indicative Passive.

138. {a) The Principal Parts of a Latin verb are

certain forms from which, as starting" points, the whole

verb may be inflected. In the regular Latin verb the

Principal Parts are four in number, three of which

have already been met with in the preceding lessons

(namely, the present indicative active, the present in-

finitive active and the perfect indicative active).

{b) The four Principal Parts of the model verbs of the

several conjugations are as follows

Conj, /. amo amare amavl amatumConj. II. moneo monere monui monitum

Conj. III. rego regere rexi rectum

Conj. IV. audio audire audivi auditum

The first and second of these principal parts give the

present stem and the conjugation;the third gives the

perfect stem, . from which the perfect active system is

formed;the last gives the participial stem (or, as it is

also called, the supine stem), from which the perfect

passive system is formed.

139. Illustrative Examples.

Amatus sum, / have been loved, or

Amatus es, you (s.) have been loved, or

Amatus est, he has been loved, or

AmMI sumus, we have been loved, or

Amati estis, you (pi . ) have been loved, or

Amati sunt, they have been loved, or


Monitus sum, / have been advised, or

Rectus sum, / have been ruled, or

Auditus sum, / have been heard, or

I was loved,

you were loved,

he was loved,

we were loved,

you were loved,

they were loved.

I was advised.

I was ruled.

I was heard.

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 85

a. In these compound forms (known as the Perfect

Indicative Passive) observe (l) the relation of the

first element in each to the principal parts in 138 ;

(2) the use of the present indicative of sum to

complete the form; (3) the twofold translation.

Compare the twofold translation of the perfect

indicative active (lOl).

140. Illustrative Examples.

Filia monita est, the daughter was advised.

Auditum est, it has been heard.

Copiae collocatae sunt, the troops were stationed.

Oppida firmata sunt, the towns have been strengthened,

a. Observe how the form (known as the Perfect Parti-

ciple Passive) which is combined with the verb

sum to make the perfect indicative passive,

chang-es in gender and number to agree with the


141. There are no uniform or regular ways of form-

ing the perfect indicative passive from either the

present or the perfect stem, and recourse must be had

to the fourth of the principal parts. But, as a rule,

verbs whose perfect active ends in -avi have -atus sum,»( It II II II II -ivl II -itus sum,II II II II II II -ui II -itus sum,II " II II II II -si or -I II -tus* sum.

The vocabulary which follows gives the principal

parts of the most important verbs which have occurred

in the previous lessons. Compounds (like reduce andcommitto) are like the simple verbs. For other wordsthe pupil is referred to the general vocabulary at the

end of the book.

* Where the verb stem ends in &, consonant, -tus often becomes -sus or-lAUS.

86 Latin Lessons for Beginners.


First Conjugation.

The verbs hitherto used, like amo, have -6, -are, -avi,


But da, dare, dedi, datum.

Second Corijugation.

Habea and terreo, like moneo, have -eo, -ere, -ui, -itum.

But compleo, ere, complevi, completum,

jubeo, ere, jussi, jussum,

moveo, ere, movi, motum,

video, ere, vidi, visum.

Third Conjugatioji.

Cognosco, ere, cognovi, cognitum,

cogo, ere, coegi, coactum,

duco, ere, duxi, ductum,

gero, ere, gessi, gestum,

mitta, ere, misi, missum,

peta, ere, petivi, petitum,

pana, ere, posui, positum,

relinqua, ere, reliqui, relictum,

trada, ere, tradidi, traditum.

Fourth Conjugation.

Munia and impedia, like audia, have -ia, -ire, dvi, -itum.

But venia, ire, veni, ventum.


143 . (a) On Conjugatio7is I. and II.


1. Oppidum occupatum est. 2. Agri vastati sunt.

3. Milites perterriti sunt. 4. Signum datum est. 5.

Belgae superati sunt. 6. Fossa completa est. 7. Vul-

neratus sum. 8. Servi venire jussi sunt. 9. Servos

jLatin Lessons for Beginners. 87

venire jnssi. 10. Revocati estis;audita es. 11. Con-

vocati sumus. 12. Proelia nuntiata sunt. 13. Hibemaexpugnata sunt. 14. Equus vulneratus est. 15. Equesvulneratus est. 16. Viri visi sunt. 17. Castra motasunt. 18. Britanni permoti sunt. 19. Remotae sumus.

20. Oppida oppugnata sunt.


1. The province has been laid waste. »2. The leading

men have been called together. 3. The legions were

recalled. 4. The army was terrified. 5. Hostages

have been given. 6. The camp was filled. 7. We were

seen. 8. You have been ordered. 9. The lands were

seized. 10. They have been wounded. 11. The campwas moved. 12. The allies were alarmed. 13. Thehorse has been removed. 14. The cavalry were

stationed. 15. The place (the town, the camp) wasattacked. 16. The armies (the troops, the reinforce-

ments) have been conquered.

(b) On Conjugations III. and IV.


1. Consilia cognita sunt. 2. Bellum gestum est. 3.

Hiberna munita sunt. 4. Copiae reductae sunt. 5.

Multitudo coacta est. 6. Missus, sum; missi estis. 7.

Proelium commissum est. 8. Reducta es;


sumus. 9. Auditum est;homines auditi sunt. 10.

Praesidium relictum est;

legiones relictae sunt. 11.

Ripa munita est. 12. Obsides traditi sunt. 13. Auxi-

lium petitum est. 14. Exercitus ductus est;


reducti sunt. 15. Iter impeditum est. 16. Auxilia

missa sunt;impedimenta missa sunt.

88 Latin Lessons for Beginners.


1 . Peace was sought. 2. The place has been fortified.

3. Scouts have been sent. 4. It has been ascertained

5. Troops were collected. 6. The legions have been

led; I was led. 7. A letter was sent; letters were

sent;we were sent. 8. Wars have been- waged. 9.

The plunder was left;the baggage was left. 10. The

arms have been surrendered. 11. The envoys were

heard. 12. You have been compelled. 13. The foot-

soldiers have been hindered, 14. Messengers were

sent. 15. The column was led back;

the camp was

pitched. 16. The children were surrendered.


Ablative of Agent. Ablative of Means.

144. Illustrative Examples.

Copiae agros vastaverunt, troops have laid waste the fields.

Agri a copiis vastati sunt, the fields have been laid waste by


Caesar Gallos superavit, Caesar conquered the Gauls.

Gain a Caesare superati sunt, the Gauls were conquered by


.Observe that in changingto the passive voice (l) the

object of the active verb becomes the subject of the

passive verb, and (2) the subject of the active verb

is expressed by the ablative case governed by the

- preposition a (or ab).

This ablative is called the Ablative of the Agent.

A. In what other way also is the preposition a or ab

translated? (48).

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 89

145. Illustrative Examples,

Fossa aqua completa est, the trench was filled with water.

Locus fossa munitus est, theplace was protected by a trench.

Magnitudine periculi permoti sunt, they were influenced by

the greatness of the danger.

a. Observe how the ablative without a preposition is

used to express that by means of which something

is done. This is called the Ablative of the Meansor Instrument. In English sometimes by and

sometimes with is the preposition used.

b. In what other ways may with and by be translated

into Latin ? (47 and 144).

146. Illustrative Examples.

Britannia est insula, Britain is an island.

Insula Britannia appellata est, the islandwas called Britain.

Magnus appellabatur, he was called great.

Caesar rex non factus est, Caesar was not made king.

. {a) Observe that a predicate nominative (noun or adjec-

tive) may follow the passive voice of certain verbs,

such as verbs of calling., choosing, making and

regarding, as well as the verb sum. (Compare 54.)

Fossa et Vallum: Trench and Ramp2irt.

90 Latin Lessons for Beginners.


cedo, ere, cessi, cessum,

com-pello, ere, -puli, -pulsum,

con-cedo, ere, -cessi, cessum,

e-duco, ere, -duxi, -ductum,

e-mitto, ere, -misi, -missum,

ex-cedo, ere, -cessi, -cessum,

ex-pello, ere, -puli, -pulsum,

pello, ere, pepuli, pulsum,

re-pello, ere, reppuli, -pulsum,

vallum, i, n.,

give way^retire,

drive {together),

grant, yield,

lead out.

send out.


d^'ive out.

drive, defeat,

drive back, repulse,

wall, rampaxt.

N.B.—Observe the use of e or ex in compounds, with

the force of out. Also note the difference in form

between pello and its compounds in the perfect active.

148 .



1. Obsides a Gallis Caesari dati sunt;obsides a Gallia

ad Italiam missi sunt. 2. Castra lat5 valid et duplici

fossa a militibus munita sunt. 3. Ab opere revocatus

sum;a principibus rex appellatus es. 4. Ex silvis ab

equitibus expulsT sumus . 5 . Altitudine murdrum repulsi

sumus. 6. Per servds* Caesar discessum Galldrum

cdgndvit. 7. A Caesare per expldratdres cdgnitum

est. 8. Fuga socidrum permdti sunt. 9. Cdpiaepulsae

sunt;cedere coactae sunt. 10. A senatu multitudd

hominum ex agris coacta est. 11. Jussi estis a legatd

ex proelid excedere. 12. Legid longd itinere t educta

est;magnis itineribus ad dceanum pervenit. 13. Cum

Omni equitatu a rege emissus est. 14. Praeda militibus

*Per with the accusative is frequently used to express the person through

whom anything is done, that is, the secondary agent. It is so used with both

the active and the passive voice.

t The route by which one goes is included under the Ablative of Means.

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 91

concessa est. 15. In flumen aGermanis compulsi sunt.

16. Adventu copiarum perterrita est. 17. Jussus suma legatd omnes copias ex hibernis educere.


1. Envoys were sent by Caesar;they came from the

province. 2. The walls were filled with men;


trench Avas filled by the men. 3. They were terrified

by the departure of the leading men. 4. They were

driven back by the cavalry;they were repulsed by the

fortifications. 5. The troops repulsed the Britons from

the ramparts. 6. The place was called Rome;the in-

habitants were called Romans. 7. The land was laid

waste by the Germans. 8. We have been called friends

by the senate of the Roman people. 9. We have been

driven out of (our) lands by the senate and the Romanpeople. 10. The town was fortified by the inhabitants

with a wall and a trench. 11. You were compelled by

the king’s son to grant land to all the leading men.

12. All the cattle have been driven out of the fields.

13. The cavalry were led out by the lieutenant. 14. Hesent out the cavalry by the left gate. 15. We were not

ordered by Caesar to retire with the rest of the army.

16. All the towns were taken by storm by the Romanarmies. 17. We were alarmed by the scarcity of grain.


Imperfect Indicative of Sum. PluperfectIndicative Passive.

149 . The Imperfect Indicative of the irregular verb

sum has not the -ba- which in the four regular conjuga-

tions is characteristic of that tense.

92 Latin Lessons for Beginners.


IMPERFECT indicative OF SUm.Singular. Plural.

1. eram, I was {I used to be). eraimis, we were.

2. eras, you were. eratis, you were.

3. erat, he {she or it) was. erant, they were.

150. Review the formation of the pluperfect indica-

tive active (l28) and of the perfect indicative passive

(139) before learning the following paradigms of the

pluperfect indicative passive.



First Conjugation.


1 . amatus eram (/ had bee7i loved)

2. " eras

M erat


Second Conjugatio7i.

Third Conjugatio7i.

Fourth Conjtigatio7i.


amati eramusH eratis

-I erant

monitus eramrectus eramauditus eram

How far does the pluperfect indicative passive re-

semble in form the pluperfect indicative active?

How far does it resemble the perfeet indicative

passive ? The changes in gender and numbernoted in 140 are found in the pluperfect tense also.

151. Illustrative Examples.

Missus est,

Romanus est,

Jussi sunt,

Fortes Sunt,

Missus erat,

Romanus erat,

he was (or has beeii) sent,

he is a Ro7)ia7i.

they were ordered,

they are brave,

he had been sent,

he was a Roman.

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 93

a. Observe the difference in translation according- as

the predicate of the verb sum is the perfect parti-

ciple passive or is an adjective or noun.


ad-duco, ere, -duxi, -ductum, bring ; influence.

circum-venio, ire, -veni, -ventum, surround.

con-sisto, ere, -stiti, take up position, halt.

dubito, are, avi, atum, hesitate, have doubts.

facio, ere, feci, factum, do, make.

impetus, us, m., attack, onset.

in-struo, ere, -struxi, -structum, draw up, arrange.

militaris, e, military.

sus-tineo, ere, -tinui, -tentum, withstand, sustain, endure.

USUS, US, m., experience.

Phrases : impetum facio,* make an attack.

militaris usus, experience in. war.


- 153 . I.


Pax a senatu facfa erat;senatus pacem fecerat.

2. Locus erat idoneus;locus idoneus munitus erat.

3. Proelium committere dubitaveratis. 4. Inopia

frumenti adductus eram. 5. Militarem usum habebat.

6. Fossa erat ante oppidum. 7. Milites in dextro cornu

constiterant. 8. Circumvent! sumus;


eramus. 9. Impetus ab omnibus- equitibus factus erat.

10. Equitatum peditatumque instruxerat;cdpiae equi-

tatus peditatusque instructae erant. 11. Castra parva

erant. 12. Silva est inter fiumina. 13. Impetum cumfortitudine sustinuimus. 14. Vir fortis erat

;vir fortis

erat appellatus. 15. Homo sum. 16. Facile est;

difficile erat. 17. Coeperant in magnd periculo esse.

With this phrase on is to be translated by In with the accusative.

94 •Latin Lessons for Beginners.


1. He was a slave;

the slave was made king’.

2. They had brought hostages to Caesar;hostages had

been brought. 3. The column had been compelled to

halt. 4. He had had doubts about the column. 5. Thecolumns had been surrounded by the cavalry. 6. Theallies used to be free. 7. You had had great experience.

8. All the rest of the Belgians were in arms. 9. Themilitary standards had been left behind. 10. I had

been ordered to draw up the forees;the forees had been

drawn up. 11. We were in Caesar’s army. 12. Mes-

sengers were sent from all the villages. 13. It was not

right. 14. It had not been done by the boys. 15. Anattack has been made

;we made an attack. 16. You

had withstood the legions. 17. There was a great

abundance of cattle.

Signa Militaria : Military Standards.

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 95


Fifth Declension. Ordinal Numerals.

154. {a) Nouns of the fifth declension have their

genitive singular in -ei. Nouns of this declension are

feminine, with the exception of dies and its compoundmeridies, which are masculine.

{b) Most nouns of this declension are used only in the

singular;a few are occasionally found also in the nomi-

native and accusative plural. Dies and res alone exhibit

the complete declension.

155. Paradigms.


Nom. dies {day) res {thing) -es

Gen. diei rei -ei (ei)

Dat. diei rei -ei (ei)

Ace. diem rem -em

Voc. dies res -es

Abl. die rePlural.


No7n. dies res -es

Ge?i. dierum rerum -grum

Dat. diebus rebus -ebus

Ace. dies res -es

Voc. dies res -es

Abl, diebus rebus -ebus

a. Note that in the genitive and dative singular, the

ending is -ei after a vowel, but -ei after a consonant.

156. {a) The ordinal numerals (denoting first, second,

third, etc.) are declinable, like other adjectives in Latin,

and agree in gender, number and case with the nouns

96 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

they qualify. They are all of the first and second

declensions, like bonus (65).

{b) The following’ ordinals should be learned first


a more complete list is given in 524.

primus, a, um, first. sextus, a, um. sixth.

s^ndus, a, um, second. Septimus, a, um. seventh.

tertiusF4 ,um, third. octavus, a, um. eighth.

quartus, a, um. fourth. nonus, a, um. ninth.

quintus, a, um, fifth. decimus, a, um. tenth.


acies, ei, f., line of battle, line.

dies, ei, m., day.

fides, ei, f., faith, faithfulness,fidelity.

hora, ae, f., hour.

meridies, ei. m., midday.,


res, rei, f., thing, affair, circumstance.

spes, spei, f . ,hope.

Phrase : res militaris, the art of war.


158. I.

1. Milites in acie instructi erant. 2. Cum tertia

legione in provincia hiemamus. 3. Post diem septimumequitatus revocatus erat. 4. Multis rebus adducti erant.

5. De fide quintae legionis dubitabat. 6. Inter acies

ante meridiem proelium equestre commiserunt. 7.

Animi militum spe auxilii confirmati erant. 8. A sexta

hora prima acies erat in periculd. 9. Fidem principum

rex cognoverat. 10. Numerus dierum et hdrarun: non

cognitus erat. 11. Propter inopiam omnium rerum

nonam legionem in hiberna reducjt. 12. Omnem spemsalutis in virtute ponimus. 13. Res nuntiata est. 14,

Duplicem aciem instruxit.

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 97


1. The troops were influenced by the hope of plunder.

2. The forces had been led back to camp after the fourth

day. 3. The second line has been surrounded. 4. Hehad had great experience in the art of war. 5. They

do not withstand the first attack. 6. The tenth legion

has faith. 7. After midday a double line of battle was

drawn up. 8. The affair had been learned through

scouts. 9. They reached the camp before the eighth

hour of the day. 10. They had come into Gaul not

without great hope of booty. 11. We had been in-

fluenced by the want of everything {literally, all things).

12. Everything had been procured.


Accusative and Ablative of Time.

159. Illustrative Examples.

Hora septima proelium commisit, he joined battle at the

seventh hour.

Tertio die ad Caesarem venerunt, the third day they came

to Caesar.

Adventu Caesaris legates miserunt, 07i Caesar's approach

they sejit e?ivoys.

Multos dies agros vastant, they lay waste the fields for

many days.

Omnem tertium diem pugnabant, all the third day they


Impetum paucas horas sustinuerunt, they withstood the

attack {for) a few hours.

a,. Which of these sentences express time when f Whichexpress time how long f By what cases are these

ideas respectively expressed in the Latin sentences i

98 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

b. From the above examples it will be observed that

Latin requires no preposition to express the idea

of time when or time how long, while in English,

as a rule, various prepositions {on, at, hi ; for,

during) are used, though sometimes they are



annus, i, m., year.

circiter, adverb, about.

lux, lucis, f . ,light.

medius, a, um, middle, mid.

nox, noctis, f., night.

pars, partis, f . ,part.

posterus, a, um, next, fol-


temp-us, -oris, n., time.

vigilia, ae, f., watch.*

Phrases': prima lux, daybreak, dawn.

media nox, midnight.


161. I.

1. Prima luce copias eduxit;

septima hora copiae

reductae sunt. 2. Posterd die castra oppugnant. 3.

Multos dies pacem petunt. 4. Nocte ad flumen Rhenumcontendit. 5. Propter tempus anni bellum n5n ges-

serant. 6. A prima vigilia ad mediam noctem pugna-

verant. 7. Ante meridiem aciem instruere coepit.

8. Certd anni tempore convenire jussi eramus. 9. Ter-

tiam partem Galliae paucos annos obtinueramus. 10.

Discessu Caesaris hiberna oppugnare audent.


1 . On the third day they moved the camp;they moved

(their) camp daily at daybreak. 2. For a large part of

the year we waged war. 3. At midnight they withdraw

* The Romans divided the daytime into twelve equal hours; the night-

time into four equal watches.

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 99

from the village. 4. In the second watch he sends out

the troops with all the baggage. 5. We reached the

harbor the next night before dawn. 6. For many hours

we were strengthening the place with fortifications. 7.

In the third year of the war they had seized the island.

8. We had withstood the cavalry’s attacks from the

fourth hour to the first watch. 9. On the first approach

of reinforcements the Belgians began to give way. 10,

They had begun to be unfriendly the next year.



altitudo latitudd nox tempi!s

annus littera pars vallum

'fortitudo longitudd pedes vigilia

hora lux pes




acies equitatus lacus principatus

adventus exercitus meridies res

cornu fides peditatus senatus

dies impetus portus spes

discessus usus


aequus duplex incolumis omnisamicus equester inimicus par

certus facilis inlquus pedester

communis fortis levis posterns

dexter gravis medius recens

difficilis idoneus militaris sinister

100 Latin Lessons for Beginners.








committo educo pello

compelld cmitto permoveo

concedd excedd perterred

ednsistd expelld pervenid

ednstitud instrud repelld

dubitd jubed sustined


circiter cotidie


The Battle of the Horatii and the Curiatii.

(Concluded from 137.)

163 . Cdpiae quae {which) in acie Instruetae erant, jam

{now) in castra reductae sunt. Posterd die, prima luee,

onines Rdmani et Albani ad loeum iddneum convenerunt.

Horatii et Curiatii educti sunt. Signum proelii datumest. Fratres proelium committere ndn dubitaverunt, sed

magna cum fortitudine impetum facere contenderunt.

Primd impetu, duo {two) ex* Rdmanis ceciderunt (/<?//) et

omnes Albani vulnerati sunt. Animi omnium Alba-

ndrum spe vietdriae ednfirmati sunt;

sed exercitus

Rdmanus permdtus est magnitudine periculi.

Turn {then) tres {the three) Albani Rdmanum circum-

venire coeperunt, et Horatius in magnd erat periculd.

Impetum Curiatidrum ndn diu {long) sustinuit;coactus

est cedere et salutem fuga petere. Rdmani fuga Horatii

perterriti sunt, et Albani conclamaverunt {shouted) “ Vic-

tdria est certa;superati sunt Rdmani.”

* Translate ex by of after numerals, pauci an<t multi.

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 101

Sed Horadus magnum in re militari usum habuerat,

et quoniam (smce) ipse {he himself) integer erat et

Curiatii omnes vulnerati erant, simulare {tofeig7i) fugamconstituerat et Curiatios distrahere {to separate. Itaque

{accordingly) propter gravia vulnera Albanorum, facile

erat tres fratres distrahere et singillatim {one by one)

necare. Turn Horatius a Romanis incolumis ad castra

reductus est.

Tomb of Horatii and Curiatii at Alba.


Present Indicative Passive.

164. In the perfect and pluperfect tenses the passive

voice in Latin, as has been observed, has compoundforms (as in English), and the personal endings of the

auxiliary verb sum are those of the active voice

(139, 150) ;but in the present tense the difference

between active and passive is expressed by usingdifferent personal endings.

102 Latin Lessons for BeginnerSc

Active. PASSIVEc

-6 g1-s -ris

-t “tur

-mus -mur

-tis -mini

-nt -ntur

165. Paradigms


First Conj. Second Conj. Third Conj\ Foiirth Cmj.


r. amor moneor reg-or andior

2. amaris moneris reg-eris audiris

'3. amatur monetur regitur auditur


1. amamur monemur regimur audimur

2. amamini monemini regimini audimini

3. amantur monentur reguntur audiuntur

a. In the present indicative, are the passive and active

voices formed from the same principal part (138) ?

Is this the case in the perfeet indicative (l4l) ?

166. Illustrative Examples.

Agios dant, they give lands.

Castra movent, they are mov-

ing the camp.

Copias non mittit, he does 7iot

send troops.

Locum non munit, he is 7iot

fortifymg the place.

Agridantur, lands aregiven.

Castra moventur, the camp

is being moved.

Copiae non mittuntur, Foops

are not sent.

Locus non munitur, the place

is not beiyigfortified.

a. Examine the various ways in which the present tense

is translated in the active and in the passive voice.

LATii^ Lessons for Beginners. 103


aud^, -ad's, bold, daring.

con-tineo, ere, ui, -tentum, restrain, hem in, enclose’

dice, ere, dixi, dictum, say, tell, speak.

existimo, are, avi, atum, think, consider.

finitimus, a, um, neighboring, adjacent


nom. plur.

as substantive, neighbors.

nihil, indeclinable, n.,

periculosus, a, um,

potens, -entis,

prohibeo, ere, ui, itum,

videor, passive of video.





keep, prevent.

1. be seen


2. seem.

N.B.—-Prohibeo takes the present infinitive (comple-

mentary, 123), to be translated byfrom with the gerund

in -ing, e.g. prohibeor venire, / am prevented from



168. I.

1. Revocatur, revocamur;coguntur, cogeris. 2. Im-

pedior, impedimini;contineris, continentur. 3. Acies


castra muniuntur. 4. Dicitur;


5. Cdnsilium est audax;non est periculosum. 6. Nihil


nihil habemus. 7. Existimantur pacempetere

;pax petitur. 8. Loci natura continemur. 9.

C5pias comparare videntur;

c5piae comparantur. 19.

A finitimis agri Germanorum vastantur. 11. Multos

vicos habere dicimini. 12. Circumvenimini;circum-

venti estis. 13. Caesari, vir5 potent!, paremus. 14.

Coeperat desperare;desperare visus erat. 15. Finiti-

mos agrds vastare prohibemur. 16. Poster© die castra

moventur. 17. Paucas horas impetus sustinetur.

104 Latin Lessons for Beginners.


1. Reorders, he is ordered; he compels, he is com-

pelled. 2. Theyare stationing-, they are being stationed;

they are surrounding, they are being surrounded. 3.

You (s) are ordered, we are compelled, I am stationed,

you (pi) are being surrounded. 4. They give nothing;

nothing is given. 5. It is dangerous; we are safe;

there is a double trench. 6. We are enclosed by broad

and deep rivers. 7. You are awaited by the consul.

8. We are not alarmed by the departure of the allies.

9. The town is being fortified;

it is announced to

Caesar. 10. He said nothing;nothing had been said.

11. You are called bold and powerful men. 12. Weare prevented from sending messengers


are sent to Caesar. 13. You are considered to have

great experience. 14. We do not wage war with (our)

neighbors. 15. The troops are seen from the camp;

the army seems to be giving way. 16. The camp is

being pitched across the river. 17. Part of the adjacent

province is being laid waste.

LESSON XXX.Regular Comparison of Adjectives.

169. Illustrative Exarnples.


Latus (gen. lati),

broad ;

Fortis (gen. fortis),

brave ;

Aud^ (gen. audacis),


Potens (gen. potentis),




broader ;


braver ;













more powerful ; most powerful.

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 105

a. The regular method of forming the comparative and

superlative degrees of adjectives is illustrated

above. What is substituted for the genitive end-

ing (-1 or -is) to form the comparative ? What is

substituted to form the superlative ?

b. The superlative degree is frequently used in Latin,

as it sometimes is in English also, to indicate a

high degree of the quality;

as, iniquissimum est,

it is most (or very) unfair,

170. The comparative and superlative degrees, like

the positive, are declined, and agree in gender, numberand case with the substantives to which they refer.

The superlatives are all of the first and second declen-

sions and are declined like bonus (65) . The comparatives

are of the third declension and are declined as follows




Masc. and Fem. Neuter.






























fortioribus •







106 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

a. Examine the ablative singular and the genitive

plural of all genders, and also the nominative and

accusative plural neuter. Are the endings like

those of the nouns of the third declension (83 and

94), or like those of positive adjectives of the third

declension (113)?


brevis, e, shorty brief. nobilis, e, noble^famous.

novus, a, um, new.

prudens, -ends, discreet.

utilis, e, useful.

densus, a, um, thick, dense.

fidelis, Q., faithful.

firmus, a, um, strong.

Phrases : iter facio, march.

certiorem facio de, inform of, literally make{some one) more certain about.*


Novus has no comparative and the superlative

means last, latest, as in noyissimum agmen, the rear.

For newer, newest the comparative and superlative of

recens are used.


172 . I.

1. Flumine latissimo et altissimo continentur. 2,

Longiore itinere ducimur. 3. Per densissimas silvas

iter fecerant. 4. Tertio die ad flumen latius perveniunt.

5, Noctes sunt breviores;

socii non erant fideles.

6. Vir5 nobilissimo et potentissim.6 flliam dat. 7.

Caesarem de nov5 consilib certiorem fecerunt. 8. In

novissimum agmen meridie impetus factus erat.

9. Castra latioribus fossis muniuntur. 10. Locus

firmissimis praesidiis tenetur. 11. Prudentissima est


consilium est utilius. 12. Multae res Gallos

utiles amicos esse prohibent.

*In this phrase certlor agrees with the objeet of the verb in the active

voice ; hut with the subject if the verb is passive.

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 107


1. They sought denser forests. 2. Deeper rivers

seem to hem in the allies. 3. The daug"hters are dis-

creet; the daug'hters were most discreet. 4. A strongfer

g-arrison is left. 5. We had marched the rest of the

night. 6. The time is short;the time is shorter


time is very short. 7. The hostages are the children

of the noblest men. 8. They give their daughters to

the sons of the more powerful chiefs. 9. He had been

informed of the king’s departure. 10. The bravest

legions are stationed in the rear. 11. For many years

he was a most useful and faithful friend. 12. He wasinformed by a famous soldier

;you are hemmed in by

a broader river.


Dative with Adjectives. Partitive Genitive.

173. Illustrative Examples.

Caesari est inimicus, he is unfriendly to Caesar.

Fmitimi sunt Galliae, they are adjacent to Gaul.

Populo Romano periculosum est, it is dangerous to the

Roman people.

a. Observe how in these Latin sentences the adjective

is completed by,a dative denoting that to which the

feeling or quality in question is directed.

This Dative with Adjectives is similar to the Dative

of the Pyidirect Object with verbs (39) and is similarly


b. The adj-ectives so defined or completed are chiefly

those meaning near, friendly,like, iiseful, agreeable,

known, and their opposites.

108 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

174. Illustrative Examples.

Omnium Gallorum sunt fortissimi, of all the Gauls they

are the bravest.

Partem provinciae vastant, they lay waste part of the


a. Observe how the genitive is used in Latin to denote

the whole of which a part is taken. The g-enitive

thus expiessingf the whole is termed the Partitive


175. Illustrative Examples.-

Reliquas Tegiones mittit, he se?ids the rest of the legions

{the remaining legio?is).

In medio flumine est, it is hi the middle of the river

{in mid-stream)


a. Certain relations, as the remainder, and such local

parts of anything' as the top, middle, bottom, beghi-

ning, end, Latin prefers to express not by the par-

titive genitive, but by an adjective in agreement,

which regularly precedes its noun.


dissimilis, e, unlike, dissimilar.

fra-ter, -tris, m., brother.

incognitus, a, um, unknown.

inutilis, e, useless.

ma-ter, -tris, f., mother.

notus, a, um, known, familiar


pa-ter, father.

publicus, a, um, belong-

ing to thepeople, public.

similis, e, like, similar.

sor-or, -oris, f., sister.

Phrases : res publica, rei publicae, f . ,the public interest,

public business, the state.

par esse, be a match {for).

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 109


177. I.

1, Prater sorori incognitus erat. 2. Galli finitimi

Belgis erant. 3. Caesari. es fidelis. 4. Potentissimus

principum est. 5. De re publica non desperamus. 6.

Media circiter nocte ad reliquum exerciturn perveniunt.

7. Galli non pares sunt Belgis. 8. Caesari esse inimici

existimamur. 9. Omnium Gallorum fortissimi sumus.

10. Filii patri et matri parent. 11. Cdnsilium rei

publicae periculdsum est. 12. Periculum communeomnibus esse videtur. 13. Italia Britanniae* dissimilis

est. 14. Media insula incolis est inutilis. 15. Multis

militum nihil notum erat.


1. They had sent the noblest of the Britons to Caesar,

2. They seem to be friendly and faithful to Caesar. 3.

The harbors were unknov.m to the Gauls. 4. The warbegan to be dangerous to the state. 5. At dawn they

joined battle in the middle of the forest. 6. They had

marched for a large part of the day. 7. The daughter

is like* (her) father;the sons are like (their) mother.

8. Nothing was more useful to the senate. 9. Thebrothers are unfriendly to (their) sister. 10. He had

been informed by the more daring of the brothers.

11. Peace is not similar to war. 12. The nights are

unlike the days. 13. The slave’s faithfulness is knownto all. 14. The lakes are like large rivers. 15.

Children do not give orders to (their) fathers and


* After like and unlike, the preposition to is now generally omitted.

110 Latin Lessons for Beginners.


First and Second Conjugations ; FutureIndicative Active.

178. Illustrative Examples.

Pugnabit, he will fight. Videbimus, we shall see.

Vocabis, you will call. Tenebitis, you will hold.

a. What new element is . found in these Latin verbs

between the present stem and the personal ending ?

b. Notice the translation of these Latin forms, which,

like their English equivalents, are said to be in

the Future Tense.

179. Paradigms.


First Conjugatio7i . Second Conjugation.


1. amabo -a-b-o monebo -e-b-0

2. amabis -a-bi-s monebis -e-bi-s

3. amabit -a-bi-t monebit -e-b-it


1. amabimus -a-bi-mus monebimus -e-bi-mus

2. amabitis -a-bi-tis monebitis -e-bi-tis

3. amabunt -a-bu-nt monebunt -e-bu-nt

a. Notice that in the first person singular i of -bi- is

omitted before -o, and that in the third person plural

bi becomes bu before -nt. What is the quantity

of the vowel in -bi- ?


180. In Latin, as in English, adjectives are often

used as substantives, especially in the plural, the

masculine denoting a class of persons, the neuter a class

or number of things;as omnes, all people, everybody;

Latin Lessons for Beginners. Ill

omnia, all things, everything ; boni, goodpeople, the good


bona, goods, property. So multi, multa, pauci, reliqui,

and many others.

N.B.—In the g-enitive, dative, and ablative plural,

where the gender is not determined by the case-ending,

res should be used instead of the neuter ; as, omnium. rerum, of everything



causa, ae, £., cause, reason.

de, prep, with abl., 1, down from, from ; 2, con-


de-duc6, ere, -duxi, -ductum, lead off, withdraw.

de-pono, ere, -posui, -positum, lay down ; deposit.

de-silio, ire, -silui, -sultum, leap down.

deterreo, ere, ui, itum, (frighten off) deter, hinder.

de-tineo, ere, ui, -tentum, detain, delay.

impero, are, avi, atum, demand, require.

locus, i, m., place; in plural, loca, orum, n., places,

ground, district.

per-tineo, ere, ui, -tentum, extend, tend.

Phrases with causa (notice the order throughouf)


multis de causis,/<?r (literally from) many reasons.

pads causa, for the sake of peace (literally from the

reason ofpeace).

frumenti causa, for the purpose of {getting) corn ; to

get corn.

N.B.—{a) The prefix de is used in compounds to

denote (l) down, (2)from, off.

{b) With impero, the dative denotes the person to

whom orders are given;

the aceusative denotes that

which is demanded or ordered;


Equitibus imperat, he gives orders to the cavalry ;

Equites regi imperat, he demands cavalryfrom the king.

112 Latin Lessons for Beginners,


182 . I.

1. IMultis de causis in Gallia hiemabimns. 2. Rexcopiasparabit; copiae regi parebunt. 3. Nihil videbitis.

4. Adventum auxiliorumndn exspectabo, 5. Obsidibus

imperat;obsides Gallis imperabat

;magnum numerum

obsidum Galliae imperabit. 6. Belgae pertinent ad

fiumen Rhenum. 7. Rei publicae causa impetum

sustinebimus. 8. De omnibus rebus desperas;omnia

relinquis, 9. Milites de valid deducit. 10. Omnia loca

occupabimus. 11. Amicitiae causa agros finitimis con-

cedere non dubitabis. 12. Nihil exercitum detinebit.

13. Multa Caesarem deterrebunt. 14. Ex equis ad

pedes desiluerunt. 15. Bonos necabunt;bonandbilium

habebunt. 16. Belli causa cdpias comparabd. 17.

Imperium deposuit.


1. We shall not fight without reason. 2. At dawnthey will move the camp. 3. I shall give the signal.

4. You will have everything;we shall have an abun-

dance of everything. 5. For the sake of the commonsafety they will give hostages. 6. They leap downfrom the wall . 7.1 shall demand cavalry and infantry

from the rest. 8. You will not venture to wage warfor a slight cause. 9. The forest used to extend to

the bank of the river Rhine. 10. The place is unknownto all

;the ground was known to everybody, 11.

Nothing will deter the senate and Roman people. 12.

Everything had been withdrawn from the fields. 13. It

will tend to (ad) the safety of the good, 14. He has manyto assist him {literally, for the sake of aid). 15. Onaccount of the lack of everything we shall not hesitate

Ruins of the Claudian Aqueduct.

Cloaca Maxima.

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 113

to lay down (our) arms. 16. You will not delay the

victory. 17. He will demand a large supply of corn

from the king’s brother.



day daybreak night year

daily noon midnight time

next day hour watch


father brother son children

mother sister daughter


faith thing rampart reason

hope nothing ground light

experience everything part state


adjacent like common knownfriendly unlike useful unknownunfriendly equal useless dangerous



bold noble thick military

discreet new strong famouspowerful following short


say ptevent influence extend

think hinder alarm drive

seem restrain terrify lead out

inform detain grant send out

name hesitate require drive out

demand leap down

114 Latin Lessons for Beginners.



the rear




drive back


give way

lay down armsdraw up line of battle

make an attack

withstand an attack

the art of warwithdraw (transitive and intransitive)


The Seven Kings of Rome (753-510 b.c.)


creo, are, avi, atum, elect, choose.

Etruria, ae, f., Etruria, the district north of RomCcLatini, orum, m., the Latins, dwelling in Latium.

lex, legis, f.,


nullus, a, um, no (adjective).

urbs, urbis, f. ,


Primd {at first) populus Romanus regibus parebat.

Septem {seven) reges Romae {at Rome) imperium obtine-

bant. Primus rex, Romulus, urbem condidit (founded).

Romam muris munivit et multitudinem hominum in

urbem coegit. Senatum creavit et senatores {the

senators) Patres appellavit..

Multa bella cum finitimis


Numa, rex secundus, nullum bellum. gessit, sed nullus

rex utilior rei publicae erat. Leges aequas populd

Romano dedit, et multa templa {temples) instituit



Tertius rex, Tullus Hostilius, vir fortissimus erat et

audacissimus. Bella cum finitimis renovavit et magnumin re militari usum habebat. Levi de causa bellum cumAlbanis gessit et multos finitimos superavit.

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 115

Ancus Marcius, rex quartus, Tiillo dissimilis erat, et

Numae similior. Salutis communis causa Romamnovis muris firmavit et portum fecit apud {at) ostium

{the mouth) fluminis Tiberis.

Turn {theyi) Tarquinius Priscus, qui (ze’/z<?) in urbem ab

Etruria pervenerat, rex creatus est. Tarquinius in

bello et in pace ndbilis erat. Multa oppida occupavit et

agrum Romanum latiorem fecit.

Servius Tullius, rex sextus, prudentissimus erat

omnium regum. Pauca bella gessit sed multa consilia

cepit (formed) quae (which) ad salutem rei publicae

pertinebant. Pacem cum Latinis confirmavit et princi-

patum omnium finitimorum populdrum obtinebat. Sep-

tem colies {hills) magnis et firmis munitionibus cinxit



Post multos annos a Tarquinio, filio regis

quinti, necatus est.

Tarquinius Superbus, septimus et ultimus {Iasi)

regum, homo iniquus et audax erat. Filium habebat

quern {whom) Sextum appellabat. Propter injurias

ipsius {of himself) et Sexti, rex imperium deponere

coactus est et ex urbe expulsus est.

Post discessum Tarquiniorum, senatus et prlncipes

rem publicam administrabant (governed), et Romaniconsules {consuls, acc. case) creare coeperunt.


Third Declension : I-Stems.

185. The Third Declension includes also nouns whosestem ends in i, instead of in a consonant as in Lessons

XIII. and XV. The difference is observable chiefly in

the genitive plural, which, in i-stems, has -ium instead

of -um, and in the nominative and accusative plural of

116 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

neuters, which have -ia instead of -a. Occasionally the

ablative singular ends in -i (regularly so in the neuter

nouns), and more rarely the accusative singular ends in

-im. Otherwise the declension of consonant stems and

i-stems is identical.

186. Paradigms.


Noni. hostis {enemy)


nubes {cloud) animal {animat)

Ge?i.- hostis nubis animalis

Dat. host! nubi animali

Acc. hostem nubem animal

Voc. hostis nubes animal

Abl. hoste nube animali

Nom. hostes


nubes animalia

Gen. hostium nubium animMiumDat. hostibus nubibus animalibus

Acc. hostes (is)* nubes (is)* animalia

Voc. hostes nubes animalia

Abl. hostibus nubibus animalibus

187. (a) Most masculine and feminine i-stems have

-is in the nominative singular and are declined like

hostis. A few like ignis and navis have -i as well as -e

in the ablative singular.!

{b) Notice the difference between nouns in -es or -es

increasing (i.e. in number of syllables) in the genitive,

and nouns in -es not increasing in the genitive. The

* The accusative plural in -is, as liostis, nubis, is avoided in introduc-

tory books,

t Unless some irregularity is specially mentioned, nouns in -is used in this

book should be declined like hostis.

LATIN Lessons for Beginners. 117

former are consonant stems (see 86), as mfles, eques,

pes ; the latter are i-stems. (So also with nouns in -is.)

(c) The only frequently occurring neuter i-stem is

mare, sea; Singular, Nom., Ace. and Voc. mare,

Gen. maris, Dat. and Abl. mari. Plural, Nom., Acc.

and Voc. maria, Gen. only once found, in the form

marum, Dat. and Abl. maribus.

188. Certain consonant stems of the third declension

have been so far affected by the nearly similar declen-

sion of the i-stems that they may be classed separately

as mixed stems. These include masculine and feminine

nouns of three kinds : {a) nouns ending in -ns or -rs,

ip) monosyllables in -s or -x preceded by a consonant,

and {c) nouns in -tas. These are declined like conson-

ant stems in the singular;

like i-stems in the plural.

The nouns in -tas, however, have both -um and -ium in

the genitive plural.

189. Paradigms.


Nom. cohors {cohort)

Gc7i. cohortis

Dat. cohort!

Acc. cohortem

Voc. cohors

Abl. cohorte

Nom. cohortes

Gen. cohortium

Dat. cohortibus

Acc. cohortes (is)

Voc. cohortes

Abl. cohortibus

urbs {city)








urbes (is)



civitas {state)







civitatum or civitatium


civitates (is)



118 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

190. (a) Review the case-endings of adjectives of the

third declension (ll3) which, it will be seen, regularly

follow the declension of i-stems.

(d) Review also the rules for gender in the third

declension (95), to which should now be added the fol-

lowing :

Nouns in -is twith many important exceptions), andnouns in -es not increasing in the genitive, are feminine


nouns in -e, -al and -ar are neuter.


civis, is, m. f., citizen.

civi-tas, -tatis, f., citizenship ; state^country.

finis, is, m., end; in plural, borders^ territory

hostis, is, m. (usually in plural), enemy.

mare, is, n., sea.

m5ns, mentis, m., mountain.

navis, is, f., ship.

pons, pontis, m., bridge,

Tamesis, is, m. (acc. -im, abl. -i), the Thames.

Tiberis, is, m. (acc. -im, abl. -i), the Tiber.



navis longa, war-ship^ war-galley.


192 . I.

1. Civis Romanus sum; civitatem habeo. 2, Denavibus desiliunt. 3. In finibus hostium hiemabunt.

4. Propter altitudinem maris ex navi desilire non audent.

5. Castra in altissimo monte posita erant. 6. Mare est

utile; maria sunt utilidra. 7. Finitimis civitatibus

naves longas imperabit. 8. IMagnis itineribus ad flumen

Tamesim hostes contendunt. 9. Postera nocte civibus

fngam hostium nuntiavi. 10. In occand et in reliquis

maribus multas naves longas habebant. 11. Legati \

Latin Lessons foe Beginners. 119

reliquls civitatibus venerant. 12, Fines latissimos

habere videntur. 13. Res publica navi similis esse

dicitnr. 14. Impetum hostium magnam partem diei

sustinent. 15. Multis civitas data est.


1. They assembled from all parts of the state. 2.

The forest extends from the mountains to the sea. 3.

He collects a large number of soldiers and of war-ships.

4. The mountains had been seized by the enemy. 5.

The leading men of all the states assembled at mid-

night. 6. There was a bridge over {literally on) the

river Tiber. 7. We had marched from the enemy’s

territories to the neighboring state. 8. They hasten bynight through the midst of the enemy. 9. The seas are

thought to be dangerous. 10. The Romans called the

fiver Tiber. 11. On account of the scarcity of ships

they had made a bridge. 12. The sea is enclosed byvery high mountains. 13. On account of the height of

the mountains they left part of (their) baggage. 14. Hewill carry back the goods of the Roman citizens in the

war-galleys. 15. I have said nothing about citizenship.

Naves Longae : War-galleys.

120 Latin Lessons for Beginners.


Irregular Comparison of Adjectives.

193. Adjectives ending- in -er (whether of the first and

second declensions or of the third declension) form the

comparative regularly (169), but form the superlative

by changing -er to -errimus;as,

Positive. Comparative. Superlative.

liber liberior liberrimus

acer acrior acerrimus

194. Six adjectives in -ilis form the comparative

regularly, but form the superlative by changing -ilis to

dllimus; as,

Positive. Comparative. Superlative.

facilis facilior facillimus

similis similior simillimus

These adjectives are facilis, difficilis, similis, dissimilis,

gracilis {^slender), humilis {low). Other adjectives in

-ilis, e.g. nobilis and utilis, are regular;

as, nobilis,

nobilior, nobilissimus.


Many adjectives m common use are m Latin, as

in English, quite irregular in their comparison. Thefollowing are the most important of these


bonus, good

malus, bad.


great, large.


small, little.

multus, much, many


melior, better.

pejor, worse.


greater, larger.


smaller, less.

plus, more.


optimus, best.

pessimus, worst.


greatest, largest.


smallest, least.

plurimus, most.

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 121

196. The positive of the following is either lacking oi



exterus, outside,

inferus, below.

superus, above.

Comparative. Superlative.

prior, former. primus, first.

propior, nearer, proximus, nearest,


ulterior, farther, ultimus, farthest.

exterior, outer, extremus (extimus),


inferior, lower, infimus, imus, lowest.

superior, higher, jsupremus, last;

upper;former, \summus, highest.

197. Paradigm.


Singular. Plural.

Masc. and Fem. Neuter, Masc. and Fem. Neuter

Nom. plus plures plura

Gen. pluris plurium plurium

Dat. — pluribus pluribus

Ace. plus plures plura

Abl. plure pluribus pluribus


Complures (used in the plural only), several, is

a compound of plures, and is declined like it.

a. Plus in the singular occurs only in the neuter, which

is used as a substantive and never as an adjective

in agreement.

b. All other comparatives and superlatives are declined

regularly, as in 170. Notice especially that the

neuter of major is majus, and of minor, minus, the

genitives being majoris and minoris respectively.

122 Latin Lessons for Beginners.


several, lit. more (than one).

daybreak, dawn.

the next day.

most distant, remotest.

higher ground, heights.

the previous (or preceding) year.

the greatest (or extreine) danger.

very great (or signal) valor.

the top of the moimtahi (175).

plures or complures,

prima lux,

proximus dies,

ultimus or extremus.

superiora loca,

superior annus.

summum penculum.

summa virtus,

summus mons.

infimus (or imus) mons, thefoot of the moimtain (l75).

1. Belgae proximi sunt Germanis. 2. In inferiore

parte fluminis pontes sunt plurimi. 3. Summa erat

omnium rerum inopia. 4. Prima luce majorem multi-

tudinem navium ab ulteridre portu misit . 5 . Proxima

nocte superiora loca occupant. 6. Superiore anno majus

oppidum minore cum periculo expugnaverant. 7.

Optimae res non sunt facillimae. 8. Complures sunt-

pares. 9. Omnes superiores dies summum montemtenebat. 10. In extremis hostium finibus oppida sunt

creberrima. 11. Primo impetu repulsi sunt. 12. Iter

per proximas civitates facillimum erat.

1. The depth of the river is very great. 2. Theyhasten to the nearest ship. 3. The previous winter he

had collected very many war-ships and very large forces.

4. Nothing is better. 5. It is the most distant town of

the enemy. 6. For the larger part of the year the

roads are very difficult. 7. It is best to hasten to the


199. I.


Latin Lessons for Beginners. 123

upper part of the island. 8. On his first approach he

demanded hostages from several states. 9. The trench

extended from the foot of the mountain to the outer

fortifications. 10. The next day they fortified a smaller

camp on the higher ground. 11, On account of their

signal valor they are the freest and noblest of the

citizens. 12. He had been informed by very frequent



Third and Fourth Conjugations : FutureIndicative Active.

200. Illustrative Examples.

Mittes, you will send. Audies, you will hear.

Mittemus, we shall send. Audietis, you will hear.

%. Notice that in these Latin future forms, the present

stem has -e- changed to -e- in the third conjugation,

and -i- changed to -ie- in the fourth conjugation.

201. Paradigms.


Third Conjugation, Fourth Conjugation.


1 . regam 'a-m

2. reges -e-s

3. reget -e-t

audiam -i-a-m

audies -i-e-s

audiet -i~e-t


1. regemus -e-mus audiemus -i-e-mus

2. regetis -e-tis audietis -i-e-tis

3. regent -e-nt ^udient -i-e-nt

124 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

a. What letter replaces -e- as the sign of the future tense

in the first person singular? What is the personal

ending in the first person singular? Before whatendings is -e- changed to -e- (78. ^.) ?

b. Compare the formation of the future tense in the first

and second conjugations (l78) with that in the

third and fourth conjugations.


celer, eris, ere, swifts speedy.

celeri-tas, -tatis, f., swiftness^ speed.

cohor-s, -tis, £., cohort (one-tenth of a legion).

collis, is, m., hill.

difficul-tas, -tatis, f difficulty.

dux, ducis, m., leader^ guide.

facul-tas, -tatis, f., opportunity.

liber-tas, -tatis, f., freedom.

pauci-tas, -tatis, i.y fewness^ small number.

regi-6, -onis, f., districtycountry, region.

N.B.—The suffix -tas is used to form firom adjectives

abstract nouns denoting quality or condition. It appears

in English as -ty.


203. I.

A.—1. Nihil audies; omnia videbis. 2. Ab extremis

regionibus venient. 3. Hostes omnes colles tenent.

4. Propter paucitatem portuum summa erat difficultas.

5. Spe libertatis adductus eram. 6. Partem cohortis

emittit. 7. Omnes inimicos ex civitate expellemus.

8. Primo impetu hostes pelletis. 9. Celerrimis hostium

facultas fugae datur.

B.—10. Sine duce venire constituent; sine ducibus

venire dubitabunt. 11. In summ5 colie aciem instruam

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 125

12. Communis libertatis causa multos annos bellum

g-eremus. 13. Navis dicitur esse celerrima. 14. Magnacum celeritate contendemus. 15. Majdres copias ex

finitimis regionibus deducet. 16. Reliquas cohortes

in silvas collesque compellunt. 17. Plurimae difficultates

Caesarem impedient.

204. II.

A.—1. The leading men of the district will assemble.

2. We shall pitch (our) camp on the top of the hill.

3. Several had been dismayed by the enemy’s swift-

ness. 4. He will not grant freedom to the citizens. 5.

You will withdraw out of the state. 6. He has been

informed of the difficulty by the guides. 7. We had

ascertained the small number of the cavalry and cohorts.

8. I shall withdraw the baggage to the nearest hill.

9. Ships are swift;the horses were swifter,

B.—10. The fourth and seventh cohorts* halt on the

heights. 11. Several have been surrounded by the

enemy. 12. The guides have found out the road. 13.

He will lead out all the cavalry with several cohorts.

14. He will give the rest an opportunity for {literally

of) flight. 15. We shall hasten to lay down (our) arms.

16. On account of the speed of the cohorts, you will

reach the sea about midday. 17. They will leave

(their) plunder across the river Thames.

C.—Decline the following combinations : navis longa,

iter difficile, homd ndbilis, vir ndbilior, mare magnum,castra majora, res publica {s), compares dies (/>/.),

major pars,, flumen Tiberis (^.), altius vallum, exercitus

integer, acies duplex (.y.), reliqui Belgae {pl?j.

*A plural noun may be modified by two (or mv're) adjectives in the


126 Latin Lessons for Beginner-s,


Irregular Adjectives of the First and SecondDeclensions.

205. Paradigms,







unumGen. unlus unius unius

Dat. uni uni uni

Acc. unum unam unumVoc. une una unumAdi. uno una un5

Nom. uni


unae una

Gen, unorum unarum unorumDat. unis unis unis

Acc. unos unas una

Voc. uni unae una

Abl. unis unis unis

Nom, neuter


neutra neutrum

Gen, neutrius neutrius neutrius

Dat. neutri neutri neutri

Acc. neutrum neutram neutrum

Abl. neutr5 neutra neutro

Nom. neutri


meutrae neutra

Gen. neutrorum neutrarum neutrorum

Dat. neutris neutris neutris

Acc. neutrds neuiras neutra

Abl. neutris neutris neutris

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 127

(a) Notice that while these adjectives have for the most

part the regular endings of the first and second

declensions, yet the genitive and dative singular

are irregular, and have the same form in all

genders. The adjectives which show this irregu-

larity are nine in number, and are given in the

vocabulary below.

206. Illustrative Examples.

Alia loca fossis, alia vallis muniebatj some places he was

fortifying with trenches, others with waifs.

Altera legio in Gallia hiemat, altera in Italia, the one

legion is whitermg hi Gaul, the other in Italy.

Reliquas (or ceteras) legiones in acie instruit, the other

legions he draws up in line.

a. In these sentences observe (l) the force of alius andalter when repeated in distinct clauses, (2) the use

of reliqui or ceteri for the others, the rest, while alii

means merely others.

Navis Longa : War-ship.

128 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

207. vocabulary.

alius, a, ud, otheryanother.

alii . . alii, seme . . others.

alter, era, erum, the other (of two).

alter . . alter, the one . . the other

ceteri, ae, a (in plur. only), the others, the teui.

neuter, tra, trum, neither.

nullus, a, um, no, none.

solus, a, um, alone, only.

totus, a, um, all, the whole.

ullus, a, um, any.

unus, a, um, one ; alone, only.

uter, tra, trum, which (of two), used in questions.

N.B.—Notice that while alter retains e in declension,

neuter and uter drop it. The genitive singular of alter

has -ius ; in all the other words the ending is -ius,

Notice also the additional irregularity in the neuter

singular nominative and accusative of alius. Thegenitive singular of alius is alius (although alterius is

generally used instead), and the dative alii.


208. I.

A.—1. Alio tempore conveniunt. 2. Neuter ducumproelium committere audebit. 3. Alteram partem vie!

GalHs concedit, alteram cohortibus. 4. Sine ulloi)en-

cul5 castra muniunt. 5. Ab aliis audiunt; a ceteris

audient. 6. In utra fluminis ripa castra posuerunt?

7. Tota castra hominibus complentur. 8. Alia consilia

rei publicae sunt utilia, alia periculosa.

B.—9. Cum sola decima legione proelium committam.-

10. N^la civitas obsides mittet. 11. Toti Galliae

Trajan’s Column.

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 129

eqilites imperavit. 12. Alterum iter erat faciliuSc

13. Aliud iter habemus nullum. 14. Belgae uni non

legates mittunt. 15. Ceteri portus aliis n5ti sunt, aliis

incogniti. 16. Alter portus Gallis notus erat, alter

Britannis. 17. Neutra insula iddneos portus habet.

209. II.

A.—1. He gives orders to the whole province. 2. Heorders some to fill the trenches, others to attack the

walls. 3. To which is it more 'useful ? It is useful to

neither. 4. They made an attack from another part of

the town. 5. He places the baggage of the whole armyon the other bank of the river. 6. No ship is swifter


none of the ships will reach harbor. 7. They hinder

others without any reason. 8. He will give freedom to

the ambassador only,

B.—9. He hastened to the other camp. 10, To which

camp (of the two) did the others hasten? 11. Theywere fortifying the heights during the whole of the

night. 12. Some will lay down (their) arms, others

will give hostages. 13. Neither line will begin the

battle. 14. He is the brother of the one, the friend of

the other. 15. They seem to be unfriendly to Caesar

alone. 16. He is like no other leader,

C.—Decline the following combinations: miles Ro-

manus, . vulnus grave, aliud tempus, reliqua cohors,

minus periculum, rex solus, alia res;

(in the singular

only) altei portus, nulla spes, media nox, militaris usus,

neutra insula, iddneus locus, unum latus, neuter frater,

dextrum cornu, nullum aliud iter, utra legid, novis-

simum agmen, summus mons, tota provincia, ulla

civitas, tertia vigilia, prima lux, alius obses, altera ripa,

nullus impetus; (in the plural only) alia hibema, ceteri

Gives, superiora loca


130 Latin Lessons for Beginners.


Imperfect and Future Indicative Passive.

210. Paradigms.


First Conj. Second Conj. Third Conj. Fourth Conj.


1. amabar* monebar regebar audiebar

2. amabaris monebaris regebaris audiebaris

3. amabatur monebatur regebatur audiebatur


1. amabamur monebamur regebamur audiebamur

2. amabamini monebamini regebamini audiebamini

3. amabantur monebantur regebantur audiebantur



1. amabort monebor regar audiar

2. amaberis moneberis regeris audieris

3. amabitur monebitur regetur audietur


1 . amabimur monebimur regemur audiemur

2. amabimini monebimini regemini audiemini

3. amabuntur monebuntur regentur. audientur

{a) Compare these forms with those of the imperfect

and future indicative active (44, 89, 179, 201), and

also with those of the present indicative passive

(164, 165). In particular, notice the replacing of

’in by -r, and of -bis by -beris.

* Amabar is translated Iwas being loved, I used to be loved or Iwas loved

t Amabor is translated 1shall be loved.

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 131

[b) Here it would be well to review in each conjuga-

tion the three tenses of the indicative (active and

passive) formed from the present stem.


de-ligo, ere, -legi, -lectum, choose.

di-vido, ere, -visi, -visum, divide.

in-cendo, ere, -cendi, -censum, bur^i.

solve, ere, solvi, solutum, loose, release.

Phrases : navem or naves solvo, set sail.

in fugam do, put to flight.


212. I.

A.—1. Mittimus, mittimur, mittemur. 2. Oppida

oppugnantur; hiberna expugnabuntur. 3. Impedieba-

tur, impediebar, 4. Expellebar, expellar. 5. Hostes

in fugam dabimus. 6. Naves solvet;servus solvetur.

7. Dividitur, dividuntur. 8. Oppidum incendebatur.

9. Locum deligunt;legiones deligebantur. 10. Mons

tenetur;imperium a Caesare obtinebatur



B.—11. Legati retinentur;montibus continebantur


naves detinebuntur. 12. Vocamur, convocabamur,

revocabimini. 13. Castra moventur;castra ponentar.

14. Expelleris, repelleris. 15. Audiris, audieris.

16. Fidelis esse existimabar. 17. Jubemini, jubebor.

18. Superabamini, superaberis. 19. Circumvenietur,

circumveniemur. 20. Rex et amicus appellabatur.

213. II.

A.— 1. It will be divided; they used to be divided.

2. It will be carried;we shall be carried back. 3. The

camp is being pitched;the camp will be burned. 4. We

132 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

are being: surrounded;I was being surrounded. 5. He

is putting the troops to flight;

the signal is given.

6. They are setting sail;they have set sail. 7. 'They

will be chosen;they will be summoned. 8. You are

called brother;you will be called brothers. 9. You

seem to be brothers;you seemed to be sisters.

B.—10. We are hemmed in by the rivers; the campwill be fortified by the cavalry. 11. It is being filled,

it was being filled, it will be filled. 12. It is being

fortified, it was being fortified, it will be fortified.

13. I am led, I was being led out, I shall be led back.

14. You used to be sent, we shall be sent out ; the battle

is begun. 15. You (s. and pi.) were thought to be

unfriendly. 16. They are hindered, we shall be hindered

{use both deterred and impedio). 17. I shall be sur-

rounded, I shall be seen. 18. I used to be called free;

I seemed to be a slave. 19. You will be surrounded


we were being surrounded. 20. You will seem to be

unfriendly;you will be compelled to set sail. .


Cardinal Numerals.

214. In the following list of cardinal numerals these

points should be carefully observed*:—

(a) the similarity in form of the cardinal and ordinal

numerals (l56)


(b) the method of forming tne numerals from eleven to

nineteen inclusive;

(^r) the manne-r of expressing twenty-one, twenty-two, one

hundred and one and similar numbers;

*It is not necessary at this stage to commit the whole list to memory.

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 133

({/) the different ways of expressing eighteen^ nineteen,

twenty-eight, twenty-nine, and similar numbers;

{e) the ending of the tens from 30 to 90 inclusive in

-ginta ; of the hundreds from 200 to 900 inclusive

in -centi or -genti.


1. unus, one

2. duo, two

3. tres, three

4. quattuor,


^ 6. sex

7. septem

8. octo

9. novem10. decern

11. undecim

12. duodecim

13. tredecim

14. quattuordecim

15. quindecim

16. sedecim

17. septendecim




decern et octo


movendecim20. viginti

funus et viginti

viginti unus

22/duo et viginti

' Wiginti duo

21 .^ .













200 ,








1000 ,



viginti octo

oct5 et viginti


i viginti novemInovem et viginti




, sexaginta

, septuaginta




rcentum unus

Icentum et unus

centum viginti quat-



, trecenti




, sescenti





134 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

216. (a) Most of the cardinal numerals are un-

declined, the same form being' used for all cases and

g-enders. The following-, however, are declined : unus,

duo, tres, the hundreds from ducenti to nongenti inclu-

sive, and mille.

id) The declension of unus has been given in 205.

(r) The hundreds are declined like the plural of bonus,

as ducenti, ae, a.

(d) The declension of mille will be given in 230.

(e) Duo and tres are declined in the following section.

217. Paradigms.

Masc. Fem. Neut. Masc. & Fem. Neut.

Nom. duo duae duo tres tria

Gen. duorum duarum dudrum trium trium

Dat. dudbus duabus dudbus tribus tribus

Acc. duds, duo duas duo tres tria_

Voc. duo duae duo tres tria

Abl. dudbus duabus dudbus tribus tribus


218. I.

A.— 1. Duas legidnes relinquet, tres ex hibernis

educet. , 2. Cum sescentis equitibus naves solvemus.

3. Dies circiter quindecim iter feceramus. 4, AdCaesarem cum ducentis obsidibus veniebat. 5. Duode-

viginti naves in unum locum coguntur. 6. Signa

militaria quattuor et scptuaginta relinquuntur. 7. Cen-

tum viginti quinque vicos habent. 8. Equites circiter

triginta mittentur.

B. — 9. Quattuordecim annos bellum gerebant.

10. Quingentis equitibus magnam multitudinem hos-

tium repellit. 11. Octo horas castra oppugnant;nona

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 135

h5ra castra expugnantiir. 12. Romanis unis concedi-

mus. 13. Legionem decimam quarta vigilia educam.

14. Quadraginta cohortium impedimenta relicta sunt.

15 o Incolas trium vicorum necat.

A. —1. He sends four cohorts;he will send the cavalry

with four cohorts. 2. They will give five hundred

hostages. 3. They were waging two wars at one time.

4. They burn forty-three towns and about two hundred

villages. 5. An attack was made by four hundred and

twenty cavalry. 6. They had collected twenty-eight

ships. 7o Thirty-five soldiers will be chosen from the

whole army. 8. The village is divided into two parts bya river. 9. About four hundred villages will be burned.

B.—10. Two legions, the sixth and the seventh,

will be left on the other bank. 11. On the fifth day,

five hundred and fifty-five horsemen had been collected.

1 2 . They are giving up three hundred and sixty hostages


13. He left two legions in the camp, and with the

remaining six marched for nine days through the

neighboring states. 14. He orders the lieutenant to set

sail with two legions and one hundred and seventy

cavalry. 15. We are adjacent to three states.


219 . II.







causa difficultas










res publica






136 Latin Lessons for Beginners.


alius fidelis neuter publicus

alter finitimus ndbilis similis

audax firmus ndtus sdlus

bonus imus novus summusbrevis incdgnitus nullus superior

celer inferior periculdsus tdtus

ceteri inutilis plus ullus

eomplures major potens . ultimus

densus malus prior unus

dissimilis maximus propior liter

extremus minor prudens utilis


eontined desilid dividd pertined

deducd deterred existimd prohibed

deligd detined imperd solvd

depdnd died incendd videor


How Horatius Kept the Bridge. (508 b.c.)


rescindo, ere, rescidi, rescissum, break down^ destroy.

transno, (or trano) are, avi, atum, swim across.

Secundo anno postquam ( after ) ex civitate rex

expulsns erat, Tarqninius auxilium a Larte Porsena -

^petivit. Lars Porsena fines latissimos in Etruria

habebat et multis de causis inimicus erat populo,

Romand. Maximas copias ex omnibus partibus Etruriae

coegit et magnis itineribus ad flumen Tiberim contendit.

Romani celeritate hostium adventus permdti sunt ; alii -

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 137

ex agris in urbem convenenint, alii proximas silvas

petiverunt. Roma muris altissimis et fiumine latissimd

muniebatur;sed pons, qui {which) factus erat in {over)

Tiber!,ab exteribribns munitionibus ad portam nrbis

pertinebat. Propter paucitatem civium videbatur facilli-

mum esse pontem occupare et in mediam urbem exerci-

tum ducere.

Hac {this) de causa summum erat periculum. Ceteri

R5mani jam {now) de salute desperabant, sed unus

vir fortissimus, Horatius Codes, communis libertatis

causa pontem defendere constituit. Cum duobus aliis,

Spurio Lartid et Tito Herminid, ad extremam partem

pontis contendit, et tres Rdmani omnes hostium

impetus repellunt, dum {while) reliqui cives pontem

rescindunt. Post complures bdras major pars pontis

rescissa est, et Horatius duds amicds ex pugfna excedere

jubet. Turn {then) a tdtd exercitu impetus in Horatium

factus est. Summa cum virtute impetum sustinuit et

plurimds in fugam dedit, sed ab hostibus paene {almost)

circumventus est. Tandem {at length) reliquam partem

pontis resciderunt Rdmani. Turn Horatius de ponte in

medium flumen desiluit et sine ulld vulnere ad alteram

ripam transnavit. Ita {thus) fortitudd unius viri tdti rei

publicae libertatem dedit.

Komaii Coin.

13$ Latin Lessons for Beginners


Future Perfect Indicative, Active and Passive.

222. Paradigms.



1 .

2 .

3 .

1 .

2 .


er5 (/ shall be) fuer5 (/ shall have bee7i)

eris fueris

erit fuerit


erimus fuerimus

eritis fueritis

erunt fuerint

a. Note (l) the relation in form to the imperfect and

pluperfect of sum (149, 129) ; (2) the difference in

the vowels before -nt in the two tenses.

223. Paradigms.


First Conj. Second Conj. Third Conj. Fourth Co7ij.


\. amavero* monuerd rexerd audiverd

2. amaveris monueris rexeris audiveris

3. amaverit monuerit rexerit audiverit


1. amaverimus monuerimus rexerimus audiverimus

2. amaveritis monueritis rexeritis audiveritis

3. amaverint monuerint rexerint audlverint

^Amavero is translated / s/tart have loved.

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 139



1 . amatus er5

2. " eris

3. " exit


Second Conjugation.

Third Conjugation.

Fourth Conjugation.


amati erimus

II eritis

II erunt

monitus er5

rectus ero

auditus ero

First Co7ijugatio7i.

(/ shall have been loved)

a. Note the relation between these forms and those of

the tenses of sum given in 222. From which

of the stems furnished by the principal parts

is the future perfect obtained in the active voice ?

From which in the passive voice ?

b. At this point it would be well to review the three

tenses of the perfect system of the indicative in

the active and passive voices respectively.

224. Illustrative Examples.

Si obsides miserint, copias reducam, if they send (literally

shall have sent) hostages^I shall lead back the troops.

Cum copias reduxerit, obsides mittemus, when he leads

(literally shall have led) the troops back, we shall send


Si amici esse videbuntur, copias reducet, if they seem

(literally shall seem) to be friendly, he will lead back

his troops.

a. In these dependent clauses introduced by si {if) or

cum {when), notice (l) that the reference is tofuture

time, although this is not clearly expressed by the

English verb; (2) that in the first two sentences

140 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

the act referred to in the dependent clause mustbe completed before the act referred to in the

principal clause, while in the third sentence this is

not the case. What tenses are used in these de-

pendent clauses ?

b. Here, as regularly in subordinate clauses, Latin is

more logical and exact than English in indicating

(l) whether the time of the action is present, past,

or future, and (2) whether the action is prior to

that of the main verb, or concurrent with it.


absum, abesse, ^ui, de absent, be far away, be distant,

auge5, ere, auxi, auctum, increase.

con-sido, ere, -sedi, -sessum, encamp.

di-mitto, ere, -misi, -missum, send out {in different diret

Hons), despatch, dismiss.

dis-pono, ere, -posui, -positum, place at intervals, post.

distrib-uo, ere, -ul, -utum, assign, distribute ; divide,

explore, are, avi, atum, examine, reconnoitre.

in-veni5, ire, -veni, -ventum, come upon, find.

reperio, ire, repperi, repertum,y?;2^, discover.

timeo, ere, VA^fear, havefears.


{d) The prefix dis- (or di- before certain con-

sonants) is used in compounds to express the idea of

apart; compare also discedo, depart, withdraw. Divide

contains the same element, as do also the adjectives

dissimilis and difficilis.

{b) Reperio is used of finding, after inquiry or search;

invenid of finding by chance or without effort.

(r) Augeo in the active voice means increase (transitive

= make greater);

in the passive voice it means increase

(intransitive *= be made or become greater).

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 141


226. I.

A.—1. Numerus augebitur; numerus auctus erit


numerus major erit;numerus major fuerit. 2. Navem

in portu invenerunt; in idoneo loco consederint. 3.

Copias dimiserit;

copiae erunt dimissae. 4. In duas

partes distributi eritis. 5. Germanos sine causa timue-

ramus. 6. Cum omnis exercitus dispositus erit, signum

dabitur. 7. Si socii erunt fideles, facillimum erit omnia

itinera explorare. 8. A periculd abesse videor;abero;


B.—9. Bellum gerimus;bella gesserimus. 10. Alte-

rum iter difficilius erit. 11, Mitteris;miseris; mitti-

mus; misimus. 12. Bella brevia erunt;

utiles fueritis

amici. 13. Nihil reppereris;causam reperis

;ab hosti-

bus reperieris. 14. Cum ad infimum collem perveneri-

mus, considemus, 15. Si copiae hostium auctae erunt,

difficile erit collem tenere. 16. Si praesidia trans

Rhenum disposuero, Germanos Galliam vastare pro-


227. II.

A.~l, We shall find;we shall have found

;we shall

have encamped. 2, It will be increased; it will be


it will have been found. 3. The matter has

been examined;the roads will have been reconnoitred.

4, It will be most useful;

it will have been very easy.

5 . They are absent;you will be absent

;we had been

far away. 6. The forces have been increased;


number had increased. 7. When I discover the reason,

I shall despatch messengers to the neighboring states.

8. If the foot-soldiers fear the sea, the ships will be

assigned to the cavalry.

142 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

B.—9. They have encamped; he had encamped; I

shall have encamped. 10. The camp was pitched;the

camp had been pitched;the camp will have been pitched.

11. He will have summoned the leading men;the lead-^

ing men will have been dismissed. 12. They will have

everything;they will have seen everyone. 13. You

will be free;

it will be the freest of all the states. 14.

When Caesar is absent they will attack the winter camp.

15. If the number of the enemy increases, we shall not

join battle. 16. If you begin to post garrisons, we shall

seek assistance.


Male, Accusative of Extent of Space.

228, Illustrative Examples.

Male equites mittentur, a thousand horsemen will be sent,

Adventus male equitum, the arrival ofa thousandhorsemen.

Cum male equitibus, with one thousand cavalry.

a. Male, a thousand, like most cardinal numerals in

Latin, is an indeclinable adjective, regularly used

with a plural substantive.

229i Illustrative Examples,

Tria maia equitum mittentur, three thousand horsemen

will be sent. <

Adventus sex maium equitum, the arrival of six thousand


Cum duobus maibus equitum, with two thousand cavalry.

a. The plural of male, maia or (as it is often spelled)

maiia,'is a neuter noun followed by the partitive

genitive (174), tria maia equitum being literally

three thousands of horseme^i.

Latin Lessons for BeginnerSo 143

230 . Paradigm.


Nom . milia

Gen. milium

Dat. milibiis

Acc. milia

AbL milibus

231, Illustrative Examples.

Mnie passus* pertinet, it extends (for) a thousand paces

(or a mile).

Tria milia passuum abest, he is three thousa?id paces (oi

three miles) distant.

Fossa est ducentos pedes longa, the trench is two hundred

feet long.

a. Observe that distance how far or extent of space is

expressed in Latin by the accusative without a

preposition. Compare the accusative of time (159).


agg-er, -eris, m., mozmd.

auc-tor, -toris, m.(literally increaser) ,

advocate^ adviser.

auctori-tas, -tatis, f., influence, weight.

defen-sor, -soris, m., defender.

impera-tor, -toris, m., com7nander {in chief).

on-us, -eris, n., burden, weight.

passus, us, m., step, pace.

spatium, i, n., dista?ice, space.

* See vocabulary, 232. The Roman passus is the distance between twosuccessive positions of the same foot, that is, really two of our paces. Athousand such paces therefore would be about 5,000 feet, or, roughly speaking, a mile.

144 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

N.B.—The suffix -tor is used to form from verbs nouns

denoting- the agent or doer of an action. The form of

the noun closely resembles that of the participial (or

supine) stem of the verb, -tor becoming- -sor in nouns

derived from verbs which have s instead of t in this



233. I.

A.—lo Milia passuum oct5 a castris consMerant.

2, Agger mille sescentos passus abest. 3. Locum mur5viginti tres pedes alto muniunt. 4. Si defensores idonei

delecti erunt, facile erit sine imperatore locum tenere.

5. Maximam auctoritatem habere existimantur. 6.

Majus onus sustinuimus. 7. Magnum spatium impe-

rator aberat. 8. Filius imperatoris auctor erat consilii.

B.— 9. Sex milia peditum et mille equites reliquit.

10. Milia sex exploratorum dimisit. 11. Ex milibus

triginta tertia pars reducta erit. 12. Agger erat latus

pedes trecentos viginti, altus pedes septuaginta. 13.

Silva multa milia passuum pertinebat. 14. Cum milibus

trecentis militum naves solvet. 15. Onera gravia

portabant. 16, Milia hominum octoginta delecta sunt,

234, II,

A,—-1, They gave six thousand horses and a thousand

hostages to Caesar. 2. The camp had been pitched

three miles from the mound. 3. At daybreak he was a

mile from the camp. 4. He had learned from the

scouts the small number of defenders. 5. If you begin

to collect an army, you will seem to be advocates of

* Compare also explorator, spectator, aiulitor, monitor, rector, inventor,

depositor. Sometimes the suffix -{or is added to nouns, as gladiator(primarily one who uses the sword) from gladlus.

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 145

war. 6. The lieutenant was sent by the commander-in-chief with four thousand foot-soldiers and a thousand

horsemen. 7. They had carried the burdens a great

distance. 8. He has no influence with {literally among,

inter) the defenders.

B.—9. Twenty-three thousand Gauls had come to

Caesar. 10. I shall demand two thousand hostages

from the commander-in-chief. 11. The forests were

thought to extend two hundred miles. 12. The campwill have been fortified by a trench twenty feet wide

and a rampart five feet high. 13. The right wing of

the army extends a thousand feet, the left (wing) five

hundred paces. 14. The other legion is a greater

distance away;

it was about a mile and a half away.

15. The burden was heavy;the burden will b'e heavier


Imperator ; Commander-in-chief. {Augustits.\

146 Latin Lessons for Beginners.


Present Infinitive Passive. Adverbs : RegularFormation and Comparison.

235. Illustrative Examples,

Castra Oppugnari jussit, he ordered the camp to be attacked

Castra moveri jussit, he ordered the camp to be moved.

Castra poni jussit, he ordered a camp to be pitched.

Castra muniri jussit, he ordered a camp to befortified,

a. Observe the method of forming in each conjugation

the present infinitive passive. Compare 123.

236. Paradigms.

PRESENT infinitive.

Active. Passive.

First Conjugation. amare, -are. amari. -ari.

Second Conjugation. monere. -ere. moneri. -eri,

Third Cojijugation. regere. -ere. regi. -i.

Fourth Co7ijugation. audire. -ire. audiri. -iri.

237. Illustrative Examples.

Adjective. Adverb.

latus, genitive lati. late. widely.

liber, » liberi. libere. fi^eely.

celer, celeris. celeriter, quickly.

fortis. It fortis. fortiter. bravely.

audax, " audacis. audacter, boldly.

a. Observe that adverbs formed from adjectives of the

first and second declensions end in -e, those from

adjectives of the third declension in -iter (or, in a

few cases, -ter).

b. Observe further that such adverbs may be formed

by substituting these endings for the ending of

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 147

the genitive singular of the adjective (-i or -is).

Adjectives in -ns form their adverbs in -nter; as,

potens, gen. potentis, adverb potenter, powerfully.

238 .



widely ;


quickly ;


bravely ;

Illustrative Examples.

Comparative. Superlative.

latius, latissime,

more widely ; 7iiost (or very') widely.

celerius, celerrime,

7uore quickly ; most (or very) qiiickly.

fortius, fortissime,

more bravely ; most (or very) bravely.

a. Observe how adverbs formed from adjectives are


the comparative is formed by taking

the neuter accusative singular of the comparative

of the adjective (that is, by changing -ior to -ius)


and the superlative by changing -us of the super-

lative of the adjective to -e.


acriter, adv.,

fiercely^ vigorously (from acer, acris,

acre, sharp, eager).

aegre, advo, scarcely, with difficulty (from aeger,

gra, grum, sick, wealz)


in superlative, with the

greatest difficitlty.

audacter, adv.,

celeriter, adv.,

diligenter, adv.,


fortiter, adv.,

graviter, adv.,

late, adv.,

libere, adv.,

longe, adv.,


quickly, swiftly, speedily,

carefully (from dfligens, -entis,

bravely, gallantly,

severely, serdously.

widely, extensively,



148 Latin LiivSSONS for Beginners.


240. I.

A.— 1. Omnes acerrime et fortissime pugnaverunt,

2. Hostium impetiim aegre sustinent. 3. Castra vallo,

pedes duodecim alt5 diligenter munlri jubet. 4. Dicit*

liberius et audacius. 5. Exercitura latius distribui

jusserat. 6. Imperator multis rebus impediri dicebatur.

7. Graviter vulneratus erat et aegerrime ad castra

pervenit. 8. Belgae a prdvincia longissime absunt,

9. Auxilia in summo monte celeriter colloeari jussit et

totum montem hominibiis coiiipleri.

B.— 10, Omnia diligenter facta erant; tria mJlia

passuum iter diligentissime fecerant. 1 1 . Equitatum ex

castris educi jubet et proelium equestre committi.

12. Oppidum montibus altissimis videtur contineri.

13. Superiore ann5 plurimas naves celerrime cogi

jusseramus. 14. Omnia oppida vicdsque incendi jubet,

et mille ducentos obsides in prdvinciam adduci. 15.

Longe ndbilissimus esse omnium Galldrum existi-


241 . II.

A.—"1. He ordered the place to be fortified more care-

fully. 2. They began to fight more bravely and

fiercely. 3. He will speak* most freely; he speaks

7ery seriously. 4. You are said to be feared by all.

5. The rest of the army will be three miles distant.

6. They will be farther distant from the rest of the

army. 7. We shall order the enemy’s territories to be

laid waste far and wide. 8. The village is said to

be divided into two parts by a river twenty-two feet


DIc6 means speak as well as say.

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 149

B.—9. He will have far the greatest influence amongthe allies. 10. I have ordered all the cavalry and ten

thousand infantry to be sent quickly. 11. The numberof the enemy seems, to be increasing. 12. He orders

all the other ambassadors to be summoned. 13. If the

enemy attack boldly, we shall with the greatest difficulty

hold the hill. 14. He demands about a thousand ships

from the other state.- 15. You used to order the roads

to be most carefully reconnoitred.


Quam WITH Comparatives. Ablative of


242 . Illustrative Examples.

Belgae fortiores erant quam Galll,

Belgae fortiores erant Gallis,

the Belgians were

braver than the


the other island is

- smaller than


Altera insula est minor quamBritannia,

Altera insula est minor Britannia,

Ad insulam pervenit minorem

quam Britanniam,

Ad insulam pervenit minorem


Majores copias sociis quam provinciae imperat, he demands

largerforcesfrom the allies than from the province.

Nihil est utilius quam amicos habere, 7iothing is more

useful than to havefriends.

he ca7iie to a?i isla?id

smaller than


]50 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

a. Observe how, after comparatives, two methods are‘

used in Latin to express' the comparison )

(1) qua.m (meaning t/ia?i) is used, two substantives |

compared being put in the same case; ^

( 2 ) instead of quam, followed by the nominative '•

or accusative, the ablative without quam may be

used. This is called the Adlative 0/ Co9?ipanson.- ]-


con-suesco, ere, -suevi, -suetum, become accustomed


in perfect, be accustomed





c5nsuetu-do, -dinis, f.,

continens, -entis,

broken^ continuous.

continenter, adv.,

disto, are,

lab-or, -oris, m.,

prae-mitto, ere, -misi,

prae-sto, are, -stiti,

quam), it is preferable, better.

sto, stare, steti, statum, stand.

terra, ae, f., land.

co7itinual, un-



be apart,

toil, labor.

missum, send in advance.



praestat (with



ex consuetudine, accordhig to custom.

continens terra (or continens alone as fern,

noun, with abl. continent!), the main-

land, the co7itinent.

N.B.—(a) The prefix prae- is used in composition to

express the idea of before


this appears in English as

pre-, as, predict.

Ip) The perfect tense of certain Latin verbs maybe freely translated by the English present tense, to

denote the present state resulting from a completed

action;so, consuevi, / have become accustomed, I have

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 151

formed a habit = / am accustomed


cognovi, / have

learned = I know. (The pluperfect of these verbs will

have the force of an imperfect = / was accustomed, 1

knew) Similarly circumvent! sunt may be translated,

they are surrounded


superati sunt, they are conquered


divisum est, it is divided.


244. I.

A.—1. Ag-ger altior est quam mums; munitiones alti-

ores sunt aggere. 2. Tamesis dicitur esse longior Tiber!


3. Breviores sunt in Britannia quam in continent!

noctes. 4. Proximi stabant;

in locis superioribus

steterant. 5. Praestat c5pias instruere quam fuga

salutem petere. 6. In multis terris sunt continentes

silvae paludesque. 7. Impedimenta praemissa sunt et

in summ5 monte collocate. 8. Insulae tria milia

passuum distant. 9. Non populi Romani c6nsuetud5

est obsides dare;obsides dare non consuevimus.

B.—to. Prudentiores estis quam belli auetdres. 11.

Insula circiter milia passuum triginta a continent! aberat.

12. Castra majora sunt quam consuetudd exercitus

postulat. 13. Ex ednsuetudine majdrem partem vici

cohortibus quam equitibus concessit. 14. Altitudd

muri minor erat quam latitudd fossamm. 15. Alti-

tudd fossae major erit quam fluminis. 16. Belgae cumGermanis continenter belluin gerebant. 17. Nulla est

sine labdre salus. 18. Circumvent! sumus;Gallia est

divisa in partes tres.

245. n.

A.—1. The land is more useful than the sea;the sea

is larger than the land. 2. Nothing is better than

liberty. 3. The trenches were twenty-three feet apart.

152 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

4 . They had stood continuously for six hours. 5. Theother island is farther distant from the continent than

Britain. 6. The Romans are awaiting the end of all

(their) toils. 7. I know the custom of the Gauls.

8. They are accustomed to send in advance the swiftest

ships. 9. We were accustomed towage incessant wars.

B.—10. We fear a man more powerful than the king.

11. According to custom he had sent all the cavalry in

advance at daybreak. 12. By incessant toil they had

fortified the camp more quickly than they were accus-

tomed. 13. It is easier to leap down than to stand on

the top of the wall. 14. He ordered a smaller portion

of the plunder to be given to the cavalry than to the

rest of the army. 15. To defend the camp bravely is

preferable to laying* down (our) arms. 16. They will

call the defenders of the bridge braver and more daring

than the commander-in-chief. 17. It seems to be better

to seek other lands. 18. On the mainland the towns

are not far apart.


Adverbs : Irregular Formation and Comparison.

Quam WITH Superlatives.

246 . Besides adverbs formed from adjectives, accord-

ing tc the methods described in Lesson XLI., there

are not a few instances where certain case-forms of the

adjective are used as adverbs (as is regularly the case

in the comparative degree).

In the following, the accusative singular neuter of

the adjective is used adverbially

* That is, ‘ is better than to lay down.'

Latin Lessons foe Beginners. i53

multum, much. plurimum, most^ very much.

solum, only. facile, easily,

first, m thefirst place


In the following-, the ablative singular neuter or femi-

nine of the adjective is used adverbially

primo, atfirst. brevi, hi a shof-t time, quickly.

subito, suddenly {irom. the adjective subitus, a, um, sudden).

una (with cum) at the same time, together, along {with).

247. The following- are adverbs in common use which

have no corresponding- adjectives

Positive. Comparative. Superlative.

diu, long, for a long time diutius diutissime

saepe, often saepius saepissime

fere, almost

248. The following adverbs show some irregularity

in formation (compare the corresponding adjectives,


Positive^ Comparative. Superlative.

(magnus) magnopere, greatly magis, more maxime(parvus) parum, little minus, less minime

(bonus) bene, well melius optime

(malus) male, ill pejus pessime

prope, near, nearly propius proxime

249. Illustrative Examples.

Quam maximas copias coegit, he collectedforces as large as


Equites quam maxime impediunt, they hinder the cavalry

as much as possible.

Quam primum iter fecerunt, they marchedas soon aspossible.

a. Observe how quam with the superlative (both of

adjectives and of adverbs) is used to express the

highest degree possible, the regular translation

taking the form as .. . as possible.

154 Latin Lessons for Beginners.


250. I. .•


A.—1. Prim5 copiae magnopere perterrentur. 2.;

Brevi causam reperiemus. 3._Saepe ex equis desiliiint

et inter pedites pugnant. 4, Una cum Caesare multos i

annosfuerat. 5.Quam maximum numemm inimicorum r

ex civitate expellam. 6. Facile pauci multos montemoccupare prohibebunt. 7. Non multum distant. 8.

Facillime impetum hostium diutius sustinebimus. ^

B.—9. Subitd duabus portis omnem equitatum emittit.

10. Diu principatum totius fere Galliae obtinuerant.

11 . Saepius ad senatum litteras mittemus. 12. Primuma proximis civitatibus auxilium petiverunt. 13. Unacum ceteris ex proelio excesserant. 14. Propter usummilitarem minime terreri videbantur. 15. Quam celer-

rime ad mare pervenire contendit. 16. Praesidium

quam amicissimum habere constitueram.

251 . II.

A.—1. They had fought long and vigorously. 2. Atfirst he does not venture to speak freely and boldly.


3. In the first place he ordered corn to be procured as

quickly as possible. 4. They will sustain the attack

more easily;

the attack will be sustained less easily.

5. He ordered as many ships as possible to be collected.

6. They hesitate to depart farther from the line of

march. 7. We shall not await the auxiliaries (any)

longer. 8. We had been greatly hindered by marshes.

B.—9. As soon as possible they began to move the

camp nearer. 10. Suddenly almost all leaped downfrom the ship along with the guides. 11. The harbor

was less suitable than the lake. 12. He is accustomed

to demand troops from as many states as possible.

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 155

13. When they learn of Caesar’s arrival they will be

more terrified. 14. They determined to lay waste the

neighboring territories as widely as possible. 15. Theyare nearly surrounded. 16. Almost all the roads have

been carefully reconnoitred.



foot distance nearer, nearest

pace be (far) distant farther, farthest

mile, miles be apart most distant

LANDSCAPE.land hill territory

sea mountain mainland

district heights top of a mountain

state bridge foot of a mountainADJECTIVES.

first other, another larger, largest

next the other (of two) smaller, smallest

previous the others lower, higher

several any more, most

no, none alone incessant, unbroken

neither whole good, badWAR.

enemy defender war-ship despatch

leader cohort set sail reconnoitre

commander- mounds encamp> send in advance

in-chief guide post put to flight


ship custom freedom citizen

burden adviser toil citizenship

end influence fewness difficulty

speed opportunity

156 Latin Lessons for




divide release burn find

assign increase fear be accustomed

choose surpass stand it is better


fiercely swiftly at first

boldly suddenly in the first place

bravely continually in a short time

freely often long, for a long time

easily almost much, very muchwith difficulty nearly greatly

carefully about moreseverely far less

only widely along (with)


The Story of Mucius Scaevola. (508 b.c.)


manus, us, f., hand. mors, mortis, f., death.

Fortes audacesque pontis defensores Porsenam

R5mam occupare prohibuerant. Porsena exercitum in

Etruriarri non reduxit, sed castra in loc5 idoneo posnit

qui {which) mille circiter passus a Tiberi aberat. Turn

{then) equites quam plurimds emisit et fines Romandrumlonge lateque vastari jnssit. Brevi summa esse inopia

‘ frumenti coepit. Mucius, filius Romani nobilissimi,

Porsenam necare constituit. Nocte per medios hostes

contendit et posterd die diligenter castra regis expldra-

vit. Porsena incdgnitus erat Mucid, et prd {mstead of^

prep, with abl. case) rege unum ex principibus necavit,

qui {who) longe nobilissimus omnium esse videbatur.

Latin Lessons for Beginners. lS!7

Milites qui proximi stabant aegerrime Mucinm compre-

henderunt {seized) et ad regem adduxerunt.

Mucius minime perterreri videbatur;libere et audacter


‘ Romanus sum civis. Regem Porsenam necare

constitueram et populum Romanum ab injuria defen-

dere. Non audacior sum ceteris Romanis. Si Porsena

totum exercitum e finibus Rdmanis non eduxerit, -trecenti

alii non dubitabunt rei publicae causa maximos labores

et summa pericula adire {to encounter)


Mortem non

timed. Praestat incendi quam libertatem amittere {to

lose)." Simul {at the same time) dextram manum in

ignem {fire) injecit {thrust), qui a militibus factus erat.

Rex fortitudine Romanorum magnopere permotus est

et Mucium dimitti jussit. Pacem quam celerrime cumsenatu Romand cdnfirmavit et cum omnibus cdpiis e

finibus Rdmandrum discessit. Posted {afterwards)

Mucius Scaevola* appellabatur, quod {because) sinistram

sdlam manum liabebat.


Relative Pronoun. Quod=

254» Paradigm.


Singular. ' Plural,

Masc. Fem. Neut. Masc. Fem. Neut.

Nom. qui quae quod qui quae quae

Gen. cujus cujus cujus qudrum quarum qudrumDat. cui cui cui quibus quibus quibus

Acc. quern quam quod quds quas quae

Abl. qud qua qud quibus quibus quibus

‘The Latin word Scaevola means “ the |eft-handed."

158 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

255. Illustrative Examples.

Legatus, -tiui missus est, prudens est, the ambassador who .

has been sent is prudent.

Legatus, quern miserunt, prudeUs est, the ambassador whomthey have sent is prudent.

Legionem, quae missa est, exspectamus, we are awaiting

the legio7i which has been sent.

Adventum legionis quam miserunt exspectamus, we are 1

awaiting the approach of the legion which they havef


Legiones, quarum adventum exspectabamus, pervenerunt, [

the legio7is, whose approach we were awaitmg^ arrived.

German!, a quibus missus est, pacem petunt, the Ger7nans,

by who7n he was sent, are seeking peace.

German!, quibuscum bellum gerebat, pacem petunt, the

Germans with who77i he was waging war, seekpeace.

a. In connection with these sentences, observe

(1) that the relative pronoun in Latin changes its

form to indicate gender, number, and case;

(2) that the ge7ider and number of the relative are

determined by the word (called the Antecedent) to

which it refers;

(3) that the case of the relative is in no way deter-

mined by the antecedent, but by its relation to

the dependent clause to which it belongs;

(4) that in the first four sentences the relative pro-

noun that could be used in place of who, whom or

which ;

(5) that in the second and fourth sentences the

relative might be omitted altogether in English,

something which never occurs in Latin;

(6) that the preposition cum is suffixed to the ablative

it governs. The accent is then on the penult (13).

159La-tin Lessons for Beginners.

256. Illustrative Examples.

Oppidum, quod muniverant,- expugnatum est, the town

which they hadfortified has beeii taken by storm.

Timent quod oppidum expugnatum est, they are afraid

because the town has been taken by storm.

Quod hostes non longe aberant, signum dedit, because the

ejiemy were notfar distant^ he gave the signal.

a. Observe that the same Latin word quod is used both

as a relative pronoun (neuter singular nominative

or accusative) and as a conjunction with the force

of because.*


barbarus, i, m., barbarian.

centuri-o, -onis, m., centurion (an officer of

the Roman army).

com-moveo, ere, -movi, -motum, alarm, dismay.

demonstrd, are, avi, atum, point out, mention ; make

77iention (<?/'=de).

in-colo, ere, -colul, inhabit ; dwell.

op-primo, ere, -pressi, overpower ; burden.

premo, ere, pressi, pressum,/r<?.y5, harass, beset.

supra, adv., above.

tra-duco, ere, -duxi, -ductum, lead across, take across.

transporto, are, avi, atum, carry across, bring over.

Phrase : premor, graviter premor, be hard pressed.

N.B.—Trans (or tra-) is prefixed to verbs with the

force of across or over.

* Even in the rare cases where either translation might be given, it will

be found that the context will determine which is the proper rendering.

160 Latin Lessons for Beginners.



258 , I.

1. Quod vicus in duas partes flumine dividitur, alteram\

partem Gallis concessit, alteram legioni. 2. Adflumen, i;

quod victim in duas partes dividit, pervenit. 3. Ad *

flumen, qu5 vicus in duas partes dividitur, pervenit. y4. Ex vied, quern Gallis et legioni concesserat, omnes \

discedere coeperunt. 5. Ex altera parte vici, quam ;

Gallis concesserat, omnes discedere coeperunt. 6. ^

Vicus, cujus partem Gallis concesserat, in duas partes f

flumine dividitur. 7. Galli,^ quibus partem vici con- !

cesserat, discedere coeperunt. 8. Legio, cui partem’

vici concesserat, non discessit. 9. Quod, partem vici’

legioni concesserat, Galli discesserunt. 10. Ex duabus

partibus, in quas vicus flumine dividitur, alteram Gallis

concessit, alteram legioni.


1. The Belgians are nearest to (173) the Germans,;

who dwell across the Rhine (and) with whom they are

continually waging war. 2. The Germans, to whomthe Belgians are nearest, dwell across the Rhine.

3. They are continually waging war with the Germans,

because they are nearest. 4. The Gauls, of whom the

Belgians are the bravest, are waging war with the

Germans. 5. They dwell across the Rhine, which

divides the Germans from the Gauls. 6. They dwell

across the river that divides Germany from Gaul.

7. They dwell across the river by which Germany is

divided from Gaul. 8. The districts which the Belgians

inhabit are nearest Germany. 9. Gaul is divided into

three parts, of which the Belgians inhabit one. 10. Onepart of Gaul, which the Belgians inhabit, is nearest






Latin Lessons for Beginners. 161

259. III.

A.—1. Ab omnibus barbaris, qui trans Rhenum inco-

lunt, legati ad Caesarem mittuntur. 2 . Plurimas habemuslongas naves, quibus milites transportare consuevimus.

3. Frumentum omne, quod in oppidum centuriones

comportaverant, reliquit. 4. In fines Germanorum,

qui proximi Belgis erant, copias quas coegerat traduxit.

5. Reliquum exercitum, quod longe aberat, n5n exspec-

tabamus. 6. Vir fortissimus d^ectus est, cujus pater

amicus a senatu appellatus erat. 7. Auxilium a Caesare

petimus, quod graviter a Germanis premimur.

B.—-8. Fuga Gallorum, de qua supra demonstravimus,

legionem, quacum Caesar erat, commovebat. 9. Castra

erant minora quod sine impediments Caesar legiones

transportaverat. 10. Omnem equitatum, quern ex omniprovincia coegerat, praemisit. 11. Summa erat diffi-

cultas quod milites onere armorum oppressi sunt. 12.

Quod inopia frumenti erat, centuridnes complures in

finitimas civitates frumenti causa dimisit. 13, Cum sola

decima legione, de qua non dubitabat, discessit.

260. IV.

A.—I. They marched through the province because

they had no other road. 2. He will collect all his

ships, of which he has a large number. 3. The cavalry

is sent in advance through the forest which has beenmentioned above. 4. They are alarmed because he left

everything that he had brought over. 5 . As many ships

as possible were gathered to the harbor from which hehad determined to set sail. 6. The auxiliaries we are

awaiting have been suddenly overpowered by the bar-

barians. 7. Because neither army ventures to join

battle, Caesar leads his forces back to the camp.

162 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

B.—8. With two legions which had wintered in the

province, he hastened to a river that was about a mile

distant. 9. The king, with whom he had made peace,

had great influence in the states into which the armyhad been led across. 10. The other centurion, to whosefather the citizenship had been given by Caesar, wasoverpowered by the enemy. 11. The camp that wehave mentioned above was beset by the barbarians,

whose lands were being laid waste. 12. There are

several islands, a majority of which are {literally the

greater part . . is) inhabited by barbarians. 13. Theyare less suitable, because they fear the sea.

LESSON XLV.Perfect Participle Passive.

261. Illustrative Examples.

Barbari, spe praedae adducti, in Galliam contendSrunt,

the barbarians, influenced by the hope of plunder,

hastened into Gaul.

Copiae, in unum locum coactae, in provinciam mittebantur,

the forces, having been gathered to one place, used to

be sent to the province.

Copiae, in unum locum coactae, in provinciam mittentur,

the forces, having been gathered to one place, will be

sent to the province.

Aciem instructam inveniet, he will find the line of battle

drawn up.

a. These Latin sentences illustrate the use of the Perfect

Participle Passive, when no longer used with parts

of the verb sum to form a tense of the indicative

passive (l40). It is regularly translated by the

English passive participle, e.g. missus, sent or

having been sent.

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 163

Contrast the following sentences

Barbari spe praedae adducti erant, the barbarians had been

influenced by the hope ofplunder.

Copiae in unum locum coactae sunt, the forces have been

gathered to one place.

Acies instructa erit, a line of battle will have been drawn up.

b. Notice that in these sentences the voice of the parti-

ciple is passive, and that the time of the action

expressed by the participle is prior to that of the

principal verb, but is not necessarily past time.

€. The participle is a verbal adjective;

it expresses

action and has distinctions of tense and voice;and

it agrees in gender, number and case with the

noun it modifies. The perfect participle passive is

declined like bonus (65).

d Sometimes this participle becomes little more than

an ordinary adjective, and may in fact be com-


as, paratus, ready ; paratior, more ready or

better prepared ; munitissimus, best fortified


or well


262 . A freer rendering of the perfect participle pas-

sive is generally permissible and often advisable. Thusin the first two sentences of 261

,adducti might also be

translated being influenced, and coactae might be trans-

lated after being gathered, or on being gathered.

Occasionally all these methods of translation are




behig repulsed

having been repulsed

after being repulsed

on being repulsed

Repulsi ah equitatu,

in castra contendunt,

by thecavalry


they haste7i to

the camp.

164 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

263. VOCABULARY.dediti-5, -onis, £., surrender.

dedo, ere, dedidi, deditum, surrender (transitive),

e-rumpo, ere, -rupi, -ruptum, break out, sally out.

erupti-o, -onis, f., sally, sortie.

legati"5, -onis, f., embassy.

oppugnati-5, -onis, f., attack, assault.

per-rumpo, ere, -rupi, -ruptum, break through.

rumpo, ere, rupi, ruptum, break, break down.

stati-o, -onis, f. ,

outpost, guard.

telum, i, n., weapon, missile.

Phrases : in deditionem venio, surrender (intransitive)


in statione, on guard, on outpost duty.

N.B.—The suffix -tio is used to form from verbs

abstract nouns (feminine) denoting an action, or in somecases the concrete result of an action. So munitio, like

the English noun fortification, may mean either the act

of fortifying or the works constructed. This ending

appears in English as -tion.


264. I.

A.—-1. Adventu R5man5rum magnopere perterritus,

copias reduxit. 2. Ab hostibus circumvent!, de muni-

tionibusdesilueruntetfugasalutempetiverunt. 3. Om-nium rerum inopia adducti, legationem de* deditione

miserunt. 4. Paratum et instructum excrcitum inveni,

5. Multitudine telorum repulsae, cohortes in locis

superioribus consistunt, 6. Prim5 parati eramus auc-

tores belli dedere. 7. Cum signum dederit, ex castris

erumpent. 8. Spe salutis adducti, per medios hostes

audacissime perruperunt. 9. Multitudine telorum vul-

nerati, aegre adt noctem oppugnationem sustinemus.

ComDare de pace, 99. t Translate ad here by ‘until’

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 165

B.—IO. Salutem petere jussi, subito omnibus portis

eruptionem fecerunt. 11. Ex consuetudine omnes

civitates communem legationem mittent. 12. Omniaquae postulaveritis, enmt parata. 13. Magnitudine

munitidnum et celeritate Romanorum permoti, legates

de deditione mittunt. 14. Ab oppido quod erat maxi-

mum munitissimumque in insula, non longe aberant.

15. In omnibus collibus copias hostium instructas vident.

16. Pons, qui erat in flumine, ruptus erat 17. Cohors,

quae in statione erat, fuga reliqui exercitus perterrita,

in deditionem venit. 18. Barbari, conimoti quod

oppidum natura loci munitissimum expugnatum erat,

majores copias parare coeperunt.

265. II.

A.—1. After being driven back into the town, they

made a sortie. 2. Being defeated by the first attack of

the cohorts, they are compelled to surrender. 3. Thecavalry sent out from the winter-camp, quickly put the

enemy to flight. 4. On being recalled to the continent,

he hesitated for several days to set sail. 5. Havingbeen terrified by the large number of the ships, the

enemy’s troops withdraw from the sea. 6. Six chosen

cohorts will be stationed on outpost duty. 7. Thewar-ships seem to be better prepared than the other

(ships). 8. On being informed of the approach of the

embassy sent by the Belgians, he recalled the cavalry

which he had sent in advance. 9. Caesar broke the

middle of the enemy’s line.

B.—10. After being drawn up in line we shall sally

out. 11. On being repulsed by the fortifications and

the missiles, they withdrew as quickly as possible.

12. The long awaited auxiliaries reached the bridge the

166 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

previous night. 13. The attack is hindered by manycircumstances. 14. If you break through the fortifica-

tions, you will easily reach the river. 15. He found the

guards posted. 16. After being called brothers by the

senate, they have been compelled to surrender all their

towns and to give hostages. 17. On the seventh day of

the assault, having been greatly harassed by the multi-

tude of missiles, they sent ambassadors to Caesar to

treat for a surrender. 18. Burdened by the heavy

weight of their arms, the legions reached the campwith the greatest difficulty.


Personal Pronouns.

266. Paradigms.


First Persoyi Second Person. Third Person.

Singular. Masc. Fem. Neut.

Norn. ego tu is ea id

Gen. mei tui ejus ejus ejus

Dat. mihi tibi ei ei ei

Acc. me te eum earn id

Voc. tu

Abl. me te eo ea eoPlural.

Nom. nos VOS ei, ii eae ea

nostrum t vestrumiGen.

nostri / vestri /eorum earum eorum

Dat, nobis vobis eis, iis eis, iis eis, iis

Acc. nos VOS eos eas ea

Voc. VOS

Abl. nobis vobis eis, iis eis, iis eis, iis

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 167

a. Of the double forms in the genitive plural of the

first and second personal pronouns, nostrum and

vestrum are used as partitive genitives (174)


otherwise of us and ofyou are nostri and vestrL


Nos sumus amici, vos estis inimici, we are friends, you are


Legionem, quam mecum habeo, mittam, / shall send the

legion which I have with me.

Jussit eos impedimenta in uno loco collocare et eummunire, he ordered thejn to put the baggage in o7ie

place andfortify it.

Omnibus vobis utile est, it is useful to all ofyoii (literally

to you all).

These Latin sentences illustrate the following points :

a. The nominative of the personal pronoun is expressed

when emphatic, otherwise the personal ending of

the verb suffices.

b. The preposition cum is suffixed to the ablatives me,

te, nobis and vobis. (For the accent see 255, a. 6.)

c. Because of the difference between Latin and English

in the matter of gender, the pronoun it may fre-

quently be represented by the masculine or the

feminine of is. Where also it is the subject of a

verb, the form of the Latin verb (or of a predicate

adjective) will vary according to the noun to which

the pronoun it refers;thus, it was sent may refer

to an army (exercitus), a legion (legio), a letter

(litterae), or to baggage (impedimenta), and wouldthen be translated missus est, missa est, missae

sunt, and missa sunt respectively

d. The partitive genitive should not be used with

omnes, since the whole, not a part, is taken. (174.)

168 Latin Lessons for Beginners.


aut, or


aut . . aut, either . . or.

concilium, i, n., meetings council.

et, and


et . . et, both . . and.

etiam, also ; even.

memini (found in perfect system only, with force of


memor, -oris, mindful (with g-enitive).

memoria, ae, f., memory.

neque, nor, and not


neque . . neque, neither . . nor.

sed, but.

tim-or,-oris, m

. ,fear.



memoriam depono,/<?r^(?/.*

memoriam retineo, remember.*


269 . I.

A.—1. Pacem vdbiscum fecerat;pacem neque nobis-

cum neque vobiscum fecerat. 2. Ab eis circum-

veniemur. 3. Tu et mihi et rei publicae utilis fuisti.

4. Memini id; memor er5 vestri. 5. Hiberna ab eo

aberant milia passuum viginti. 6. Consilium barba-

rorum n5n s51um mihi, sed etiam tibi, incognitum erat.

7. Magnam inter eos auctoritatem habes;

tu etiam

majorem auctoritatem quam ego habes. 8. Nihil a

v5bis postulo. 9. Ab e5 de periculo legionis cognbscit

et earn reduci jubet. 10. Si legationem de deditione

ad eum miseritis^ ad concilium v6s convocabit

B. '— 11. Equites qu5s tecum transportaveras, reducti

erant. 12. Hostes, timore perterriti, a nbbis discedunt.

13. Tui memoriam retinebo;memoriam vestri non

* These phrases, as their literal meaning would indicate, are followed bythe genitive case.

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 169

deponam. 14. Aut equites aut frumentum eis im-

perabit. 15. Cum ad castra pervenerint, ea oppugna-

bunt. 16. Timor animos omnium occupavit;


earn occupavit. 17. Omnibus vobis liber^atem dedit


nos omnes opprimere constituit. 18. A ceteris id

cog-n5vit, neque ego nuntiavi.* 19. Amicitiae populi

Romani memoria moveor. 20. Nuntius ad me missus

est;victoria mihi nuntiatur.

270, II.

A.—1. He will choose either me or you. 2. He has

chosen not only a large part of us, but also all of you.

3. He has learned the commander’s plans. 4. He has

compelled them to withdraw from the council. 5. It is

dangerous both to me and to you. 6. Because we do

not venture to carry the baggage with us, we are leav-

ing it in the camp. 7. They have left to us neither

(our) lands nor (our) liberty. 8. The cavalry I shall

send before me, but the infantry I shall lead out with

me. 9. We slew a large part of them. 10. On account

of (their) fear of me, they are renewing the memory of

(our) former friendship.

B.—11. Having been informed of the recent victory,

we sent ambassadors to him. 12. Hostages will be

given up to you by us. 13. I did not fear him, but you

were terrified by fear. 14. We were eight miles from

him. 15. We shall demand from him not only com but

also hostages. 16. He has forgotten even you. 17.

He orders them {jeferring to {a) the cohorts, {b) the

auxiliaries, {c) the soldiers) to come as quickly as

possible. 18. Nor do I remember everything. 19. Hesummons all of them to a meeting. 20. And they do

not seem to me to be mindful of us.

* Id is to be understood as the object of udutlavi also.

170 Latin Lessons for Beginners,


Present Participle Active. Bum.

271. * Paradigms.


First Conj. Second Co?ij. Third Conj.~ Fourth Coni.

amans monens regens andiens

a. In each of the four conjugations the present participle

ends in -ns, and is formed from the present stem.

272. Paradigm.


Singular. Masc. and Fem. Neuter.

Ncm . amans amans

Gen. amantis amantis

Dat. amanti amanti

Ace. amantem amans

Voc. amans amans

Ahl. amante amante


Nom. amantes amantia

Gen. amantium amantium

Dat. amantibus amantibus

Ace. amantes (is) amantia

Voc. amantes amantia

Abl. amantibus amantibus

Compare the declension of the present participle

active with that of adjectives' of the third declen-

sion (113), noting that in the ablative singular the

adjective has -I, the participle -e.*

* The participle also, when used as an adjective, has -I in the ablative


Latin Lessons for Beginners. 171

273 . Illustrative Examples.

Copias pugnantes video, / see the troopsfighting.

Adventum ejus exspectantes, castra munivimus, while {we

were) awaiting his approach^ wefortified the camp.

Adventum ejus exspectantes, castra muniemus, while {we

are) awaiting his approach, we shall fortify the camp.

Legatum fortiter pugnantem vulneraverunt, they wounded

the lieutenant while he was fighting bravely.

Legatum, dum fortiter pugnat, vulneraverunt, they wounded

the lieutenant while he was fighting bravely.

Dum castra muniuntur, hostes impetum fecerunt, while

the camp was beingfortified, the enemy made an attack.

These sentences illustrate the following points

a. The present participle in Latin is found only in the

active voice;

the time denoted is not necessarily

present, but is always the same as that of the

main verb.

b. The Latin present participle active is translated

sometimes by the English imperfect participle

in -ing (so especially after verbs of hearing and



but more often by while (or as) with the

participle in -ing, or by while (or as) with a prO'

gressive form of the indicative;so

c. While is also indicated in Latin by the conjunction

dum, which is regularly followed by the present

indicative, even when the reference is to past time.

(Dum should never be used with the participle).

d. Dum and the indicative supply the lack of a present

participle passive in Latin. '

venientes may be


while coming,

while we {you, they) are coming,

while we {you, they) were coming.

m Latin Lessons for Beginners.


clam-or, -Oris, rn., shout, shouting.

fled, ere, fle rl, fletum, weep, be in tears.

frument^ius, a, unij ^or pertaining to grain.

interim, adv., meanwhile, hi the meantime.

laboro, ^e, avi, Mum, toil; struggle, be in distress.

legionMius, a, um, of a legion, legionary.

onerMius, a, um, of burden, for burdens.

resists^ ere, restiti, resist.

toUd, ere, sustuli, sublMum, raise ; remove, take away.

undique, adv., on all sides, from all sides.

Phrases: res frumentaria, provisions, supplies.

navis oneraria, transport {ship).

N.B.—The suffix -arius is used to form from nouns

adjectives signifying pertaining or belonging to. This

appears in English as -ary.

Navis Oneraria : Tran^ort Ship.

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 173




275. I.

A.—1. Dum Caesar naves longas parat, leg'ati ad

eum de deditione venenint. 2. Caesarem legatis re-

spondentem audiveramus. 3. Fortissime pugnans, gra-

viter vulneratus est. 4. Tertiam legionem laborantem

vidit. 5. Dum castra muniunt, nullus hostis interim

visus est. 6. Dum castra incenduntur, subito clamor a

nobis auditur. 7. Auxilium flens a mepetivit. 8. Certo

anni tempore undique ad eum convenire consueverunt.

B.—9. Dum naves onerariae quas imperaverat co-

guntur, interim consilium principum cognoscitur. 10.

Si spes fugae sublata erit, minus facile resistemus.

11. Interim dum equites itinera exnlorant, legionarii

milites castra ponere coeperunt. 12. Graviter vulnerati

de salute desperare coeperant. 13. Naves et longae et

onerariae incolumes ad continentem perveniunt. 14.

Dum pedites castra fortissime dHendunt, equitatum rei

frumentariae causa dimittit.

276. II.

A.— 1. Weeping, they sought peace and friendship

from him. 2. The soldiers of the legion, while resisting

bravely, were surrounded by the cavalry. 3, In the

meantime, while he is awaiting reinforcements, he

begins a cavalry battle. 4. We made an attack on the

enemy while they were hastening to the forest. 5.

Being surrounded by us on all sides, they began to be

in distress. 6. He gave the signal to us as we weredespairing of victory. 7. He heard the soldiers raising

a shout;he heard the shouting of the soldiers as they

were sallying out. 8. While the transports are

assembling, according to custom he summons the


174 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

B.—9. The enemy, because they have a larger

number of troops, will easily surround you as you are

leaping down from the transports. 10. While the armywas being led across, he saw the reinforcements with-

drawing. 11. If all fear is removed, they will not

endure toil (any) longer. 12. While hesitating on

account of the lack of provisions, he was informed of

the assault. 13. While the cavalry withstood the

enemy’s attack, he meanwhile drew up the legionary

soldiers on the top of the hill. 14. By incessant toil

we shall overcome {use supero) everything.


Reflexive Pronoun. Possessives.

277. Paradigm.


Gen. sui sui

Dat. sibi sibi-

Acc. se, or sese se, or sese

Abl. se, or sese se, or sese

278. Illustrative Examples,

Se defendit, he defends himself.

Se defendant, they defend themselves


Eos ad se vocat, he calls them to him.

Equites.cum eo misit, he sent the cavalry with him.

Equites secum eduxit, he led out the cavalry with Imn.

Impedimenta secum portant, they carry the baggage

with them.

a. Observe that in these sentences the reflexive pro-

noun se is sometimes singular, sometimes plural


*In the first and second persons, the personal pronouns serve also as the

reflexive pronouns; as, Me defendo, I defend myself.

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 175

that it is translated sometimes by the English

reflexive pronoun {himself, themselves), sometimes

by the ordinary third personal pronoun {him, them) ;

but that in either case it refers to the subject of the

verb. The English third personal pronoun whennot used reflexively is translated by is (266).

b. Cum is suffixed to se as to me and te (267 b).

279. Paradigms.


First Person. Second Person. Third Person Reflexive,

mens, a um, tuus, a, um, suus, a, um,

my, mine. your, yours. his, her, hers:, its,

noster, tra, trum, vester, tra, trum, suus, a, um,

our, ours. your, yours. ' their, theirs.

a. These are all declined like regular adjectives of the

first ,and second declensions (except that the

vocative singular masculine of meus is mi). Tuus is

used in addressing one person,vester in addressing

more than one.

280. Illustrative Examples.

Meum adventum exspectat, he awaits my arrival.

Nostrum adventum exspectat, he awaits our arrival.

Adventum ejus exspecto, I await his {or her) arrival.

Adventum eorum (or earum) exspecto, / await their


Me adventum suum exspectare jussit, he ordered me to

await his arrival.

Me adventum suum exspectare jusserunt, they ordered meto await their arrival.

176 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

a. The possessive pronominal adjectives agree in gender,

number and case with the noun which they modify,

Suus, like se (278), refers to the subject of the mainverb of the sentence

;ejus and eorum (earum) are

used for his, her and their when not reflexive.

281, Illustrative Examples.

Arma tradiderunt, they gave up their arms.

Arma tradidimus, we gave up our arms.

Nostri se suaque defendant, our men are defending them-

selves and theirpossessions



Adventum suorum exspectant, they await the arrival oj


a In Latin, possessives are seldom expressed except for

the sake of emphasis or clearness;

the context

being at other times a sufficient guide (55).

b These possessives are often used substantively,

especially nostri, nostrorum, ottr men ; sui, gen.

suorum, his men, theirfriends ; sua (neuter plural);

his or their possessions


(Compare 180.)


ab-d5, ere, -didi, -ditum, hide, conceal.

con-jungo, ere, -junxi, -junctum, unite, join (transitive),

conspectus, us, m., sight, view.

conver-to, ere, -ti, -sum, turn (transitive),

jungo, ere, junxi, junctum, join (transitive),

osten-do, ere, -di, -turn, or ostensum, show, disclose.

tergum, i, n., back.

verto, ere, verti, versum, him (transitive).

Phrases : in conspectum venio, come in sight.'

signa converto, wheel about, face about.

terga verto, turn a^idflee, take to flight.

post tergum, hi the rear.







Latin Lessons for Beginners. 177

N.B.—Many English verbs may be used either transi-

tively or intransitively, as turn^ surrender. This is very

much less frequent in Latin, where the intransitive use

is often expressed by the transitive verb with the

reflexive pronoun;


Transitive. Intransitive.

surrender, dedere surrender, se dedere

turn, convertere turn, se convertere

hide, abdere hide, se abdere

Similarly the more precise Latin translates he joined

Caesar by se cum Caesare conjunxit (or also se Caesari

conjunxit), literally he united himself with (or to) Caesar.


283. I.

A.— 1. Eos suum adventum exspectare jussit. 2. Dese dicit; de e5 dicet. 3. Fratrem tuum ad se vocat.

4. Belgas obsides sibi dare coegit. 5. Se suaque omnia

ei dediderunt. 6. Vestro exercitui non pares sunt.

7. E5rum fuga eramus perterriti. 8. Repulsi a nostris,

sese in proximas silvas abdiderant. 9* Nostro adventu

permdti, sese cum hostibus conjungunt. 10. Omnesfere hostes terga verterunt. 11. In cdnspectum agminis

nostri venerat.

B.—12. Eum a se dimittit. 13. In conspectu exerci-

tus tui, agri mei vastati sunt. 14. De ejus adventu

certiores facti, Galli legates ad eum miserunt. 15.

Vestrae salutis causa milites secum habet. 16. Auxilia

post tergum subitd se ostenderunt. 17. Duae legiones

jungentur;omnes adlucem sese convertunt. 18. Multi-

tudine suorum nostrum aciem premet. 19. Celeritate

adventus nostri et discessu suorum perterriti, legates ad

178 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

eum misemnt seque ei dediderunt. 20. Legiones sese

conjungunt et convertunt signa. 21. Non s51um in

suis* sed etiam in vestris finibns vos superaverunt.

284o II.

A.—1. He hastens to them and sends all the cavalry-

before him. 2. On his arrival the Germans joined the

Belgians. 3. My father has been called friend by your

senate. 4. He will lead the legion he has with himinto our province. 5. They surrender to him; he

orders them to send hostages to him. 6. The legions,

after being joined, wheel about in sight of the enemy.

7. They join battle with our men. 8. You have a

leader mindful both of you and of himself. 9. If the

legionary soldiers show themselves, the cavalry will

take to flight. 10. Everybody turned towards us. 11.

While Caesar was restraining his men from battle, a

shout was heard in the rear.

B.—12. After the flight of their friends they hid

themselves and all their possessions. 13. He resolved

to lead out with him two legions. 14. They withstand

the attacks of our men. 15. He remembers not only

your father but also my brother. 16. If you send

ambassadors to Caesar, he will order you to surrender

your arms to him. 17. They are waging war in your


you marched through' their territories.

18. They hid out of sight of our men. 19. They will

carry all the grain with them. 20. Some turned and

fled, , others surrendered. 21. When the barbarians

come in sight, he will give the signal to his men.

* With siiis, fiiilbns is to be understood. English would rather put the

noun with the first adjective and leave it to be understood with the second.

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 179



agger conspectus imperator passus

auetor consuetudo labor spatium

auctoritas continens legatid statid

barbarus deditid memoria telum

centurio defensor onus tergum

clamor eruptio oppugnatid terra

concilium timor


acer continens frumentarius memoraeger diligens legidnarius onerarius


abd5 dimitto jungd reperid

absum disp5n5 labdrd resistd

augeo disto memini rumpdcommoved distribud opprimd std

conjungd erumpd ostendd timed .

cdnsido expldrd perrumpd tolld

consuescd fled praemittd traducd

convertd incold praestd transportd

ded5 invenid premd vertd


acriter diu late prope

aegre etiam libere saepe

audacter facile longe sdlumbrevi fere magis, magnopere subitd

celeriter fortiter minus supra

continenter graviter multum, plurimum unadiligenter interim primd, primum undique

180 Latin Lessons for Beginners.


Camillus and the Schoolmaster of Falerii.

(394 B.c.)


Falerii, orum, m., Falerii, a town in Etruria.

Falisci, orum, m., the people of Falerii,

justitia, ae, f., justice.

Indus, i, m., school.

magister, tri, m., master, teacher,

virga, ae, f., switch.

Ann5 circiter trecentesimd sexagesimd ab urbe con-

dita*, Romani cum Faliscis, qui Falerios, oppidum

Etruriae, incolebant, bellum gerere coeperunt. Falisci

de adventu hostium certiores facti, primo propter tim5-

rem sese in oppidd continebant {kept), et Camillus, qui

imperator erat Rdmanorum, agros eorum vastari jussit.

His {these, abl.) rebus adducti, Falisci partem cdpiarum

suarum emiserunt, et castra mille fere passus ab oppidd

posuerunt. Camillus suds longidre itinere in loca

superidra nocte duxit, et prima luce Falisci hostes in

omnibus collibus instructds invenerunt. Signum proelii

datum est. Falisci ndn diu impetum Rdmandrumsustinuerunt sed terga verterunt, et aegerrime ad

oppidum pervenerunt incolumes. In oppidum repulsi,

saepe eruptidnes fecerunt et diu resistere poterant {were

able), quod oppidum loci natura munitissimum erat, et

magna cdpia frumenti in munitidnes undique comportata

erat. Tandem {at length) fortuna {chance) victdriam

Camilld de-dit.

* Literally /roTO iAe cityfounded


this is the Latin idiom for after the

founding of the city. Tims 360 A.u.c. == 394 B.c. For the ordinal nnmerale

^oe 524.

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 181

Dum Romani Falerios oppugnant, magister ludi, ad

quern liberi principum oppidi mittebantur, ex consuetu-

dine pueros ex urbe in agros cotidie ducebat. Brevi

liberos paulatim {gradually) longius a portis ducere

coepit, et post complures dies liberi subitd circumventi

sunt a militibus Romanis qui in statidne erant collocati.

Ad imperatorem adductus magister consilium iniquum

ostendit. “ Dedo tibi, Camille, liberos ndbilissimdrum

civium. Si eos detinueris, oppidum celeriter in dedi-

tidnem veniet, quod patres edrum magnam inter elves

auetdritatem habent.” Camillus respondit “ Nds bella

juste {justly) ndn minus quam fortiter ednsuevimus

gerere. Ndn contra pueros sed contra virds missi

sumus. Rdmani tibi sunt dissimillimi. Tu injuria

Faliscds superare ednstituisti, nds virtute nostrdmm.”

Turn {theu) et magistrum ei liberds a se dimisit, et ad

oppidum eds reduci jussit.

Interim flentes patres matresque liberdrum auxilium

a dis {the gods) petebant, cum subitd clamor ante poifas

tollitur. Omnes sese ad clamdrem convertunt. Liberi

in cdnspectum veniunt. Milites Rdmani manus {hands)

magistri post {behind) tergum illigaverant {had bound)

et pueri eum ad oppidum virgis agebant {were driving).

Falisci, justitia Camilli magnopere permdti, legatds ad

eum de pace miserunt, et se suaque omnia ei dediderunt.

Et legatid quae etiam ad senatum missa est dixit


“ Superati a vdbis et imperatdre vestrd, Rdmani, nds*

dedimus vdbis, et pacem vdbiscum facere cupimus {we

desire). Justitia vdbis melior visa est quam vietdria.

Ndn solum arma depdnemus, sed etiam memoriamvestrae justitiae semper {always) retinebimus.”

^See the footnote on page 174.

182 Latin Lessons for Beginners.


Third Conjugation : Verbs in -io.

287. Certain verbs of the third conjugation end in

-io, and have in the tenses formed from the present

stem many forms which are identical with those of the

fourth conjugation—those forms, namely, which have

two successive vowels ('ia, ie, or iu); The tenses formed

from the other stems display no irregularity.

288. Paradigm.


Active. Passive.

Present Indicative.

1. capi5 capimus capior capimur

2. capis capitis caperis capimini

3. capit capiunt capitur capiuntur’

Imperfect Indicative.

1. capiebam capiebamus capiebar capiebamur

2. capiebas capiebatis capiebaris capiebamini

3. capiebat capiebant capiebatur capiebantur

Future Indicative.

1. capiam capiemus capiar capiemur

2. capies capietis capieris capiemini

3. capiet capient capietur capientur

Perfect System.

Perf. Indic. cepi, etc. captus sum, etc.

Plupf. Indic. ceperam, etc. captus eram, etc.

Fut. Pf. Indic. cepero, etc. captus ero, etc.

Present Infinitive.

capere capi


capiens Perfect—cscplns

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 183


ac-cipio, ere, -cepi, -ceptum,

capio, ere, cepi, captum,

con-ficio, ere, -feci, -fectum,

con-jicio, ere, -jeci, -jectum,

con-spicio, ere, -spexi, -spectum,

facie, ere, feci, factum,

fugio, ere, fugi, fugitum

inter-ficio, ere, -feci, -tectum,

jacio, ere, jeci, jactum,

re-cipio, ere, -cepi, -ceptum.


take, capture,

end, finish ,accomplish .

hurl, throw,

see, observe,

do ; make, build,

flee, escape,

slay, kill, put to death,

hurl, throw,

regain, recover.

• Phrases : arma capio, take up arms.

vulneribus conficior, be exhausted by wounds.

in fugam conjicio, put to flight.

proelium facie, fight a battle.

se recipere, (l) betake one' s self, retreat.

(2) recover, rally (intransitive).

N.B.—In compound verbs, short a of the simple verb

is commonly weakened to i before one consonant, and

to e before two consonants;so with the compounds of

capio, facie and jacio, and so also prohibeo from habeo.

Similarly, short e of the simple verb is weakened to i

before a single consonant (except r);as, premo, opprim5


teneo, retineo.


290. I.

A.—1. Nostri celeriter arma capiunt. 2. Tela con-

jiciebamus. 3. Suos laborantes cdnspicit. 4. In fugamconjecti, se ad agmen receperunt. 5. Pauci interfici-

untur sed multi vulnera accipiunt. 6. Certidres eos

facimus;eum regem faciemus

;multa proelia fecimus.

184 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

7 . Ex vallo tela jacitis. 8 . Iter aeg-errime conficitur;

vulneribus conficitiir. 9. Sese ad siios recipiet;


provinciam fugiam. 10. Fugientes eos conspicimus.

11. Arma de muro in fossam jaciebantur.

B.—12. Tela eonjiei jussit;nostros impetum faeere

jussit. 13. Ex hostium castris eonspieieminl. 14. Ejus

adventu nostri se ex timore recipient. 15. Centurionemcompluribus confectum vulneribus circumvenimus et

interficimus . 16. Trans Rhenum se in fines Germa-norum recipit. 17. Cdnspiceris




- Si oppidum recepero, pacem vobiscum faciam.

19. Omnia oppida quae conspicimus incendemus;omnia

oppida quae conspexerimus incendemus. iO. Litteras

accepit;tempus fugit

;castra capiuntur. 21. Inter-

ficitur multis gravibusque* vulneribus confectus.

291 . II.

A.—1. We announce, we flee, we come. 2. Heorders them to be summoned and put to death. 3. Weshall do nothing

;we determine to do nothing. 4. You

were fleeing out of sight. 5. The weapons were being

hurled boldly. 6. We receive many wounds;


wounds are received. 7. They were betaking them-

selves to their camp. 8. We are seen leaping down out

of the ship. 9. The war will speedily be finished; I

shall finish the war as speedily as possible. 10. Ex-

hausted by their wounds, several soldiers are captured

and put to death. 11. Fie is throwing himself into the

sea;he was retreating with us across the river.

B.—12. You will fight a battle;while fighting bravely

you will be killed. 13. We are accustomed to receive,

not to give, hostages. 14. He was building larger

In such sentences the English idiom omits the conjunction and.

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 185


they were marching’ through our province

15. Several are killed, the rest are put to flight.

16. Exhausted by wounds, the enemy turned and fled.

17. We are taking- up arms for the sake of our commonfreedom; you were hurling weapons. 18. If they

surrender, they will receive their freedom. 19. I ambeing captured

;I used to be seen

;I shall be slain.

20. He kills a large number of our men as they are

fleeing. 21. While our men were taking up their arms,

the cavalry rallied.


Demonstrative Pronouns : Hie, Ille, Is.


{a) hie.


{b) ille.

Sing. Masc. Fem. NeuTc Masc. Fem. Neut

Nom. hie haec hoc ille ilia illud

Ge7i. hujus hujus hujus illius illius illius

Dat. huic huic huic illi illi illi

Acc. hunc hanc hoc ilium illam illud

Abl. hoc hac hoc illo ilia ill5


Nom. hi hae haec illi illae ilia

Gen. horum harum horum illorum illarum illorum

Dat. his his his illis illis illis

Acc. hos has haec illos illas ilia

Abl. his his his illis illis illis

(c) For is see 266.

186 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

293. Illustrative Examples.

Provincia mea haec est, ilia vestra, this is my province^

that {is) yours.

Hos ad eum mittit, he sends these (or them) to him.

Haec ab his nuntiis cognovit, he learned this from these


Eum locum muniverunt, theyfortified that place.

Eos qui fugiunt videmus, we see those who are fleeing.

Cum eis legionibus quas reduxerat in fines Belgarum

contendit. Illi sese in silvas recipiunt, with those

legions (or with the legions) which he had led back., he

hastens into the territory of the Belgians. They (or

these) betake themselves to theirforests.

These sentences illustrate the following points

a. Hie, ille and is are used both as pronouns, and as

adjectives agreeing with their nouns.

b. Hie is ordinarily to be rendered by this (pi. these)


ille by that (pi. those). Hie refers to something

regarded as near the speaker or writer; ille to

something regarded as more remote.

c. Is may be used as a quite unemphatic that or this^

and sometimes may even be best rendered by the

definite article the. It is often used as the ante-

cedent of a relative, as in the last two sentences.

d. Not only is (267) but also at times hie and ille maybe used as the third personal pronoun. When so

used, ille is more emphatic than hie or is, and is

used especially to mark a contrast, e.g. to empha-

size a change of subject, as in the last sentence.

N.B.—We may often translate hie by this {man) or this

{one); haec (neut. plur.) by this, literally these things; and

ea quae by what, literally those things which. (See 180.)

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 187


ac-cido, ere, -cidi, happen, befall.

cado, ere, cecidi, casum, fall.

captivus, i, m., prisoner, captive.

gero, ere, gessi, gestum, in passive, be done, takeplace.

Lucius, I, m.,

Marcus, i, m.,

numquam, adv.,

saepe, adv.,

semper, adv.,

statim, adv..



Lucius, a Roman name.

Marcus, a Roman name.




immediately,at once.

res gesta, deed, exploit.


295. I.

A.—1. De his rebus gestis ex captivis cognoscit, 2.

Hie frater Marcus semper appellatur, ille Lucius. 3. Abiis quos miserat haec cdgnovit. 4. Neque cum hac

legione neque cum ilia se conjungent. 5. Pauci ex iis

cadunt;de equo in aquam cecidit

;numquam cadet.

6. Praedam his et captivds illis distribuam. 7. Haec

in Gallia gerebantur. 8. Hujus loci haec erat natura.

9. His ex consuetudine agrds dederant. 10. Ilium

statim interfecit. 11. Ea impedimenta quae secumportare non audent, in hac silva deponent.

B—12. Si illos ceperimus, hi statim se dedent.

13. Haec omnia etiam illis erant incognita, 14. Hocante id tempus saepe mihi acciderat

;numquam ante

hoc tempus tibi accidit. 15. Res gestas illius demon-

strant. 16. Nostri subito tela in* hostes conjiciunt;

Illi statim terga vertunt. 17. Ad haec Caesar respon-


his legatis respondet. 18. Dum hi de navibus

With tela couJlclS, translate In by at.

188 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

desiliunt, illl audacter tela conjiciunt. 19. Interim

dum haec in his locis geruntur, cum iis copiis quas

acceperat, in castra pervenit. 20. Rerum gestarum

populi Romani memoriam semper retinebimus. 21.

Haec flens ab ill5 petit.

296. II.

A.—1. After this battle they move their camp from

that place. 2. Of all these, the Belgians are the

bravest; these are braver than those. 3. Nothing will

happen to him;

it never happens to them. 4. This*

was the cause of that war. 5. They hastened towards

those who were finishing these fortifications. 6. Alarger part of them had fallen

;her father fell. 7. These

states used often to wage war with those. 8. We snail

defend those into whose territories Caesar has sent this

legion. 9. Alarmed by all these things, they send

ambassadors to him. 10. We learn this from prisoners.

11. The exploits of Caesar were unknown to him.

B.—12. They call this son Lucius, that (son) Marcus.

13 o Those who had inhabited that district they drove

out. 14. We often do this for the sake of peace.

15. He immediately gave this prisoner his freedom.

16. When he has put these to death, he will turn to

them. 17. On being informed of these things, he

orders them to surrender;

they hesitate to give uptheir arms. 18. At that time he held the leading place

in this state. 19. It is always more dangerous to these

than to those;he never gives more to this one than to

that. 20. This side of that island extends about a

mile. 21. This is thought to be taking place;

all this

had taken place.

* In sentences like this, the demonstrative agrees in gender, number andcsise with the noun. Compare 295, A. X

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 189


Ablative Absolute.

297 . Review 261 and 262, noticing especially the

agreement of the participle, the voice of the perfect

participle, and the various translations possible.

Latin has no corresponding perfect participle of the

active voice, and therefore such sentences as.

Having repulsed the cavalry, we were led back to cawp,

Havhig received hostages, he made peace,

Having drawn up the army, he gave the signal,

cannot be literally translated into Latin.

298. Virtually the same meaning, however, is given

by the so-called absolute use of the perfect participle



Equitibus repulsis, in castra reducti sumus, the cavalry

having been repulsed, we were led back to camp.

Obsidibus acceptis, pacem fecit, hostages having beeji re-

ceived, he made peace.

Exercitu instructo, signum dedit, the army having been

drawn up, he gave the sigyial.

This absolute construction is in Latin in the ablative

case, and is very common, while in English it is in the

nominative case, and is comparatively infrequent.

The participle is joined as a sort of predicate to a

noun (or pronoun) which is not the subject of the verb,

nor dependent upon any other word in the sentence;

whence the name Ablative Absolute.*

299. Corresponding to the various free translations

for the perfect participle passive suggested in 262, we

*The ablative absolute phrase as a whole is equivalent to an adverbmodifying the predicate-

190 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

he withdrew


have the following free renderings, by the active voice,

of the perfect participle passive when used in the

absolute construction

having said this,

His rebus dictis, saying this,


after saymg this,

on saying this.

So also the sentences in 298 may be rendered,

After repulsing the cavalry, we were led back to camf ^

On receiving hostages, he made peace


Drawing up the army, he gave the signal.


ab-jici5, ere, -jeci, -jectum, throw away.

a-mitto, ere, -misi, -missum, lose.

calami-tas, -tatis, f., disaster, defeat.

de-stringo, ere, -strinxi, -strictum, draw, unsheathe.

e-jicio, ere, -jeci, -jectum, throw out.

frango, ere, fregi, fractum, bi'eak, shatter, crush.

incommodum, i, n., misfortune, loss

orati-o, -bnis, f . ,speech.

5r-d6, -dinis, m., order ; rank.

perturbo, are, avi, atum, throw into cojifusion, disturb.

Phrases : se ejicere, rush out.

orationem habeo, make {deliver) a speech.

calamitatem accipio, suffer defeat.

incommodum accipio, suffFer loss.


301. I.

A.-—1. Vicis hostium incensis, copias reduxit. 2.

H5c proelio facto, exercitum reducit. 3. Clamore

audito, arma statim capiunt. 4. Eruptione facta, ad

fiumeri Rhenum contendimus. 5. Hac oratione habita,

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 191

concilium dimisit. 6. Hac oratione adducti, acriter

pugnaverunt. 7. Acie instructa, signum equitibus dat.

8. In fugam conjecti, multos ex suis amiserunt. 9.

His rebus cognitis, naves solvimus. 10. Armis abjectis,

se ex castris ejecerunt. 11. Hoc incommodd perturbatl,

sed^ereconstituunt. 12. His proeliis calamitatibusque

fracti, obsides dare coacti sunt.

B.—13. Cohortes repulsae in locis superioribus c5n-

sistunt. 14. Cohortibus repulsis, in locis superioribus

consistunt. 15. Gladid destricto, subito se ex oppido

ejecit. 16. Re frumentaria comparata, castra movet.

17. Impedimentis relictis, eruptionem subito fecerunt.

18. Omnibus equis ex conspectu remotis, proelium

commisit. 19. Celeritate nostrdrum permoti, legates

ad Caesarem dededitione miserant. 20. Multis amissis,

se in agmen receperunt. 21. Ab hostibus repulsi,

magnam calamitatem acceperamus. 22. Hostibus re-

pulsis, oppida incendimus agrosque vastavimus. 23.

Equitibus praemissis, castra muniri jussit. 24. Primis

ordinibus hostium hoc impetu perturbatis, brevi omnesin fugam conjicimus.

302. II.

A.— 1. Having pitched the camp, they determined to

await Caesar’s arrival. 2. Sending ambassadors, they

sought peace from him. 3. After laying waste (their)

fields, he compelled them to give hostages. 4. Havingslain a few, they had thrown the rest into confusion.

5. Drawing'their swords, they seized the gates. 6. Onprocuring supplies, we shall set sail. 7. After fighting

several battles, they sent envoys to Caesar. 8. Havinglost all their ships, they surrendered to Caesar. 9. Onlearning this, he sent the third legion in advance. 10.

Sending scouts in advance, he learned the order of the

192 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

line of march. 11. On being informed of his arrival,

they betook themselves to the marshes. 12. Havingsuffered a great defeat, they will lay down their arms.

B.—13. Hearing the shouts in the rear, they rush

out of the camp. 14. On being ordered to throw awaytheir arms, they at first hesitated. 15. Collecting larger

forces, they drive back our cohorts. 16. Having taken

several towns by storm, he sent this despatch. 17.

Being exhausted by wounds, they with . difficulty with-

stand our attack. 18. After receiving many wounds,

they determine to await reinforcements. 19. After

delivering this speech, he withdraws. 20. Making an

attack,they threw the ranks into confusion . 21. Having

suffered this loss, they will make peace with us. 22.

The ships being shattered are useless. 23. The ships

being shattered, we have sought aid from you. 24,

After hurling their missiles, they drew their swords.

Orator. (Cicero addressing the Senate,


Latin Lessons for Beginners. 193


Perfect Participle Passive (continued).

Demonstrative Pronouns : Ipse, Idem.

303. Various ways have been suggested in 262 and

299 for translating the Latin perfect participle passive,

whether it be in agreement with the subject or in the

ablative absolute construction.

In many cases also a dependent clause introduced by

when, after, or as,* is a proper equivalent;as,

Repulsi ab equitatu, in castra contenderunt, as they had

been repulsed by the cavalry, they hastened to the camp,

Equitibus repulsis, in castra reducti sumus, when the cavalry

had been repulsed, we were led back to camp


or, after

we had repulsed the cavalry, we were led back to camp.

304. It should be noticed that the free renderings

suggested in 299 are sometimes impossible;


namely, the agent or doer of the action expressed in

the participle is not the subject of the main verb;as,

Obsidibus ab hostibus datis, Caesar pacem fecit, hostages

having been given by the enemy, Caesar made peace.

Dato signo, facta est eruptio, the signal having been given,

a sortie was made.

In such cases the translation by a dependent clause

can always be resorted to;

as, after the enemy had given

hostages, Caesar made peace ; when the signal was given,

a sortie was made.

305. Rule. The Ablative Absolute is used to define

the circumstances of an action.

With the absolute participle as with the participle in

agreement with the subject (261), the exact relation

* For as, its equivalent since may often be substituted. Clauses intro<

daced by id or although may also be used, but much more rarely.

194 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

(whether of time, cause, situation, means or condition)

is not expressed in Latin and must be gathered from

the general sense;in the English rendering his relation

should, as a rule, be indicated.

306. Paradigms.

Singular.(«) ipse.


Masc. Fem. Neut. Masc. Fem. Neut.

Nom. ipse ipsa ipsum ipsi ipsae ipsa

Gen. ipsius ipsius ipsius ipsdrum ipsarum ipsoruir

Vat. ipsi ipsi ipsi ipsis ipsis ipsis

Acc. ipsum ipsam ipsum ips5s ipsas ipsa

Abl. ips5 ipsa ips5 ipsis ipsis ipsis

(d) idem.Sing. Masc. Fem. Neut.

Nom. idem eadem idem



ejusdem ejusdem ejusdem

Dat. eidem eidem eidem

Acc. eundem eandem idem


eodem eadem eodem

Nom. eidem, iidem eaedem eademGen. eorundem earundem eorundem

Dat. \

feisdem eisdem eisdem

Uisdem iisdem iisdem

Acc. eosdem easdem eadem


feisdem eisdem eisdem

Uisdem iisdem iisdem

Compare the declension of ipse with that of ille,

5, Compare the declension of idem with that of is, 266


idem is formed by adding -dem to is.*

*Notice i4leiii = i!4'4leiii, l(lcni = l<l-(leiii, oiin<lciii = oiiiu-dom, eaudem=>eam*dem, eoi*undem=eoruui>deiu, earaudcm=eui*um.dem.

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 195

307. Illustrative Examples.

Equitibus praemissis, ipse aciem instruxit, sending the cav-

alry in advance, he himself drew up the line of battle,

A Gains ipsis certior factus est, he was informed by the

Gauls themselves.

De te ipso dico, / am speakhig ofyou yourself.

Se defendant, they defend the^nselves


Se ad eadem castra recepit, he betook himselfto thesame camp.

Idem faciunt, they do the same thmg.

Observe in connection with these sentences, that :™

a. ipse {-self) and idem {the same) are used both as pro-

nouns and as adjectives;

b. ipse is used to emphasize or distinguish, and is not,

like se, a reflexive pronoun ;

c. ipse may be used in any person,being translated

myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves,

yourselves,themselves, according to the word with

which it agrees.


ac-cedo, ere, -cessi, -cessum, draw near, approach.

administro, are, avi, atum, manage, attend to.

aes-tas, -tatis, f.


autumnus, i, m.,

expedio, ire, ivi, itum,

hiems, hiemis, f.,

probo, are, avi, atum,



setfree ; make ready,


approve, favor.

pr5-video, ere, -vidi, foresee ; provide, secure.

tempes-tas, -tatis, f., storm ; weather.

ver, vMs, n., spring.

Phrases : legio expedita, a legion in light marching

order, i.e. without baggage.

primum ver, the beginning of spring

196 Latin Lessons for Beginners.


309. I.

A.—1. Eodem tempore _eruptionem faciunt. 2 ,

Caesar ipse idem fecit. 3. Ejusdem legionis centnrio

se interfecerat. 4. Remissa legione, ipse in Italiam

contendit. 5. Ipse dnx hostium captns est. 6. Haec a

civibus ipsis audiverat. 7. A vere ad antumnum nodes

sunt brevissimae. 8. Prima luce equitatus ad muni-

tiones nostras accedit. 9. Proxima aestate fines hostium

vastat, ipsosque interfecit. 10. Eadem de causa fru-

mentum ante hiemem pr5visum non erat. 11. Propter

magnitudinem tempestatis, difficile erat naves admini-


B.—12. Deditidne facta obsidibusque acceptis, copiae

se in hibema recipient. 13. Quod ad hostium castra

accedebat, legionem expeditam ducebat. 14. Praesidio

relicto, ipse in provinciam eddem itinere contendit.

15. Reliquam partem aestatis, magnae tempestates

nostrds a pugna prohibent. 16. Omnes idem probant;

hdc ipsi ndn probabamus. 17. Agrds dicitur habere a

te ipsd concessds. 18. Hdc cdnsilid probatd, celeriter

sese Galli expediunt proeliumque committunt. 19.

Reliquae naves tempestates dceani ipsius aegre sustine-

bunt. 20. Id quod ipsi aegerrime fecerant, ille fecit


310. II.

A.—1. The same night the camp was moved. 2.

When the troops had been drawn up, he himself gave

the signal. 3. They betook themselves to the samecamp. 4. The two sons of the king himself surrendered

themselves at about the same time. 5. These are the

same enemies with whom you yourself have often


waged war. 6. Several states are adjacent to the same

'province. 7. This place he had approved for many

Latin Lessons for Beginners.

^1- reasons. 8. In one summer Caesar had himself finished

ttwo very great wars. 9. While this was taking place, it

had begun to be spring. 10. He himself approaches

foreseen, there was not the same difficulty,

p B .—12. We ourselves had set sail at midnight from the

& same harbor. 13. As several ships had been shattered,

2 great loss had been suffered. 14. When this was

W learned, even the soldiers themselves were alarmed.

- 15. For the same reason, the nights are longer in

winter than in summer. 16. If everything is provided

tT before autumn, they will easily defend themselves,

p'' 17. When this fact (res) was announced, they were

IS quickly as possible,

hen the winter was>ps as possible. 19.

3 matters, he himself,

-stened to the army,

ck to the same harbor

ceding summer.

i'.’nearer, with three legions in light marching order and

[J two thousand cavalry. 11. As the storm had been

Sarcinae : Soldier’s Pack.

198 Latin Lessons for Beginners.


Deponent Verbs.

311. A considerable number of Latin verbs no longer

retain the active voice, but use the passive forms with

an active meaning. Such verbs are called Deponents

As there is no perfect active stem, the principal parts of

deponent verbs are but three in number;e.g.

Conj. I. Conor, ari, conatus sum, attempt.

Conj. II. vereor, eri, veritus sum, fear.

Conj. III. sequor, i, secutus sum, follow.

Conj. IV. sortior, iri, sortitus sum, allot.

Conj. III. (in -ior), patior, i, passus sum, allow.

312. Illustrative Examples.

Conantur, they attempt.

Conatus, after attempting.

Vereb^ur, wefeared.Veritus, fearing.

Secuti erant, they hadfollowed.' Sequi coepit, he bega7i tofollow.

Sortitur, he allots.


he allows.

a. Observe the translation of these forms and note

especially that, with deponent verbs, the difficulty

mentioned in 297 does not exist, as these verbs

have a perfect participle with active force.

313. A few verbs (called Semi-deporients) are deponent

in the perfect system only;

for example, audeo, ere,

ausus sum, venture.

*From dSponS, lay aside, because they have laid aside their active


Latin Lessons for Beginners. 199

314. Paradigms.


Conj. /. Conj. II. Conj. Ill, Conj. IV.

Present 1. Conor


vereor sequor sortior

2. conaris vereris sequeris sortiris

3. conatur veretur sequitur sortitur

1. conamur veremur sequimur sortimur

2. cdnamini veremini sequimini sortimini

3. conantur verentur sequuntur sortiuntur

Imperfect conabar verebar sequebar sortiebar

Future conabor verebor sequar sortiar

Perfect conatus veritus secutus sortitus

sum sum sum sumPluperfect conatus veritus secutus sortitus

eram eram eram eramFut. Perf. conatus veritus secutus sortitus

ero ero er5 erd

Present conari


vereri sequi sortiri

Present conans


verens sequens sortiens

Perfect cdnatus veritus secutus sortitus

Similarly with verbs of the third conjugation in -ior

Present Indic. patior Perfect Indic. passus sumImperfect “ patiebar Pluperfect “ passus eramFuture “ patiar Fut. Perf. “ passus er5

Pres. Infinitive patl

Pres. Participle patiens Perf. Participle passus

a. Notice that by exception the present participle of

the active voice is retained;

as, conans, while



200 Latin Lessons for Beginners.


Conor, atus sum, try, attempt.

moror, ^i, atus sum, delay, wait,

nanciscor, i, nactus sum, get, obtain.

orior, oriri, ortus sum, arise, rise.

patior, i, passus sum, allow.

polliceor, eri, itus sum, promise.

proficiscor, i, profectus sum, set out.

progredior, i, progressus sum, advance, proceed.

sequor, i, secutus sum, follow.

vereor, eri, itus sum, fear.


316. I.

A.—1. Interfectus est, profectus est; jussi eramus,

pass! eramus. 2. Cogndscitur, nanciscitur;relinquetur,

sequetur. 3. Timent, verentur;timuerat, veritus erat.

4. Oriebatur, moramini, cdnaberis. 5. Equitatu prae-

misso, ipse cum legionibus expeditis sequitur. 6.

Auxilium Gallis pollicitus, haec ab iis cognovit. 7.

Ante mediam noctem clamor ortus est. 8. Dum in his

locis Caesar moratur, legati ad eum venerunt. 9. Equites

eosdem secum proficisci jubet. 10. Legatos interfici

non patiar. 11. Inopiam frumenti veritus, constituit

non progredi longius. 12. Praeda quam nacti erant

relicta, se in castra recipere conati sunt.

B.—13. Non hostem veremur, sed magnitudinem

silvarum. 14. In aquam prdgressi, ex equis desiliunt.

15. In aquam progredientes, audacter tela conjiciunt.

16. Id, quod polliciti erant, facere conabantur. 17. Si

statim profecti erimus, hostes non diutius morabuntur.

18. Rhenus oriri dicitur in montibus. 19. Multi ami-

citiae causa Caesarem secuti erant. 20. His rebus

201Latin Lessons for Beginners.

administratis, paucos dies rei frumentariae cansa mora-

bantur. 21. Ea quae secuta est hieme, in* Britanniam

proficisci ausi sumus. 22. Orto clamore, omnes se ex

oppido ejicere Gonantur.' 23. Legates, conantes dicere,

dimisit. 24. Nactus idoneam tempestatem, ipse tertia

vigilia naves solvit, equitesque in alterum portum pro-

gredi et se sequi jussit.

317. II.

A.—1. We venture, we have ventured. 2. We were

advancing, you were promising. 3. I shall attempt,

we shall delay, I shall follow, we shall set out. 4. She

had obtained, it has arisen, we have feared, you had

allowed. 5. He was attempting to follow us. 6. Youhad promised us corn. 7. They fear everything; they

are thought to fear nothing. 8. Having attended to

' everything, he sets out for the army. 9. After advanc-

ing seven miles from that place, he reached the sameriver. 10. Great losses will be suffered

;great mis-

fortunes will arise. 11. After waiting several days,

and getting a supply of corn, he will set out for the war.

B.—12. Fearing the danger, he has not ventured to

advance. 13. Drawing their swords, they attempt to

follow. 14. He orders this same legion to set out and

come to him as quickly as possible. 15. All this I

promise you. 16. If they promise this, he will allow

them to wait longer. 17. Setting out from this harbor,

the ships proceed about ten miles. 18 . They will attempt

to march through our province. 19. Storms followed

for several days. 20. Having left a garrison, he' himself set out against the enemy. 21. The shouts of

those who are following arise. 22. If he demands help

from us, we shall promise a larger number of ships.

After proflelscor. In with the accusative is to be trauslated/or.

202 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

318 . WORD LIST E.


rush out take up arms fight a battle

sally out make ready arms make an attack

break throug'h join battle withstand an attack

drive back draw swords assault

resist hurl weapons sortie


defeat be in distress receive woundsconquer be hard pressed exhausted bykill flee woundsfall turn and flee fear (noun and verb)

lose put to flight throw into confusion

wound take to flight throw away arms

yield suffer loss lay down arms

hide suffer defeat betake one’s self

prisoner shatter surrender (noun)

capture alarm surrender (verb,

overpower despair of safety trans. and intrans.)


centurion transport legionary soldier

rank supplies be on guard

outpost exploit raise a shout


set out send in advance turn

set sail withdraw wheel about

follow come in sight lead across

approach march bring over

advance join in light marching


Latin Lessons for Beginners. 203


embassy point out demand forget

meeting show approve memorymake a speech promise remember mindful


spring autumn always at once

summer winter never meanwhile



storm do make inhabit

barbarian happen finish either . . or

order take place observe neither . . nor

weather take foresee both . . and

get take away attend to but

receive break delay also, even

regain throw attempt above

allow arise weep on all sides


Rome Taken by the Gauls. (390 b.c.)


arx, arcis, f., citadel (on the Capitoline hill at Rome).

Etrusci, Drum, m., the Etruscans, the people of Etruria,

urbs, urbis, f., city.

Illis temporibus Galh non solum Galliam sed etiam

superiorem* partem Italiae incolebant. Per {over)

montes iter ex Gallia fecerant, et compluribus proeliis

factis, eos qui ea loca incolebant expulerant, et ipsi

Literally upper , that is, northern.

204 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

agros eorum obtinebant. Post multos annos bellum

inter hos Gallos et populum Romanum ortum est.

Hujus belli haec erat causa. Brennus, rex Gallorum,

cum finitimis Etruriae civitatibus bellum gerebat.

Etrusci, compluribus proeliis superati, auxilium a

Romanis petiverunt. Illi, periculum veriti, quod Galli

propius accedebant, constituerunt non auxilium polliceri

sed bellum componere {to settle) conari. Itaque {accord-

ingly) tres legatds ad exercitum Etruscorum miserunt


sed multis de causis difficillimum erat pacem facere, et

post complures dies proelium commissum est. Legati

ubi {when) Etruscos laborantes conspexerunt, armis

captis, se cum Etruscis conjungunt, et unus ex ducibus

Galldrum interficitur. Galli hac injuria adducti, c5n-

stituerunt Romam oppugnare, et statim profecti sunt.

De eorum adventu certiores facti, Romani copias

quam plurimas coegerunt, et ad flumen Alliam, quod

undecim milia passuum ab urbe aberat, progressi sunt.

Ibi {there) proelium factum est et Romani magnamcalamitatem acceperunt. Clamoribus barbarorum per-

territi, prim5 impetu perturbati sunt. Timor animos

omnium occupavit, et armis abjectis terga verterunt.

Maxima pars exercitus ad proxima oppida fugit;multi

vulneribus cdnfecti cadunt, aut fugere conantes inter-


pauci se trans Tiberim in urbem recipiunt


Dum haec geruntur, Galli, praeda omni distributa,

ad urbem contendunt. Iter celeriter conficitur, et

eodem die ad Tiberim perveniunt. Equites, qni

praemissi erant, portas apertas {open) invenerunt, neque

ulla statio pro {before) portis collocata erat. Hac de

causa insidias {an ambush) veriti, cdnstituerunt non

progredi longius, sed, castris positis, extra {outside)

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 205

munitiones morabantur. Interim Romani, hac calami-

tate fracti, nrbem dHendere non conantur, sed cumconjugibus {wives) et liberis se in arcem recipiunt.

Postero die, Brennus de timore Romanorum per ex-

ploratores certior factus, barbaros in urbem ducit et

Romam incendi jubet. Tanta {so great) calamitas

numquam ante id tempus populo Romano acciderat.


Accusative and Infinitive.

320. After passive verbs of saying and thinking,

both Latin and English regularly use the infinitive,; as,

Dicitur esse inimicus, he is said to be unfriendly.

Iter facile esse existimatur, the road is thought to be easy.

In the active voice such verbs are, in English, only

occasionally followed by the infinitive (with a subject in

the objective case);

as, / believe them to be innocent ; I

know him to be honest. More frequently, in English,

verbs of saying, thinking, knowing and perceiving are

followed by a clause introduced by that


but Latin after

such verbs always uses the infinitive with a subject in

the accusative case;as,

Dicit Roman5s venire, he says that the Romans are coming.

Existimat me esse amicum, he thinks that I am afriend.

Videt nostrDs castra ponere, he sees that our men are

pitching their camp.

321. {a) In each of the Latin sentences just given,

notice that the time of the two verbs is identical;in

other words that the original statement or thought

would be put in the present tense, viz., Romaniveniunt, est amicus, castra ponunt.

206 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

{b) Besides the present infinitive, Latin has also a

perfect and a future infinitive, to express respectively

time before and time after that of the main verb;as,

Dicit Romanos venisse, he says that the Ro?nans have come.

Videt nostros castra posuisse, he sees that our men have

pitched their camp.

Dicit Romanos ventures esse, he says, that the Roma?is will


Existimat me futurum esse amicum, he thinks that I shall


322. Paradigms.

THE INFINITIVE ACTIVE.Present. Perfect. Future,

Conj. I.

Conj. II.

Conj. III.

Conj. IV.

Conj. ///.(in





-io) capere








amaturus esse

moniturus esse

recturus esse

auditurus esse

capturus esse

futurus esse or fore

a. The future infinitive is a compound form, made upof the future participle, ending in -urus, a, um, and

the present infinitive of sum. This future parti-

ciple is formed from the participial (or supine)

stem, and. means about to {come, etc.). The parti-

ciple agrees in gender, number and case with the

person or thing referred to, i.e. the subject of esse.

323. Il'ustrative Examples.

Respondeo me venisse, / reply that I have come.

Respondet se venturum esse, he replies that he willcome.

Respondent eum esse venturum, they reply that he will


Respondent se esse ventures, they reply that they will


Latin Lessons for Beginners. 207

a. As the infinitive, unlike the indicative, has no per-

sonal endings, the pronominal subject (represent-

ing /, you^ he, etc.) should be expressed.

b. Notice that the reflexive pronoun sui is used in the

accusative and infinitive clause for he or they,

when denoting the same person as the subject of

the main verb;

to denote a different person the

proper form of is should be used.


audio, hear.

certiorem facio, infonn.

c6gnosc5, leav7i, ascertain ;

in perfect tenses, know.

demonstrS, point out, ex-

plain, mention.

died, say.

existimo, thmk.

memini, remember


nuntio, announce.

ostendo, show, declare.

polliceor, promise.

responded, reply, answer.

vided, see


passive, seem.

N.B.—These words, all occurring in previous Lessons,

are followed by the accusative and infinitive.


325. I.

A.—1. Demonstrat altitudinem fluminis esse magnam.2. Nihil videtur esse facilius. 3. Hostes finitimam

partem provinciae vastavisse audit. 4. Pollicentur sese

in deditionem numquam ventures esse. 5. Video eos

ex equis ad pedes desiluisse. 6. Nuntiant magnashostium copias convenisse neque longe abesse. 7.

Memini eum fuisse fidelissimum amicum. 8. Omniumrerum copiam habere existimamur. 9. Dicit se alteram

partem vici Gallis concessurum esse, alteram cohortibus.

10. Respondent se aliud iter habere nullum. 11.

Caesarem certiorem faciunt sese non pares esse ceteris.

12. Cogndscit toti Galliae equites Caesarem imperare.

208 Latin"Lessons for Beginners.

B.— 13. Existimat e5s ex navi desilire non audere.

14 . Ostendnnt se nihil fecisse. 15. Vident illnd con-

silium sibi* fore periculosum. 16. Magnam inter

Gallos auctoritatem eum habere cognovi. 17. Finitimae

civitates obsides se daturas esse pollicentur. 18. Re-

spondet se de re publica non desperare. 19. Sine ullo

periculo proelium fore demonstrat. 20. Dicit alios

discedere, alios propius accedere. 21. Respondet se

obsides accipere, non dare, consuevisse. 22. Audiunt

Belgas proximds esse Germanis, fortioresque esse quamreliquos Gallos. 23. Silva dicitur pertinuisse a flumine

Tamesi ad mare. 24. Nuntiant sese castra posituros

esse in summ5 colie.

326. II.

A.—-1. He announces that Caesar will come quickly.

2. He thinks that these cohorts are less brave. 3. Hepoints out that you have had great experience. 4. Wehear that the leading men have assembled from all

sides. 5. They promise that they will do all this.

6. He says that they have reconnoitred all the roads.

7. He has been informed that the Britons have seized

the heights. 8. He answers that he is a Romancitizen. 9. He sees that we hold all the hills, 10.

They remember that they are free. 11. I learn that he

has been unfriendly to you alone. 12; The war-ships

seem to be very swift.



—13. I promise that I shall grant freedom to a large

part of the citizens. 14. He thinks that the danger is

common to all of us. 15. He explains that on account

of the height of the mountains they are leaving all their

baggage. 16. Summoning the soldiers, he declares

K for slbl, eis be read, what different meaning will the sentence have ?






Latin Lessons for Beginners. 209

that he will be their leader. 17. We have heard that

he has demanded hostages from the senate. 18. I say

that the time for {literally of) victory has come. 19.

They answer that they will easily withstand the fiercest

attack. 20. He sees that the other road is very easy.

21. He has been informed that there is a bridge over

{literally on) the river Tiber. 22. You are thought to

be the bravest of all the Gauls. 23. He has ascertained

that this is not the custom of the Roman people.

24. The daughter is said to have been very like her



Accusative and Infinitive (continued).

327. Illustrative Examples.

Romani veniunt, the Romans are coming.

Dicit Romanos venire, he says that the Romaris are coming.

Dixit Romanos venire, he said^ the Romans were coming.

Romani venerunt, the Romans have come.

Dicit Romanos venisse, he says that the Romans have come.

Dixit Romanos venisse, he said that the Ro7nans had come.

Romani venient, the Romans will come.

Dicit Romanos ventures esse, he says* the Romans willcome.

Dixit Romanos ventures esse, he said* the Romans would


a. These sentences illustrate the fact that in indirect

assertions, in English, the tense of the verb in the

subordinate clause is influenced by the tense of

the principal verb of sayhig, etc.;while in Latin

no such changes occur in the infinitive.

* In English, that is frequently omitted after verbs of saying, etc.

210 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

Whatever the tense of the principal verb may be, in

Latin the rule holds that the present infinitive

represents the same time as that of the principal

verb, the perfect infinitive time before that of the

principal verb, and the future infinitive time after

that of the principal verb.

If, therefore, the original statement or thought would

be in the present tense, the present infinitive

should be used;

if in a past tense (imperfect,

perfect, or pluperfect), the perfect infinitive;and

if in the future tense, the future infinitive.

328. Illustrative Examples.

Polliciti sunt se esse ventur6s, they promised that they

would come, or they promised to come.

Sperat se regem futurum esse, he hopes that he will be

king, or he hopes to be king.

a. Observe that after verbs signifying to hope or promise,

in English the simple infinitive may be used instead

of that and a finite verb, but that in Latin only one

construction prevails, the accusative with the future



arbitror, ari, atus sum, thhik, consider.

renuntio, are, avi, atum, report, brhig back word.

scribo, ere, scrips!, scriptum, write.

spero, are, avi, atum, hope.

suspicor, ari, atus sum, suspect.


330. I.

A.—1. Omnem exercitum discessisse renuntiaverunt.

2. Scripsit paucos portus esse idoneos. 3. Suspicati

sunt nostros in hunc locum esse venturds. 4. Legatis

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 211

missis, obsides se daturos* polliciti sunt. 5. Exnuntiis

litterisque cogndvit magnas copias convenire. 6. Nun-tiaverant Gallos adventum nostrum exspectare. 7.

Renuntiaverant Gallos adventum nostrum exspectare

constituisse. 8. Sperabant Caesarem Germanos agrds

vastare prohibiturum. 9. Demonstravimus eum mili-

tarem usum habere. 10. Nobis te fidelem fuisse arbi-

trabamur. 11. Idem superioribus diebus accidisse

suspicabantur. 12. Speraverat sibi Gall5s principatum

tradituros esse.

B.—13. Renuntiavit flumen ab castris non longe

abesse et trans id flumen omnes hostes consedisse.

14. Respondimus magnam Caesarem injuriam facere.

15. Arbitratus. erat se bellum celeriter esse confecturum.

16. Subito certior factus est ex vico omnes discessisse,

montesque tenere. 17. Sperabam eos in deditionem


polliciti sunt se in deditionem ventures.

18. Brevidres esse in Britannia quam in continenti

aestates scripsit. 19. Respondit non aequum esse agros

sociorum vastare. 20. Sperabamus n5s naves soluturos

proxima nocte.

331. II.

A.— 1. He answered that he would move his campthe following night. 2. The same day Caesar wasinformed that the enemy had fled. 3. He suspected

that they would always be hostile to him. 4. He wrote

that he had abundance of corn and cattle. 5. Theyused to consider that this had been the cause of the war.

6. We hoped that the other road would be easier.

7. They reported that the commander-in-chief did not

despair of safety. 8. He promised to examine the

* In the future infinitive, esse is very frequently omitted, without anychange of meaning.

212 Latin Lessons for Begi^^ners.

matter. 9. He wrote that for this reason he had said

nothing. 10. It was announced that the enemy’s

cavalry had surrounded the column. 11. They sus-

pected that he was hastening to the right wing.

12. We declared that we should neither send ambas-

sadors nor surrender our arms.

B.—13. I had been informed through scouts that you

had led the troops across. 14. He wrote that Caesar

was increasing the number of hostages. 15. Theyreported that the enemy, after taking the town bystorm, had slain a large number of the inhabitants.

16. He said that they were sending despatches to Caesar

daily. 17. We suspected that the leading men had

determined to wage war with us. 18. From the sameguides he ascertained that a town, protected by woods

and marshes, was not far distant from that place.

19. I (he, they) had hoped to receive my (his, their)

freedom. 20. Thinking* that this was a suitable place,

we determined to encamp.


Accusative and Infinitive (continued).

332. Paradigms.


Present. Perfect.

Conj. /. amari amatus esse

Con/. II. moneri monitus esse

Conj. III. regi rectus esse

Conj. IV. audiri auditus esse

Conj. III. (in -io) capi captus esse

* The perfect participle of arbltror should be used, as the thought pre-

oeded the determiuatiou.

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 213

a. The perfect infinitive passive is made up of the

perfect participle passive and the infinitive esse ;

the former of these agrees in gender, number and

case with the subject of the infinitive.

333. Illustrative Examples.

Agri vastantur, the lands are being laid waste.

Nuntiat agros vastarl, he announces that the lands are

being laid waste.

Nuntiavit agros vast^i, he announced that the lands were

being laid waste.

Agri vastati sunt, the lands have been laid waste.

Nuntiat agros vastatos esse, he announces that the lands

have been laid waste.

Nuntiavit agros vastatos esse, he announced that the la^ids

had been laid waste.

a. It will be seen from these sentences that the samerules apply in the passive voice as in the active,

for the use of the present and perfect infinitives

after verbs of saying^ etc.*

334, Paradigms.


Conj. /. conari conatus esse conaturus esse

Conj. II. vereri veritus esse veriturus esse

Conj. III. sequi secutus esse secuturus esse

Conj. IV. .sortiri sortitus esse sortiturus esse

Conj. III. (in -ior) pati passus esse passurus esse

a. The present and perfect infinitives of deponent verbs

are formed in the same way as the corresponding

infinitives of the passive voice ; their future

infinitive is like that of the active voice (322).

* The passive voice has also a future infinitive, which is, however, of such

rare occurrence that it is omitted in these Lessons.

214 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

335. Illustrative Examples.

Dicit hostes sequi, he saj/s that the enemy arefollowing.

Dixit hostes sequi, he said that the enemy werefollowing.

Audit eos profectds esse, he hears that they have set out.

Audivit eos profectos esse, he heard that they had set out.

Pollicetur se secuturum esse, he promises that he will

follow (or tofollow).

Pollicitus est se secuturum esse, he promised that he would

follow (or tofollow).

a. As is shown by these sentences, the use of the various

tenses of the infinitive of deponent verbs in the

accusative and infinitive construction is according

to the general rule.


credo, ere, credidi, creditum, believe.

intellegd, ere, -lexi, -lectum, understand^ be aware.

nego, are, avi, atum, deny, say . . not.

scio, ire, ivi, itum, know.

sentio, ire, sensi, sensum, feel, perceive.


337. I.

A.— 1. Certior factus est oppida expugnata et incensa

esse.’ 2. Scimus litteras a Caesare ad senatum missas

esse. 3. Intellegimus Rhenum in montibus oriri.

4. Sperabant se praedam nacturds esse. 5. Omnemexercitum premi nuntiaverunt . 6. Cum* majdribus

copiis Caesarem esse profectum audiverant. 7. Credi-

mus omnia diligenter facta esse. 8. Negavit se diutius

moraturum. 9. Senserunt reliquos equites se sequi.

10. Suspicatur vos ausuros esse progredi. 11. Intel-

legit impetum minus facile sustineri. 12. Scripsit

castra valid decern pedes alto munita esse.

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 215

B.—13. Arbitratur milites periculum vereri. 14.

Sentit proelium equestre commissum esse. 15. Ro-

man5s pulsos superatosque esse renuntiaverunt. 16.

Undique bellum renovari videt;

suos interfici vidit.

17. Dixerunt naves onerarias jussas esse se sequi.

18. Negat se passurum esse nos discedere. 19. Scimus

eum multls rebus impediri. 20. Credidit omnes inimicos

ex civitate expulsos esse. 21. Obsides profectos esse et

frumentum comportari respondit. 22. Legiones collo-

catas esse in hibernls cognovit. 23. Intellexerat auxilia

in summo monte collocari et totum montem hominibus

compleri. 24. Centurionem superiore proelid multis

cdnfectum esse vulneribus demdnstravimus.

• 338 . II.

A.—1. He says th^t the troops have been led out of

winter quarters. 2. They hoped that Caesar would set

out for the war at once. 3. He was aware that the

place was being carefully fortified. 4. He was in-

formed that the enemy’s territories had been laid waste

far and wide. 5., He perceived that the Britons were

advancing boldly into the water. 6, He thinks all the

reinforcements have followed as quickly as possible.

7. She has promised to follow on the same day. 8. Weknew that the troops had been greatly impeded by the

extent of the forests and marshes. 9. I deny that wehave been terrified by your arrival. 10. He had written

that storms had followed for several days.

B.—11. I remember that he was called king andfriend by the senate of the Roman people. 12. Heanswered that they had been compelled to give hos-

tages. 13. He suspected that great losses were being

suffered. 14. They see that our men are advancing

216 Latin Lessons for Beginners;

farther. 15. He announced that they were attempting

to march through our province. 16. I knew that a very

great storm had arisen. 17. He showed that the com-

mander had set out for the nearest camp. 18. Webelieve a very large part of the whole army has been

slain. 19. They will hear that many battles have been

fought. 20. He denies that the danger is increasing;

he said the danger had not increased.


Questions. Interrogative Pronoun.

339. (a) Some questions seek an answer which has

especial reference to an interrogative word (or group of

words) placed at the beginning of the question;


answer is never “yes” or “no”; as, W/io has done

this f Whom do you see ? How many slaves has he f

At what time did the messenger comef

(h) Other questions seek a‘

‘ yes ” or “ no ” answer

to the whole question; as, Haveyou done this f Do you

see the king f Has he many slaves f Did the messenger

come at noon f

{c) If these questions be compared with corresponding

statements (e.g. You have done this, I see the king^ Hehas many slaves^ The messenger came at noon) it will be

seen that in interrogative sentences in English—

(1) the subject (unless itself an interrogative word)

comes after either the whole or part of the


(2) the verbal phrases with do or did are preferred

to the simple present and past tenses.

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 217

In Latin there is nothing- corresponding- to either of

these points of difference between statements and


340. Questions of the first class mentioned above are

introduced in Latin, as in Eng-lish, by interrog-ative

pronouns, adjectives or adverbs;


Quis haec fecit ? Who has done this f

Quern vides ? Whom do you see f

Cur nuntius venit ? Why did the messenger come f

Quo tempore venit ? At what time did he come f

In Latin, as in English, the answer may be either a

complete sentence or a portion of a sentence;

as. Ego

feci, / have done {it)


Ego, I


Regem video, / see the



Regem, the king.

341. Paradigm.



Masc. Fem. Neut.

Nom. quis quae quid

Gen. cujus cujus cujus

Dat. cui cui cui

Acc. quern quam quid

Abl. qu5 qua qu5


Masc. Fem. Neut.

qui quae quae

quorum quarum quorumquibus quibus quibus

quos quas quae

quibus quibus quibus

a. Compare the declension of the relative pronoun qui

(254), noting- the differences.

b. When the interrog-ative is used as an adjective, qui

is preferred to quis, and quod is always used in

place of quid.

c. Cum is suffixed to the ablative of the interrog-ative

quis. (Compare 255 a. 6.)

218 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

342. {a) Questions of the second class (“yes or no”questions) have in Latin the interrog-ative word -ne

appended to an emphatic word, which is placed at the

beginning of the sentence*;


Videsne regem ? Do you see the king?

Multosne servos habet ? Has he many slaves ?

Questions of this sort may be answered by repeating the


as. Video, / see {him) ; Non video, / do not; Habet,

he has


or by one of the many words equivalent to yes

or noA{b) Questions of this class may also begin with nonne

(non-ne), which invites the answer yes, or with num,

which invites the answer no ; as,

Nonne habet multos servos ? Has he not many slaves ?

(or, He has many slaves ihas he notf)

Num regem vides ? Surely you do not see the king f (or^

You do not see the king, do yo2i f)


hie, adv., here, in this place.

hue, adv., hither, here, to this place.

ibi, adv., there, in that place.

eo, adv., thither., there, to that place.

ubi, adv., where, in which place, in what place.

quo, adv., whither, wh^re, to which place, to what


unde, adv., whence,from which place, from whatplace.

eur, adv., why.

quantus, a, um, how large, how great.

uter, tra, trum (205), which {of two).

* Words like -lie and -qne, which are alwaj^s appended to some other

word, are called Enclitics. -IVe must not be used when the sentence contains

some other interrogative word, that is, with questions of the first class.

tSuch words are ctlani, even so; certc, certainly; sane, to be sure;

nOn, no; mXnlme, by no means.

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 219

N.B.—Ubi, quo and unde are used both as interrogative

adverbs and as relative adverbs; as, Ubi est? In eo

loco ubi legio hiemat. Where is hef In the place where

the legion is whitermg. The twofold meaning and

translation of the English words where, here and there

should be carefully noted.


344. I.

A.—1 . Cur non respondes ? N5nne respondere audes ?

Num dubitas respondere? 2. Qua de causa* se abdi-

derunt ? Multis de causis. 3. Quanta est hujus fossae

latitudd? 4. Ubi habitas, Marce ? Habitasne hie?

5. Navesne profectae sunt ? Unde profectae sunt ?

Quo progrediuntur ? 6. Eo pervenerunt prime vere.

Qu5 tempore profecti sunt? Alii superidre hieme, alii

autumno, alii media aestate. 7. Ibi fortiter pugnans,

gravissime vulneratus est. A quo vulneratus est ?

Quis eum vulneravit ? 8. Uter alteri paret ? Legatus

imperatdri paret. 9. Navibus amissis, qu5 se con-

vertent? Nonne hue se recipient? 10. Quibus ex

regionibus* venistis quasque ibi res cognovistis ? 11.

Quid petunt aliudt Romani ?

B.—12. Nonne haec onera gravia sunt? 13. Cui

omnia haec incognita erant ? 14. Hie concilium prin-

Cipum habebo. + 15. Ibi conspicit defensores labdrantes.

16. Hue omnia pecora compellere coeperant. 17. Edcum Caesar ipse venerit, animds omnium ednfirmabit.

18. Ndnne natura loci continemur? 19. Quanta multi-

tudd ibi cecidit ? Trecentine ceciderunt ? 20. Quidpostulatis? Cur imperium postulavistis 21. Pedestres

* This is the regular order when the interrogative modifies a noungoverned by a preposition.

t Literally ‘ other thing,’ freely ‘ else.' J T s nslate habeo here by ‘ hold.

220 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

copias in hibema proficisci, ibique hiemare jubet.

22. Nonne proelium illud meministi ? Num memoriamproelii illius deposuisti? Memor sum, et memoriamsemper retinebd.

345 . II.

A.—1. How large is the swiftest of all the ships?

Which of the two ships is the swifter ? 2. Who is morepowerful? What is more daring? 3. Why do wehesitate to throw away our arms? 4. Did not Caesar

announce that he would quickly come thither? 5. Havethe enemy come in sight ? Have the guards been posted

there ? 6. Surely you are not awaiting the approach

of the legionary soldiers here, are you? 7. Theysuspected that our men would come here the next night.

8. For what reason have the ranks been thrown into

confusion? 9. With whom are they continually waging

war? 10. Where are the foot-soldiers betaking them-

selves? Where have you come from? 11. Where were

the rest of the troops ? They were wintering in the

province where the barbarians had renewed the war.

B.—12. At noon they were led back to the lake from

which they had set out at dawn. 13. He himself

hastens hither by forced marches. 14. Do you see the

place where we are accustorned to assemble? 15. Hadnot a large number of cattle been found there? 16.

Which of the two embassies is the larger? 17. Towhom has he given more ? 18. After seizing the gates,

he stations a garrison there. 19. Fearing this danger,

he sent two cohorts there at once. 20. Surely you do

not approve Caesar’s speech, do you? 21. Do you

deny that the enemy’s line was put to flight? 22. Ar^

you not aware that W9 inhabit this island ?

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 221


Active and Passive Periphrastic Conjugations.

346. Strictly speaking, the term ‘periphrastic’ (from

periphrasis, a round-about expression) might be applied

to any compound form of the verb, that is, to any form

which is obtained, not by a mere change of ending,

as miserat, but by compounding a participle with the

verb sum, as missus erat. But the term is usuallsr

restricted to two sets of forms

a. The Active Periphrastic conj'ugation, made up of the

future participle active and the verb sum.

b. The Passive Periphrastic conjugation, made up of

a form called the gerundive and the verb sum.

The future participle active ends in -urus (-a, -um) and

is formed from the participial (or supine) stem in -um

(138) ;as, amaturus, moniturus, recturus, auditurus.

The gerundive ends in -ndus (-a, -um), and is formed

from the present stem; as, amandus, monendus, re

gendus, audiendus.

347. Paradigms.







Future Perfect

amaturus sum, es, est

amaturi sumus, estis, sunt

amaturus eramamaturus ero

amaturus fui

amaturus fueram

amaturus fuer5


Present amaturus esse

Perfect ^ amaturus fuisse

222 Latin Lessons for Beginners.



Present amandus sum, es, est

amandi sumus, estis, sunt

Imperfect amandus eram

Future amandus ero

Perfect amandus fui

Pluperfect amandus fueram

Future Perfect amandus fuero


Present amandus esse

Perfect amandus fuisse

348 . Illustrative Examples.

Legates missuri sumus,


Locum munituri erant,

fortify the place.

Legati mittendl sunt,

Legati mittendl erant,

have been) sent.

Locus muniendus est,


Locus muniendus erat.

Locus muniendus erit.

we are about to {going to) send*

they were about to {gomg to)

envoys should be {ought to be) sent,

envoys should have been {ought to

the place must be {has to bf)

the place had to befortified,

the place will have to befortified.

a. The active periphrastic conjugation, it will be

observed, expresses intention, while the passive

periphrastic conjugation expresses necessity or

duty. Notice carefully the various translations

of the different tenses, and especially the mannerof expressing necessity or duty in past time.

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 223


nemo (neminis), m.,

oncy nobody,

noctu, adv., by night.

omnlno, adv., altogetheryin all; with negfatives, at <mII.

prope, adv. (248), near ; nearlyyalmost,

quaero, ere, quaesivi, quaesitum, asky inquire,

rursus, adv., again.

simul, adv., at the same time.

tantus, a, um, so greaty such great.

turris, is, f. (acc. im, abl. i), tower.

una, adv.,together

yalong (generally used with cum).



helium pare, preparefor war.

N.B.—The declension of nemo is defective. Regu-

larly, for the genitive and ablative, and often for the

dative, the corresponding cases of nullus (205) are used.

A.—1. Proelinm committendum est;proelium reno-

vandumerat. 2. Proelium facturi sunt ;signum proelii

daturuserat. 3. Hostes sunt noctu opprimendi ;belhim

paraturi sunt. 4. Simul clamor rursus ortus est. 5. Unamecum profecturus fuerat. 6. Nihil omnino facturi

sumus; pontem in ill5 flumine facturi eramus. 7. In

tres omnino partes peditatus distribuendus erit. 8. In-

tellegit nostros turrim propius moturos esse;


turrim rursus movendam fuisse. 9. Sperat prope

neminem ex pugna excessurum esse. 10. De fortitudine

et virtute militum quaerere consuevit. 11. Cur tantum

spatium aggeres distant ? 12. Quanta erit turrium

altitude ?

a river.


350, I.

224 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

B.—13. Simtilab duobus lateribus impetus acerrime

faciendus est. 14. Num rursus terga versuri estis?

15. Quis se vobiscum conjuncturus est ? Nemo omnino.

16. Flumen ponte jtingi jusseram, et copias, quae

coactae erarft, traducturus eram. 17. Copiae, quas

coegeramus, una nobIscum erant traducendae. 18. Dato

signo, cohortes ex castris noctu erupturae erant. 19.

Summa erat difficultas, quod omnia uno tempore faci-

enda erant. 20. Tanta celeritate commotae, propc

omnes civitates obsidesdaturae sunt. 21. Num propter

paucitatem defensorum et inopiam rei frumentariae, de

salute desperaturi sumus? 22. Si causam ex captivis

ipse quaesiveris, dicent liberius.

351. II.

A.—1. The enemy must be driven back; we are

going to drive the enemy back. 2. The cohorts should

be sent out;

he is about to send out the cohorts.

3. Almost all resist vigorously;no one will resist more

fiercely. 4. The towns had to be attacked by night.

5. The camp will have to be fortified by a double wall,

and a bridge built over the river. 6. He was going to

compel us to give three hundred hostages in all. 7. All

the horses ought to be removed out of sight at the same

time. 8. The next year, having set out- again, they

were going to carry all their grain with them. 9. Heanswers that you must be surrendered along with the

rest of the slaves. 10. From whom shall I ask about

the height of the towers ?

B.—11. No lands at all should have been granted to

them. 12. Before this time, so great a disaster has

happened to no one. 13. Almost daily he asks the

reason. 14. They think that no one will venture to

approach nearer by night. 15. The advocates of this






Latin Lessons for Beginners. 225

plan ought to have been given up at once. 16. Must

the other part of the village be granted to the same

army? 17. Which part of the village is Caesar going

to grant to us? Neither part. 18. At the same time,

the ships in^ which Caesar was going to carry back his

army were being delayed by storms. 19. Is he not

going to attempt to lead all his men back again?

20. The scouts had to be recalled along with those whowere hurling their weapons from (de) the tower.



aestas captivus nmo tempestas

autumnus hiems ©ratio turris

calamity incommodum 6rd6 ver


ego is qui tu

hie meus quis tuus

idem nos sul uter

ille noster suus vester

ipse quantus tantus VOS


cur noctu prope simul

e5 nonne - quo statim

hie num rursus ubi

hue numquam saepe unaibi omnino semper unde

Literally ‘by means of which.’

226 Latin Lessons for Beginners.


abjicio cdnor jacid prdvided

accedd cdnspicid moror quaerd

accidd credd nanciscor recipid

accipid destringd negd renuntid

administrd ejicid orior scid

amittd expedid patior . scribd

arbitror facid perturbd sentid

cadd frangd polliceor sequor

capid fugid probd sperd

cdnficid intellegd proficiscor suspicor

conjicid interficid prdgredior vereor


Rome Delivered from the Gauls. (390 b.c.)


ascendo, ere, -di, ascensum, climb, ascend.

ascensus, us, m., ascent.

conditor, -toris, m., founder.* exsilium, i, n., exile.

ne . ..quidem, not even.

obsideo, ere, -sedi, -sessum, besiege.

Post complures dies Galli, incensa urbe, arcem

expugnare cdnati sunt. Prima luce, signo dat5, multi-

tud5 omnis barbarorum impetum fecit. Romani,

statidnibus firmatis, hostes fortiter exspectant, et ad

medium fere ascensum prdgredi eos patiuntur. Turn

{then) ex loco superiore telis subito conjectis, hostes

facile repellunt. Galli jam {now) senserunt arcem

obsidendam non oppugnandam esse, et, relicta parte

sudrum in urbe, reliqui agrds longe lateque vastant.

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 227

Camillus, de quo supra demdnstravimus, in exsilium

ab inimicis suis expqlsus erat, et eo tempore in oppido,

quod Ardea appellabatur, liabitabat. Certior factus

Romam oecupatam et ineensam esse, et agTos Romanosvastari, ineolas Ardeae convoeavit et banc orationem

babuit : “Nonne audivistis, eives, Gallos aeeedere?

Qua de causa veniunt ? Quid petunt ? Sperant se

Romanos sociosque Romanorum aut interfecturos esse

aut ex civitate expulsuros. Num populum Romanum a

barbaris superari passuri estis ? Cur non statim

auxilium mittimus ? Arbitror occasidnem {opportunity)

non amittendam esse.” Simul pollicitus est se ducemeorum fore, bellumque celeriter confecturum esse, et

omnes bonds eives se sequi jussit.

Hdc cdnsilid probatd, nuntius ad arcem missus est et

Rdmanis, qui ibi obsidebantur, nuntiavit Camillum cummaximis auxiliis celeriter venturum esse, et jubere

Rdmands de re publica ndn desperare. Hie nuntius

locum nactus est ubi, propter difficilem ascensum, bostes

ndn diligenter custddiebant {were keeping guard), et

noctu magnd cum periculd {at great risk) in arcem

ascendit. Interim omnes bellum parare coeperunt,

et plurimi Rdmani, qui ad proxima oppida fugerant,

undique ad Camillum convenerunt.

Dum baec geruntur, interim arx in magnd periculd

fuit. Namque {for) Galli vestigia {footprints) bominis

cdnspexerunt in ea parte collis ubi nuntius ascenderat,

et, suspicati id quod acciderat, eddem ascensu sequi

cdnari cdnstituerunt. Nullum praesidium ibi a Rdmaniscollocatum erat, quod nemd credebat bostes ascendere

cdnaturds esse, et Galli, media nocte profecti, prope adsummum collem pervenerant, cum anseres sacri {the

sacred geese) qui in templd Jundnis {the temple of Juno)

228 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

erant, hostes accedentes audiunt, et statim clamore

{outcry) sublato Rdmanos excitant {arouse). Illi, armis

celeriter captis, hostes de muris jacinnt, et iterum {a

second time) Gall5s repellunt,

'^d propter paucitatem defensorum et inopiam rei

frumentariae periculum cotidie augebatnr, et Romaniprope de salute desperabant cum exercitus Camilli in

conspectum venit. Proelio facto, Galli superati et ad

unum {to a mari) interfecti sunt. Ne nuntius quidem

calamitatis relictus est. Camillus propter has res grestas

a senatu populoque Romand de exsilio revocatus est, et

pater patriae {of his country) et conditor alter {second)

urbis appellabatur.

Haec omnia acciderunt anno trecentesimo sexagesimd

quarto ab urbe condifa.


Dative of Agent. Dative with Special Intransi-

tive Verbs. Ablative with utor.

354. Illustrative Examples.

Legati a rege missi sunt, envoys were sent by the king..

Legati regi inittendi sunt, envoys should be sent by the king.

Locus ab exercitu munitus erat, theplace had been fortified

by the army.

Locus exercitui muniendus erat, the place had to befortified

by the army.

a. Notice that in the passive periphrastic conjugation,

the dative is used with the gerundive to denote the

person on whom the duty of acting rests. This is

called the Dative of the Agent. Contrast the

ablative of the agent with ab used with the

ordinary passive forms of the verb (144).

Latin Lessons for Beginners, 229

b. Notice further that .the Latin periphrastic forms

expressing- duty or oblig-ation are in the passive

voice, and that therefore if an English sentence

expressing this idea is in the active voice, it should

be changed (mentally) to the corresponding passive

before being translated by the Latin passive peri-

phrastic conjugation. Thus, the sentences given

above would correspond also to : the king should

send envoys^ the army had to fortify the place,

. 355 . Illustrative Examples.

Regi parent, they obey the king.

Exercitui imperat, he commands the army.

Caesari resistant, they resist Caesar.

a. Notice that these Latin verbs translated by obey,

command and resist, are followed, not by a direct

object as the English verbs are, but by the dative.

The English verbs are transitive, but the Latin

equivalents are intransitive, and might moreproperly be rendered, they are obedient, he gives

orders, they offer resistance, so that the dative quite

naturally follows.

b. To this class belong many verbs denoting advantage

or disadvantage, or disposition towards, including

verbs meaning to help, favor, please, trust, and

their opposites, also tp believe, command, obey, per-

suade, resist, and spare. But not all such verbs are

followed by the dative; for example, jubeo.

c. Notice how the vocabulary indicates that a Latin

verb is of this class.

230 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

356. Illustrative Example.

Hoc gladio utitur, he uses this sword.

a. The deponent verb utor is followed by the ablative

case, and does not, like the English verb use., take

a direct object. A more bteral rendering wouldbe, he helps himself by means of this sword.


^ppropinquo, are, avi, atum, approach (with dat.)

confido, ere, -fisus sum,* trust (with dat.)

impero, are, avi, atum, command^ govern (with dat.)

noceo, ere, ui, itum, harm, mjure, damage {with, dat.)

occurro, ere, -curri, -cursum, meet (with dat.)

pared, ere, peperci (or pars!,) parsum, spare (with dat.)

pared, ere, ui, itum, obey (with dat.)

persuaded, ere, -suasi, suasum, persuade (with dat.)

resistd, ere, restiti, resist, oppose (with dat.)

utor, i, usus sum, use (with abl.)


358. I.

A.—1. Interim naves Britanniae appropinquabant.

2. Decimae legioni Caesar semper confidebat. 3.

Multas horas hostibus aegerrime nostri resistunt.

4. Omnia sunt vdbis diligenter administranda. 5.

Facilius gladiis utentur. 6. Ab h5c consilid deter-

rendus est. 7. Ante hiemem frumentum Caesari

providendum erat. 8. Populus Romanus multis civita-

tibus imperabat. 9., Ceteris spe libertatis persuasit.

10. Caesari hue venienti occurrunt. 11. Nonne haec

ponti nocebunt ? 12. Communis salutis causa, eis qui

ndbis parent parcemus.

Comfldo is a semi-deponent verb (313.)

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 231

B.—13. Parem numerum militum finitimae civitati

imperabit. 14. Sentit suos ab hostibus premi. 15.

Equites, quos Caesar secum transportavit, tibi educendi

sunt. 16. Confidebant sese incolis persuasuros esse.

17. Impetus in novissimum aglnen huic legidni soli

faeiendus erat. 18. Liberi populi Galliae mihi ab

injuria defendendi sunt. 19. Integris eopiis hostium

occurrerunt. 20. Mali cives semper rei publicae nocent.

21. Timbre perterriti cedunt et in densissimas silvas

fugiunt. 22. Armis captis, per medibs hostes per-

rumpere cbnati sunt. 23. Dum haec geruntur, flumen

ponte jungendum erat. 24. His rebus oppugnatib nbn

impedienda est.

359. II.

A.— 1. By this speeeh he easily persuades the Bel-

gians. 2. The camp must be attacked again by the

whole army at the third hour. 3. Who does not knou^-

that the Gauls were conquered by Caesar? 4. We use

wider ships in this sea. 5. He will injure no one;he

will spare all. 6. You must not lose the military

standards; we must prepare for war. 7. All lands

obey the rule of the Roman people. 8. In the first

place, a good king governs himself. 9. At first hehimself will resist us. 10. You should choose the

noblest and most discreet men. 11. While they wereapproaching the fortifications, they met the cavalr^Ahat

Caesar had sent in advance. 12. He is going to sum-mon the chief men whom he always trusts.

B.—13. The ships which they used were larger.

14. It is difficult to persuade the other daughter. 15.

At the same time, he demands three thousand horsemenfrom the whole province. 16. I think that you should

not take away the hope of safety altogether. 17. Caesar

232 Latin LessoI^ts for Beginners.

had to withdraw all the troops by night to the nearest

hill. 18. The rampart seems to me to be higher than

the town. 19. If we halt there, the right wing will

soon be surrounded. 20. The left wing must be sur-

rounded as quickly as possible. 21. Influenced by all

these things, we shall resist the senate itself. 22. Theboys and girls are with difficulty prevented from ap-

proaching the banks of this river. 23. Grain has to be

brought by us from the remotest parts of the mainland.

24. He hopes to finish this work without any toil.

C.—Decline the following combinations : eadem nox,

tua oratio, hie labor, vir ipse, quae res, haec turris, ille

agger, is ager, hoc ipsum tempus, quanta calamitas, ilia

pars, eadem castra, id iter, qui dies, exercitus suus,

utrum latus {s), idem illud vev (s), nostra consuetudo (s).

Oppugnatio : Attack.

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 233


Subjunctive of Sum. Indirect Questions.

360. The subjunctive mood in Latin has four tenses—

Present, Imperfect, Perfect and Pluperfect. It is some-

times used in independent sentences, but is far moreoften found in dependent or subordinate clauses of

various kinds. The translation of the subjunctive

varies considerably according- to these different uses,

but most commonly it is rendered by the English

indicative, as in the present lesson.*

361. Paradigms.


1. sim simus

2. sis sitis

3. sit sint



fuerim fuerimus

fueris fueritis

fuerit fuerint


1. essem , essemus fuissem fuissemus

2. esses essetis fuisses fuissetis

3. esset essent fuisset fuissent

Notice in these forms

{a) The regularity of the personal endings;

{b) the resemblance of the imperfect subjunctive to the

present infinitive (esse) and of the pluperfect sub-

junctive to the perfect infinitive (fuisse);

{c) the almost complete identity of the perfect sub-

junctive and the future perfect indicative. Evenin the matter of quantity, the resemblance often

caused the Romans to shorten the i of the sub-

junctive forms.

* The difficulty of the Latin subjunctive is indeed largely due to the fact

that ideas regularly expressed by the English indicative require, in Latin,

sometimes the indicative and sometimes the subjunctive. That is, Latinmakes distinctions of moods in places where English does not.

234 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

362 . Illustrative Examples.

Quae est causa ?

Quaerit quae sit causa,

What is the reason 9

he asks what is the reason.

Quaesivit quae esset causa, he asked what was the reason.'

a. In these Latin sentences the indicative mood is used '

^in the actual direct question, but the subjunctive

mood when the clause introduced by the inter-

rogative word is dependent on another verb.

b. A subordinate clause in Latin introduced by an

interrogative word is called an Indirect Question

(or a Dependent Question), and has its verb in the'

subjunctive mood.

c. The various tenses are translated like the corre- >

spending tenses of the indicative, and as in English

are influenced by the tense of the principal verb. ^

The Latin perfect subjunctive, however, it should :

be observed, is usually to be translated by the'

perfect with have, rather than by the simple past


d. It is especially important to notice that the verb of

the principal clause may mean not only ask, but

also learn, know, tell, or perceive. The term

indirect question, then, does not necessarily imply

that a question has actually been asked and

is being quoted, but merely that a question

exists in the mind or at least may easily be con-

ceived;as, / saw what he was doing, I know what

he will say.

Ubi fuerunt ?

Scio ubi fuerint,

Audivi ubi fuissent.

Where have they been 9

I know where they have been .

I heard where they had bee?i.

235Latin Lessons for Beginners.


363. I.

1.Quaerunt quae* sit firmissima civitas

;quaerit quae

sint maxima castra. 2. Quanta esset insulae magnitudo

reperiebat. 3. In utra ripa essemus eertior factus erat.

Quanta fuisset virtus militum demonstravit;quantum

fuisset incommodum ostenderunt. 5. Quantum sit

spatium nuntiant. 6. Quibuseum esses sciebam. 7. Abhis quaesivit quae eivitates in armis essent. 8. Quaerit

ex ndbis cur n5n fideles sibit fuerimus. 9. Scisne

quacum legidne sim? 10. Renuntiaverunt qui ager

esset optimus totius Galliae. 11. Uter fuerit utilior

amicus intellegimus. 12. Quibus in locisj sit Caesar ex

captivis quaerunt. 13. Quis cum iis una fuisset

audiverat. 14. Quaesivit quid illi simile bell5 esset.


1 . He asked which cohort had been on guard. 2 . Theyreported what harbors were suitable. 3. You see howgreat is the danger. 4. You saw in what (literally howgreat) danger we were. 5. They understand for whatreason we have been unfriendly to them.t 6. He sus-

pected what had been the cause of that war. 7. Hehas been informed where we are and where we havebeen. 8. He asked what was the custom. 9. He asks

what is easier. 10. He shows how great the difficulty

has been. 11. He asks the envoys what town is nearest

to these territories. 12. He knew who had been the

advocates of that war. 13. He learns what {literally

how great) is the length of this side. 14. We.had heardfor what reasons you were in arms.

^ The interi-ogative may be translated ‘ which ’ as well as ‘ who ’ or ‘ what.’t In indirect questions, as in the accusative and infinitive construction

<323), the reflexive pronoun suiin the dependent clause is used to refer to theeubject of the main verb.

I For the order of words see the footnote on page 219.

236 Latin Lessons for Beginners.


Subjunctive Active

364. * Paradigms.


First Conj. Second ConJ. Third Conj.


Fourth Conj.

1. amem moneam regfam audiam2. ames moneas regas audias

3. ametPlural.

moneat regat audiat

1. amemtis moneamus regamus audiamus

2. ametis moneatis regatis audiatis

3. ament


moneant regant



1. amarem monerem regerem audirem

2. amares moneres regeres audires

3. amaret


moneret regeret audiret

1. amaremus moneremus regeremus audiremus

2. amaretis moneretis regeretis audiretis

3. amarent monerent regerent audirent

Perfect. Pluperfect.

Singular. Plural. Singular. Plural.

1. amaverim amaverimus amavissem amavissemt

2. amaveris amaveritis amavisses amavissetis

3. amaverit


amaverint amavisset amavissent

Second Conjug. monuerim momiissemThird Conjug. rexerim rexissem

Fourth Conjug. audiverim audivissem

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 237

a. Observe that in each conjugation, as in sum (361), the

imperfect subjunctive may be formed directly from

the present infinitive active, and the pluperfect

subjunctive from the perfect infinitive active, and

that the perfect subjunctive is almost identical

with the future perfect indicative.

b. Notice further that the present subjunctive has in

the first conjugation the characteristic vowel -e-,

and in the second, third and fourth conjugations

the characteristic vowel -a-. What is the char-

acteristic vowel of the present subjunctive of sum ?

c. For the translation of the various tenses in indirect

questions see 362 c.

d. The subjunctive of verbs of the third conjugation in

-io is similarly formed, viz..

Present. Imperfect. Perfect. Pluperfect.

capiam caperem ceperim cepissem


animadverto, ere, -verti, -versum, notice, observe.

doceo, ere, ui, doctum, teach, explahi.

fluctus, us, m., wave.

fluo, ere, fluxi, fluxum, flow.

pars, partis, f., part; direction, side.

perspicio, ere, -spexi, -spectum, see clearly, perceive.



in earn partem, hi that directionfl^ith. verbs

in omnes partes, in all directions^ oi motioUc

una ex parte, on one side.

ex omnibus partibus, on all sides.

magno cum periculo, at great risk.

238 Latin Lessons for Beginners.


366. I.

A.—1. Per exploratores cogriovit quae hostes fa-,

cerent. 2. Nuntiabo quo se recipiant. 3. Docent qua

de causa se abdiderint. 4. Quinto die quae* ibi per-

spexisset renuntiavit. 5. Quaerit in utram partem fluat

flumen. 6. Intelleg-ebat qua de causa ea dicerent.

7. Quaerunt quibus ex regionibus veniamus quasque

ibi res cdgnoverimus. 8. Reperire jussus est quern

usum belli t haberent Britanni. 9. Quae* ipse intellegat

ostendit. 10. Quaerit cur n5n respondeas;quaerit cur

respondere dubites. 11. Animadvertit naves fluctibus


B.—12. Certior factus est qua de causa discessissent

hostes. 13. Docuit cur existimaret hoc flumen per

prdvinciam fluere. 14. Ex nobis quaesivit cur in suamprdvinciam venissemus. 15. Animadvertunt quam in

partem hostes iter faciant. 16. Quaesivit qua de causa

nuntids in omnes partes dimitterent. 17. Videtis quanta

sit magnitude fluctuum. 18. Suspicor quid postuletis;

suspicor cur imperium postulaveritis. 19. Quantd cumpericulo eruptionem fecisset, ostendit. 20. Quaerit

quid petam aliud. 21. Ex omnibus partibus oritur

clamor. 22. Virtutem alterius, fldem alterius perspiciet.

367. II.

A.—1. He asked why they were coming to him. 2.

They informed us where they had found the enemy.

3. I understand at what risk you have done this. 4.

He asks why they despair of safety. 5. Are you not

aware who inhabit this island ? 6. He perceives howlarge an army the enemy have. 7. He observed from

* Tra.nslate ‘ what’ ; literally ‘ what things ’ (293, N.B.).

t Translate ‘in war’ ; literally ‘ of war.’

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 239

what direction they were approaching:. 8. He learned

where the enemy’s forces had encamped. 9. He ex-

plains why they have hesitated to leap down into the

waves. 10. He explains that they have hesitated to

leap down. 11. He asked why the waves were larger

there than in our sea.

B.—12. They explain what they have heard or learned

about these matters. 13. Caesar understood for whatreasons they had said this. 14. He was ordered to find

out in what direction Caesar was leading his army.

15. I do not know why they are waging war with us.

16. We do not know what they fear. 17. They pointed

out to Caesar what the Gauls were saying about him.

18. He had noticed that the Gauls were fleeing in all

directions. 19. He perceived whither the Gauls were

fleeing. 20. We shall find out where whither)

you are accustomed to assemble. 21. He asked whomI believed

;he asks which (of the two) I believe. 22.

He teaches the boys that the Rhine flows between Gaul

and Germany.

Roman Aqueduct in Gaul.

240 Latin Lessons for Beginners.


Subjunctive Passive. Subjunctive of Result.

368. Paradigms.


First Conj. Second Conj. Third Conj. Fourth Conj.


1. amer monear reg-ar audiar

2. ameris monearis - regaris audiaris

3. ametur moneatur regatur audiaturPlural.

1. amemur moneamur regamur audiamur

2. amemini moneamini regamini audiamini

3. amentur moneantnr regantur audiantur

Imperfect.Singular. .

1. amarer monerer regerer andirer

2. amareris monereris regereris audireris

3. amaretur moneretur regeretur audiretur^


1. amaremur moneremnr regeremur audiremnr

2. amaremini moneremini regeremini audiremini

3. amarentur monerentur regerentur andirentur

First Conjugation.

Perfect. Pluperfect.

Singular. Plural. Singular. Plural.

1. amatus sim amati simus amatus essem amati essemus

2. " sis p sitis " esses " essetis

3. " sit


" sint It esset " essent

Seco7id Co7ijug. monitus sim monitus essem

Third Conjug. rectus sim rectus essem

Fourth Conjug. auditus sim auditus essem -

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 241

369. In the subjunctive mood the passive voice is

related to the active precisely as in the indicative

a. In the present and imperfect tenses of the passive

the personal endings -r, -ris, -tur, -mur, -mini,

-ntur are substituted for those of the active voice.

b. In the perfect and pluperfect tenses the passive is

formed by combining the perfect participle passive

with the present and imperfect subjunctive, respec-

tively, of the verb sum.

370. (a) The subjunctive passive of verbs of the

third conjugation in -io, and the subjunctive of deponent

verbs, are similarly formed, viz..

Present. Imperfect. Perfect. Pluperfect.

capiar caperer captus sim captus essem

coner conarer conatus sim conatus essem

verear vererer veritus sim veritus essem

sequar sequerer secutus sim secutus essem

sortiar sortirer sortitus sim sortitus essem

patiar paterer passus sim .passus essem

{b) The periphrastic conjugations also have a sub-

junctive, formed by using the subjunctive of sum; as.

Present. i Imperfect.

amaturus sim amaturus essem

amandus sim amandus essem

371. Illustrative Examples.

Tanta est militum virtus ut hostes terga vertant, so great

is the valor of the soldiers that the ene^ny turn andflee.

Tanta erat militum virtus ut hostes non resisterent, so

great was the valor of the soldiers that the enemy did

not resist.

Accidit ut nostris id esset incognitum, it happened that that

was unknown to our men.

242 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

a. Observe that dependent clauses with ut {thai) andthe subjunctive are used in Latin to express a-

result or consequence, and that in such clauses

the present and imperfect subjunctive are* used

to express the English present and past tenses


b. This Subjunctive of Result is found chiefly after wordsmeaning so, such (as tantus)

;and after verbs of

happening and resulting (as accidit) . t


adorior, iri, -ortus sum, attack, assault.

coorior, irI, -ortus sum, arise, break out.

ita, adv., thus ; so. sic, adv., thus ; so.

natio, -onis, f., tribe, nation. tarn, adv., so.

revertor, i, -versus sum, return, vix, adv.,scarcely^ hardly.

N.B.—With adjectives and adverbs tarn (or ita) should

be used for so ; with verbs sic and (more often) ita.


373. I.

A.—1. Tam subito impetum fecerunt ut pedites terga

verterent. 2. Celeriter hostes in fugam dat sic ut

resistat nemo. 3. Ostendunt quae in concilio Gallorum

de eo sint dicta. 4. Ibi ex captivis cognoscit quae in

hostium castris gerantur. 5. Sic accidit ut ex tant5

numero vix ulla navis amitteretur. 6. Tanta tempestas

coorta est ut naves circiter triginta frangerentur.

7. Quaerit cur tarn celeriter revertantur. 8. Ita

* Occasionally the perfect subjunctive is used to express the English

simple past, but this is rare in the best Latin. Of course the perfect andpluperfect subjunctive would be used to translate the English perfect andpluperfect tenses with have and had ; but these do not often occur.

t In the former case the dependent claiise is an adverbial clause, in the

leMer a substantival or noun clause.

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 243

animadverterat quanta incommoda saepe orta essent.

9. Accidit ut hae natidnes majores copias compararent.

10. Nostri tarn acriter adorti sunt ut hostes ex oppido


B.—11. Ex locis superioribus quae res in nostris

castris gererentur facile perspexerunt. 12. Tantus fuit

timer ut reverti vix auderemus. 13. Sentit quanta cumvirtute bellum sit gestum. 14. Tam celeriter eruptionem

faciunt ut complures circumveniantur. 15. Castra

natura loci sic muniebantur ut oppugnare non aude-

remus. 16. Ita si Rdmani se recipere coeperint, agmenab tergd adoriemur. 17. Tanta est multitudd ut rerumomnium inopia esse videatur. 18. Tam audacter in

itinere nostrds adorti sunt ut impedimenta Caesari

relinquenda essent. 19. E5 die accidit ut Caesar longe

ab agmine discedere neminem pateretur, 20. Tantus

subitd timor exercitum occupavit ut omniurn animi

magnopere perturbarentur.

374. II.

A.—1. It happened that this village was divided bya river into two parts. 2. He explains what is being

done (ger5) in Gaul. 3. So large are the enemy’s forces

that we do not venture (do not attempt) to attack.

4. So great was the storm that scarcely a fourth part of

the ships returned safe. 5. Thus it happened for manyreasons that all the tribes were going to renew the war.

6. They have been so terrified by Caesar’s approach

that numerous embassies are being sent to treat for

surrender. 7. So great a storm had arisen that fewof the ships had reached the land. 8. He asks whencewe have set out and whither we are proceeding. 9. Heasked whence we had set out and whither we wereproceeding..

244 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

B.—10. Such {literally so great) storms followed that

the assault was greatly hindered. 1 1 . They often asked

in what direction they were being led. 12. Thus welearned how great a number of soldiers these nations

had promised. 13. So great is the panic {literally fear)

that I do not venture to draw up the line of battle.

14. Such was the speed of the other messenger that he

returned before the third watch. 15. It so happens

that we never use smaller ships;

it happened that warhad scarcely broken out. 16. They pointed out howmuch plunder they had obtained. 17. So great is the

valor of the soldiers that he is going to join battle at

once. 18. The enemy were so terrified by this recent

victory that they fled to their most distant territories.

19. Thus we had foreseen what had to be done.


The Compounds of Sum.

375. The verb sum is compounded with many of the

prepositions, in most cases without any irregularity;as,

absum, abesse, afuL But possum, / am able, a compound

of the adjective potis, able, and sum, is more irregular.

376. Paradigm.

Possum, posse, potui, be able.

indicative. subjunctive.Present.

1, possum possumus possim possimus

2. potes potestis possis possitis

3. potest possunt possit possint


1 . poteram poteramus possem possemus

2 . poteras poteratis posses possetis

3. poterat poterant posset possent

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 245


potero, poteris, etc.


potui, potuisti, etc. potuerim, potueris, etc.


potueram, potueras, etc. potuissem, potuisses, etc.

Future Perfect.

potuero, potueris, etc.

INFINITIVE.Present. Perfect.

I posse potuisse



potens (z^sed as adjective).

a. Notice that t is changed to s before s, and that, as

compared with sum, the perfect stem does not

contain f.

377. Illustrative Examples.

„ , [I am able to do this.Haec facere possum, \ ^ j1/ cazz do thzs.


/ was not able to do this,

I was unable to do this.

I could zzot do this.

Ihe said that he was able to do this,

yhe said that he could do this.Dixit se haec facere posse.

Dixit se haec facere potuisse, he said that he could have

done this.

Superari non possunt, they cannot be cozzquered.

a. Notice in these sentences how possum is completed

by a present infinitive (compare 123), and how it

is translated in the various tenses. The translation

by can or cozild is generally preferable, and with

the passive infinitive is the only translation.

246 Latin Lessons for Beginners.


absum, abesse, ^ui, be away, be distant.

adsum, adesse, adfui, be present, be at hand.

desum, deesse, defui, be wanting, be lacking.

negotium, i, n., business ; affair.

patior, I, passus sum, endure, suffer ; allow.

possum, posse, potui, be able, can.

potens, -entis, powerful.

potestas, -tatis, f., power ; opportunity.

praeficio, ere, -feci, -fectum, set over, put in command

{charge) ^(with dat.).

praesum, praeesse, praefui, be over, be in cojnmand {charge)

of, command (with dat.)o


Praesum and praeficio take the dative of the

person commanded, while praeficio has also the person

placed in command as a direct object in the accusative.

For prae-, before, at the head, in composition, see 243.


379. I.

A.—1. Ab his se defendere n5n possunt. 2. Impedi-

menta secum portare non poterant. 3. Nuntiat Ro-

manos adesse. 4. Tempus d^uerat. 5. Arbitrates est

negotium celeriter confici posse (potuisse). 6. Tanta

tempestas coorta est ut opus cdnficere vix possemus.

7. Auxilia sex milia passuum absunt. 8. Equitatui

legatum praeficit; omni equitatui quern praemiserat

legatum praefecit. 9. Civitati potenti praeest;civitati

potentissimae praeficitur. 10. Docent cur potesta-

tem postulent. 11. Aderant omnes qui huic negotid

praefuerant. 12. V5bis possumus utiles esse amici.

13. Reverti non potui, quod naves erant inutiles. 14. Si

Caesar aderit, hostibus resistere poterunt.

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 247

B.—15. NulH civitati persuadere potestis. 16. Haec

quis pati potest? Quaerit quis haec pati possit. 17. In

litteris scribit patrem celeriter adfore. 18. Legiones

magnum spatium aberant. 19. Accidit ut naves solvere

rioctu non possemus. 20. Ex hostium castris conspici

non poteramus. 21. Quaesivit quis rei frumentariae


quaesivit quern rei frumentariae praefec-

turus essem. 22. Omnia negdtia rei publicae admini-

strat. 23. Equites longius progredi non potuerant.

24. Diutius sustinere impetum n5n poterimus. 25.

Potestas nobis non deerit;

intellexit sibi copias non

defore. 26. Tantam auctdritatem habet ut reges

potentes amicitiam petant. 27. Oppidum oppugnare

conati, expugnare n5n potuerunt.

380. II.

A.—1. You cannot march through the province. 2.

He has been unable to persuade me. 3. They could

not withstand the attacks of our men. 4. You are in

my power; you are powerful. 5. Nothing is wanting;

everything is lacking. 6. He was in command of the

cavalry which had been sent in advance. 7. He asked

whom they had put in command of the army. 8. Hethinks that he can do this without any danger. 9. Heperceived what they could do. 10. Another town is

said to have been farther distant. 11. Having finished

this business, he can return. 12. We had not been

able to use our swords. 13. They ’cannot defend their

own territories. 14. This alone seems to have beenlacking. 15. They thought Caesar himself was present.

B.—16. On account of the scarcity of corn, he will

not be able to wait. 17. He reported that he had beenunable to learn this. 18. I shall put my son in charge

of this business. 19. It will be dangerous to spare the

248 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

most powerful of the leading- men. 20. The children

could not be restrained by their mother. 21. We can

very easily prevent them from injuring- you. 22. Hetrusted the lieutenants whom he had' put in commandof the legion. 23. He was aware that cavalry and ships

were wanting to the Romans. 24. For the same reason

the camp could not be pitched. 25. He learns for what

reason they cannot take up arms. 26. Two brothers

command these legions. 27. The storm was so great

that two ships had not been able to reach the harbor.

381 . WORD LIST F.


announce explain notice say

answer feel observe say . . not

ascertain find perceive see

be aware hear point out show

believe hope promise suspect

bring back word inform remember teach

consider know reply think

declare learn report understand

deny mention write


approach harm oppose set over

be over injure persuade spare

command meet resist trust

govern obey


arise be able be lacking inquire

ask be at hand endure return

assault be distant flow use

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 249


business opportunity side tribe

direction power tower wave


where whither how great which

whence why who which (of two)


here hither altogether, at all

there thither together (with)

where whither at the same time

thus, so almost again

near scarcely by night


Titus Manlius Torquatus. (361 b.c.; 340 b.c.)-


adulescens, -entis, m., young man.

consul, consulis, m., consul (the chief magistrate of

Rome, two being elected annually),

corpus, -oris, n^, body.

detrahS, ere, -traxi, -tractum, remove, strip.

Latini, orum, vs\., the Latins (the people of Latium).

spolia, orum, n. pL, spoils.

torquis, is, m., necklace, collar.

Post triginta circiter annos accidit ut Galli rursus

populum Romanum superare conarentur. Quam maxi-

mis cdpiis coactis ad flumen, quod tria milia passuum ab

urbe aberat, progress! sunt, ibique castra posuerunt.

Romani, Gallos adesse certiores facti, omnibus cum

250 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

copiis ab urbe profecti sunt, et prope pontem consederunt

qui flumen jung:ebat {spanned). Complura levia proelia

facta sunt, sed neuter exereitus repelli poterat. Tandem{at length) unus ex Gallis, cui propter magnitudinem

corporis et fortitudinem nemo resistere pptuerat, ad

pontem progressus est et fortissimum Romanorum ad

pugnam provocavit {challenged). “ Sic ” inquit {said he)

omnes intellegent utra natid sit melior. ’’ Sed tantus

fuit timor Rdmanorum ut nemini persuadere posset.

Tandem Titus Manlius, aduleseens nobilissimus, im-

peratori Romanorum appropinquavit et dixit “ Si mihi

potestas facta* erit, ego huic Gallo occurram, etostendam

quanta sit virtus militis Romani.” Potestate facta,

Manlius se ad pugnam expedivit. Neque diu pugnave-

runt, nam {for) ita acriter et audacter Manlius hostem

adortus est ut Gallus gladio uti vix posset et brevi inter-

ficeretur. Hostes hac victoria ita perterriti sunt ut

postera nocte castra moverent, neque rursus cumexercituRomano proelium committere auderent. Manlius

ad castra a militibus reductus est, torquem gerens

{wearing) quern de corpore Galli detraxerat;

et hac de

causa semper post id tempus Torquatus appellabatur.

Post multos annos bellum coortum est inter Romanoset Latinds, qui diu socii fuerant populi Rdmani. Cdn-

sules Titus Manlius Torquatus, qui ter {thrice) cdnsul

factus erat, et Publius Decius exercitum Rdmanumeduxerunt et castra posuerunt ndn longe ab exercitu


Turn {then) equites in omnes partes dimissi sunt, sed,

quod multi in dudbus exercitibus fuerant amici, jussi

sunt sdlum cdgndscere quae in hostium castris gere-

rentur, sed ndn proelium committere neque ullam inju-

• The phrase potestatem facto means give opportunity, give permission.

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 251

riam facere. Complures horum equitum, quibus Titus

Manlius, consulis films, praefectus erat, dum castris

Latinorum appropinquant, equitatui liostium occurrunt;

et is qui equitatui praeerat, ubi [when) perspexit quis

accederet, Maiilium, quern diu cognoverat, ad pugfnam

provocavit. Ira {by Unger) adductus, neque memorimperii patris, Manlius, destrictd g-ladio, statim hostem

adortus est et interfecit.

Turn arma de corpore ejus detrahit et celeriter ad

castra revertitur, et patri quid fecerit renuntiat: “Haecspolia, pater, capta ex hoste interfecto tibi porto.” His

rebus auditis, cdnsul milites convocavit et haec dixit


“Titus Manlius, filius mens, cum hoste pugnavit neque

imperio cdnsulum parebat. Communis salutis causa,

imperator militarem disciplinam {discipline) solvere {to

destroy) neminem pati potest. In hoc bello tantum est

periculum ut praestet filium amittere quam rei publicae

nocere.” Hac oratione habita filium interfici jussit,

neque ab hoc consilio deterreri potuit.

Torquis: Collar. (The Dying Oaul.)

252 Latin Lessons for Beginners.


Genitive and Ablative of Quality.

383. Illustrative Examples.

Sunt homines magnae virthtis, \ they are men ofgreat

Sunt homines magna virtute, / valor.

Bono animo sumus, we are of good courage,

Dierum decern habentfrumentum, they have ten day grain,

a. In these sentences observe how phrases composed of

a noun and a modifying adjective, in either the

genitive or the ablative case, are used to describe

some quality or characteristic of a person or thing.

This construction is known as the Genitive or

Ablative of Quality.*

b. When the description refers to number, the geni-

tive must be used;physical characteristics should

be expressed by the ablative; in other cases either

the genitive or the ablative may be used.


adulescens, -entis, m., young man.

classis, is, f., fleet.

corpus, -oris, n., body.

efficio, ere, -feci, -fectum, make ; construct^ build.

genus, -eris, n., kindy sort.

incredibilis, e, incredible.

ingens, -entis, hugey vast.

triduum, i, n., three days.



magnitude corporis, stature.

* This usage is known also as the Descriptive Genitive (or Ablative), andU Genitive (or Ablative) of Characteristic.

Latin Lessons for Beginners c 253


385. I.


Filium, summa virtute adulescentem, ad eos mittit.

2. Montibus undique continenttir magna altitudine.

3. Ab Ms paucomm dierum iter aberant. 4. Classem' navium ducentarum superiore aestate effecerat. 5.

Arma omnis generis habemus;omne genus armorum

habemus. 6. Hi Germani erant ingenti magnitudine

corporum et incredibili virtute. 7. Tridul* iter pro-

gress!, rursusrevertuntur. 8. Lucius, adulescens summafide, dHigitur. 9. Nov5 genere pugnae perterriti, se

ex silvis ejiciunt. 10. Haec civitas est firma et magnaeauctoritatis. 11. Castra pedum duodecimt valid fos-

saque duodeviginti pedum munituri sunt. 12. Hujus

generis hostibus. resistere non poterant.


1. They have built ships of an incredible size. 2.

About six hundred ships of the same sort must be built.

3. A forest of vast size extends through the midst of

the territory. 4. These trenches are of the samedepth. 5. They marched for three days through

marshes of vast extent. 6. He put Marcus and Lucius,

young men of very great influence, in command of this

fleet. 7. They are men of an unfriendly spirit. 8. Thetowers are of such great height that they cannot be

moved. 9. They hurled missiles of every sort at the

huge bodies of the barbarians. 10. The legion advanced

a three days’ journey in light marching order. 11.

Men of such great valor will never surrender.

* Ti-idul being a compound noun =trlum dieriiiii, we have here only anapparent exception to the rule that the genitive or ablative of quality mustbe a noun with a modifying adjective.

The height of a wall and the width of a trench are the importantdimensions and in Latin these words are often left to be understood.

254 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

LESSON LXV,The Subjunctive in Clauses of Purpose.

386. Illustrative Examples.


ut bellum gerant,

they assemble

'that they may wage war.

in order that they may wagi


in order to wage war.

do wage war.

they assembled

{that they might wage war,

jhi order to wage war.

Wo wage war.

they take up arms,


that this may not happen,

lest this happen,

they took up arms,


that this might not happen

test this should happen,

he leaps down at once,

Uhat he may not be taken.


in order not to be taken,

as not to be taken,

he leaps down at once, so that he

is not taken.

These sentences illustrate the following’ points

a. Subordinate clauses with the subjunctive are used in

Latin to express purpose.

b. These clauses of purpose are introduced by ut, or if

negative by ne, while ut non is used to express

result, not purpose (see the last sentence above).


ut bellum gererent,

Arma capiunt,

ne b5c accidat,

Arma ceperunt,

ne hoc accideret.

Statim desilit,

ne capiatur,

Statim desilit,

ut non capiatur,

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 255

c. In Latin, as in Eng-lish, the tense of the dependent

verb is influenced by the tense of the principal

verb; the present subjunctive being’ used where

English would use may, the imperfect subjunctive

where English would use might.

d. The idea of purpose is expressed in English in a

variety of ways, one of the commonest being’ by the

infinitive with to. But the infinitive should not be

used in Latin to express purpose.

387. {a) The principle by which the tense used in a

dependent clause is influenced by the tense of the main

verb is known in Latin Grammar as the Sequence of

Tenses. The general rule is as follows

1. Primary Sequence. The present, future and future

perfect indicative (called the Primary Tenses) are followed

by the present or the perfect subjunctive.

2. Secondary Sequeiice. The imperfect, perfect andpluperfect indicative (called the Secondary or Historical

Tenses) are followed by the imperfect or the pluperfect

subjunctive. But the perfect indicative, when translated

by have, may take primary sequence, and the historical

present (59, fn.) secondary sequence.

{f}) These rules appl> generally to all kinds of depen-

dent subjunctive clauses.* In most cases the Latin

sequence corresponds so closely to English usage that the

tense of the English is a sufficient guide (362 c.; 371 a.).

388. Illustrative Examples.

Legates mittunt /they send envoys to seek peace,

qui pacem petant, l(literally, who are to seek peace).

Legates miserunt /they sent envoys to seek peace,

qui pacem peterent, ((literally, who were to seek peace).

* lu clauses of purpose, only the present and imperfect tenses are used.

tS6 Latin Lessons f6r Beginners.

a. Notice that the subjunctive expressing purpose maybe used in a relative clause. The relative pronoun

replaces ut, and has of course an antecedent.

This usage occurs chiefly after mitto and its com-

pounds ; sometimes also after relinquo and deligo.


commeatus, us, m., supplies^provisions.

consequor, i, -secutus sum, overtake ; attain^acquire.

insequor, i, -secutus sum, follow up, pursue.

magistratus, us, m., magistrate.

praefectus, i, m., officer^, commander

(especially of cavalry),

servitus, -tutis, f., slavery.

subsequor, i, -secutus follow closely,follow after


tribunus, i, m., (a military officer).

N.B.—A Roman army had its commander-in-chief

(imperator), its stalf officers (legati);in each legion six

tribunes (tribuni) and sixty centurions (centuriones)


and its cavalry officers (praefecti).


390. I.

A.—1 . Commeatus causa moratur;moratur ut copiam

commeatus nancTscatur. 2. Ut hostes consequi posset,

pontem in flumine fecit. 3. Hostes insequi non audet

ne magnam calamitatem accipiat. 4. Magnam partem

equitatus misit quae regem insequeretur. 5. Omnes ex

conspectu remdvit equos ut spem fugae tolleret. 6.

Magistratus deligunt qui civitati praesint. 7. Nenostri

incommodum acciperent, cohortes secum in earn partem

subsequi jussit.

The Forum, Looking East. {Restoration.)

The Forum, Looking West. {Restoration.)

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 257

E.—8. Praestat interfici quam servitutem pati. 9.

Praefect5s tribunosque jussit copias longiore itinere

ducere, ne ex hostium castris cbnspicerentur. 10. Tan-

tam auctoritatem cbnsecutus est iit principatum obtineat

totms Galliae. 11. Legatum cum legionibus tribus

subsequi jussit ut novissimum agmen hostium adori-

retur. 12. Legati ad Caesarem missi sunt qui dicerent

se paratos esse obsides dare. 13. Partem copiarum

praemisit quae castra minora oppugnaret, agrosque

vastaret. 14. Caesar in Britanniam proficiscetur, ne

ex his natidnibus auxilia in Galliam mittantur.

391. II.

A.—1. He reconnoitres all the roads in order that he

may march without danger. 2. He sent the cavalry in

advance that they might reconnoitre the roads and seek

supplies. 3. The leader of the Gauls restrains his menlest we learn of his approach, 4. He sends the officers

of the cavalry in advance to choose a suitable place.

5. He makes the camp so large that it cannot easily be

surrounded;he makes the camp larger that the enemy

may not be able to surround it. 6. They fought bravely

for the sake of freedom;they fought bravely to attain

freedom;they fought bravely that they might not be

held in slavery. 7. He summons the tribunes and

the centurions in order to explain what must be done,

B.—8. He sends the cavalry to pursue the enemy; he

determines to follow the enemy closely;

he hopes to

overtake the enemy,* 9, They sent envoys to promise

that they would lay down their arms, 10. In order not

to be prevented from setting sail, he determined to set

out without supplies. 11. The magistrates and leading

* See 386, 123 and 328 for various ways of translating the present infinitive

with ‘to.’

258 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

men of Gaul suspected that Caesar was taking- themacross to Britain in order to kill them all there. 12. Hesends an officer in advance to see in what direction the

enemy are marching. 13. He left the lieutenant on the

continent to find out what was taking place in Gaul. 14.

They began to throw away their arms so as not to be




392* Paradigm.

Fero, ferre, latum, bear.

Active. Passive.



fero ferimus feror ferimur

fers fertis ferris ferimini

fert ferunt fertur feruntur

Imperfect ferebam ferebar

Future feram ferar

Perfect tuli latus sumPluperfect tuleram latus eramFuture Perfect tulero Itos ero



feram ferar

Imperfect ferrem ferrer

Perfect tulerim latus sim

Pluperfect tulissem latus essem


Present ferre ferri

Perfect tulisse latus esse

PVTURfi laturus esse

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 2S9


Present ferens Perfect latus

Future laturus Gerundive ferendus

393. (a) Fer5 is irregular in the present indicative,

present infinitive and imperfect subjunctive. In all the

other forms fero is conjugated precisely like verbs of

the third conjugation, allowing for the peculiarity of

the principal parts.

(d) The prepositions with which fero is compoundedoften undergo changes to harmonize their final sound

with the initial letters (f,t and 1) of the three stems


for example ad and fero make affero, attuli, allatum.


confero, ferre> contuli, collatum, collect, gather.

defero, ferre, -tuli, -latum, carry down; bring; report.*

fama, ae, f., rumor, report.

fero, ferre, tuli, latum, bear, carry ; endure, stand.

infero, ferre, intuli, illatum, bring ; cause, inflict.


perfero, ferre, -tuli, -latum, {carry to the end), bring;

reporf ; bear, submit to.

refers, referre, rettuli, relatum, carry back ; report.*

Phrases : auxilium fero (w. dat.), bring {give, lend) aid.

helium infero (w. dat.), make war {on or upon)


signa infero (w. in and acc.) advance against

or on (literally bear onward the standards)


famam perfero, brhig a report.

pedem refers, fall back, give way.

* DSf'ero of those who disclose or voluntarily report something ; refero of

those who as part of their duty bring back information; perfer5 withreference to the point reached by the report. All three words are followed

by ad and the Acc.

t With infero the person on or whom something is inUioted in

pot in the dative case.

260 Latin Lessons for Beginners.


395. I.

A.—1. Auxilium ferimus;arma fertis. 2. Frumen

turn conferri jubet; frumentum confertur . 3 . Multa

vulnera intulerunt;multa vulnera illata sunt. 4. Has

litteras servus ad Caesarem defert;

litterae ad eumdeferuntur. 5. Celeriter fama ad omnes Galliae civi-

tates perferetur. 6. Legati haec se ad suos relatfirds

esse dixemnt. 7. Negant se populo Romano bellum

intulisse. 8. Quantus est numerus eorum qui armaferre possunt? 9. Tanta tempestas subito coorta est

ut omnes fere naves ad Galliam referrentur. 10. Magnaillata calamitate, alias terras petunt. 11. Frumentumex agrls cotidie in castra cdnferebatur.

B.—12. Ea res defertur ad Caesarem;haec statim

deferemus. 13. Legiones sese conjungunt et signa in

hostes inferunt. 14. Eis qui premi videntur auxilium

ferendum est. 15. Consilid Caesaris cognitd et perlatd

ad Britannos, a compluribus insulae civitatibus ad eumlegati veniunt. 16. Si bellum intulerit, quid veremini ?

17. Ne haec res deferatur, nuntium necant. 18. HueCaesar omnes obsides et impedimentdrum magnampartem contulerat. 19. Impeditis hostibus propter ea,

quae ferebant, onera, nostri subito eruptidnem fecerunt.

20. Commissd proelid, nostrdrum militum impetum

hostes ferre ndn potuerunt.

396. II.

A.—1. You are bringing aid;you had brought aid.

2. He is said to have brought aid; while bringing aid,

they were slain. 3. He asked who was bringing aid;

he asked to whom aid was being brought. 4. Theysaid that the grain was being collected. 5. Exhausted

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 261

by wounds, they began to g'ive way. 6. Young’ men of

such valor oug’ht not to submit to slavery. 7. The ships

were carried down to the lower part of the island. 8.

He promised to make war neither upon them nor upon

their allies. 9. Do you not see what g-reat disasters

they have borne? 10. The military standards used to

be g’athered to {literally into) one place. 11. After

seeking peace, you have made war on me without cause.

B.—12. He sets out at once in order to bring aid;

they join battle at once lest aid be brought. 13. Alarmed

by these things the barbarians fell back. 14. The left

wing was ordered to advance, because the right wing

seemed to be hard pressed. 15. On this being reported

(dHero) to the magistrates, they determined to makewar. 16. Meanwhile a report is brought to the fleet of

(de) Caesar’s victory. 17. They report (refero) that the

arms have been collected and hostages given up. 18.

Ships of this sort will stand the storms more easily.

19. They understood how great a disaster they had

brought (infero) upon the state;they understood how

great a disaster had been brought upon us. 20. Whenthe allies fall back, the legionary soldiers will advance.


Subjunctive with Cum.

397. Illustrative Examples.

Cum exercitum cogeret, legates miserunt, when he was

collecting an arniy^ they sent envoys.

Hoc cum dixisset, ex navi desiluit, when he had said this,

he leaped doivn from the ship.

Cum id nuntiatum esset, statim profectus est, when this

was annoiinced, he set out at once.

262 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

Cum naves essent inutiles, reverti non poterat, as (or

since) the ships were useless^ he could not return.

These sentences illustrate the following- points

a. Cum (translated sometimes when, sometimes since or

as) is used with the imperfect and pluperfect

subjunctive to express in some cases the time, in

others the cause of an action in the past.

b. In such clauses referring to the past, the imperfect

subjunctive is used when the time of the dependent

verb is the same as that of the main verb, the plu-

perfect when it is earlier than that of the mainverb.

c. The subjunctive with cum is translated by the English

indicative. Notice particularly that in English

after when, etc., the simple past tense is often

equivalent to the pluperfect, and that in such cases

the subjunctive with cum should be in the pluperfect.

d. When cum with the subjunctive is translated when,

it will in most cases be found not merely to express

the time but also to describe the circumstances or


e. An emphatic word or word of connection may pre-

cede the conjunction cum, although forming- part

of the cum clause, as in the second sentence.

N.B.—It will further be seen, on reviewing 303, that

cum with the pluperfect subjunctive could be used to

express any of the participial phrases there given.

* €nm is used also with the indicative in Latin, chiefly in the following

cases : (1) to express mere time ; as, When Caesar conquered Gaul, it urns

inhabited by three races ; (2) to express time, circumstances, or situation in

present or future time (224) ; (3) when cum has the force of whenever.

Iq the sense ot since or as, cum always takes the subjunctive.

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 26S


apertus, a» um, opeity clear.

institud) ere, -ui, -utum, undertakey set about ; builds


jam, adv., nowy by this timey already,

mors, mortis, f., death.

n5ndum, adv. ,notyet.

via, ae, f. ,way, road, route, journ^.

Phrase: latus apertum, the unprotected flank {i.e., the

right side, unprotected by the shield).


^Instituo may take a complementary infinitive

(123) ;as, Haec facere institud, / undertake to do this, or,

I set about doing this.


399. I.

A.—1. Cum jam appropinquarent Britanniae, tem-

pestas subitd coorta est. 2. Eo cum pervenissent,

paucos dies ibi morati sunt. 3. Cum legati ad Caesarem

venissent, ex cdnsuetudine obsides imperavit. 4. His

cum persuadere nondum potuissent, hac via iter facere

n5n ausi sunt. 5. Cum esset Caesar in hibernis, certior

factus est Gallds celerrimas naves instituere. 6. Cumjam tridui viam prdgressi essemus, de morte imperatoris

certiores fact! sumus. 7. His rebus cum iter impe-

diretur, copiae in loco apertd cdnstiterunt. 8. Nostri

cum se in castra reciperent, hostibus occurrerunt.

9. Hos cum reliqui cdnspexissent, subsecuti sunt.

B.—10. Cum milia passuum tria Caesar abesset,

barbari oppida incenderunt et pecora in silvas compu-lerunt. 11. Caesar cum cdnstituisset in continent!

hiemare, frumentum in Britannia non provisum erat.

12. Cum jam meridies appropinquaret, ad ea castra,

264 Latin Lessons for I^eginners.

quae supra dem5nstravimus, contendit. 13. Cum se

suaque omnia in oppida contulissent, bellum parare

instituerunt. 14. Cum jam mur5 turres appropinqua

vissent, Galli flentes pacem petere coeperunt. 15. Cummortis periculd territi essent, in fluctus desilire dubita-

bant. 16. Equites cum multitMine hostium castra

compleri nostra vidissent, fug-a salutem petere conten-

derunt. 17. Ibi cum alii fossas complerent, alii tela

conjicerent, nostri subito eruptionem fecerunt. 18. Cumagmen ex via excesserit, ab latere aperto adoriemur.

400. II.

A.—1. When he was bringing aid to his brother, he

was himself surrounded. 2. When we had marehed for

three days through their territories, we came to a lake

of great width. 3. When he ordered all the senate to

come to him, they did not obey. 4. Since he could not

overtake the army, he recalled the cavalry. 5. Whenhe came there, larger forces of the Britons had already

assembled. 6. As the winter was not yet ended, he

could not set about the work. 7. Having found out

{literally when he had found out) by what road they

were marching, he sent the cavalry in that direction.

8. Thinking {literally since we thought) that after his

death it was dangerous to set out, we approved this plan.

B.— 9. When he had approached (accedo) nearer, he

was ordered to throw away his arms . 10. As he be! ieved

the rest of the army was following closely, he drew up

his line of battle on open ground. 11. On learning that

Caesar was going to set out that night, they determined

to await his departure. 12. When the Gauls saw that

our legions were being hard pressed, they hastened

towards the camp, 13. As the enemy’s troops seemed

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 265

to be increasing", he set about posting garrisons. 14.

When he reported what was being done on the left wing,

these cohorts were ordered to advance. 15. As the

open ground did not extend far, our men scarcely

ventured to pursue.


Volo, Nolo, Maio. Dative of Purpose and Interest,

401. Paradigms.

Void, velle, volui, he willing^ wish.

Nolo, nolle, nolul, be unwilling,

M^o, malle, malui, prefer,


Present vol5 nol5 mal5vis n5n vis mavis

vult n5n vult mavult

volumus nolumus malumusvultis non vultis mavultis

volunt ndlunt raalunt

Imperfect volebam ndlebam malebamFuture volam nolam malamPerfect volui nolui malui

Pluperfect volueram noluerarn malueramFuture Perfect voluerd noluero maluerd


Present velim nolim malimveils ndlis malis

velit nolit malit

velimus nolimus malimusvelitis nolitis malitis

velint nolint malint

266 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

Imperfect vellem



nollem mallemnolles malles

nollet mallet

vellemus nollemus mallemus



nolletis malletis

n511ent mallent





noluerim maluerim

noluissem maluissem










402. (a) Nolo is a contraction of nevolo = non volo ;

mal5 a contraction of mavolo = magis void, / wish more.

{b) Notice that these verbs are irregfular in the present

indicative, present infinitive, present and imperfect


otherwise they are conjugated precisely

like verbs of the third conjugation. The present sub-

junctive has the same characteristic vowel -i- as sum.

403. Illustrative Examples.

Liber esse vult, he wishes to befree.

Me liberum esse vult, he wishes me to befree.

a. These sentences illustrate

(l) the translation of volo, nolo and mSlo ;

(2) the use of the present infinitive as a complement

of these verbs;

v3) the use of a subject accusative with the infinitive

to denote a different subject from that of the

main verb


Haec facere malunt,

Revocari nolebat.he did not wish to be recalled


he was unwillmg to be recalled,

they prefer to do this ;

they had rather do this.

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 267

(4) the case of a word in the predicate referring to

the subject of the main verb.

404. Illustrative Examples.

Locum oppido deligit, he chooses a placefor the town.

Caesar timet cohort!, Caesarfears for the cohort.

. The dative is sometimes to be translated by for

rather than by to, chiefly with a few phrases to

signify purpose or intention;or, again, to denote

that in which interest or concern is felt.


ago, ere, eg!, actum, drive, moveforward; do.

consul©, ere, -sului, -sultum, consult ; take thought!^

satis, adv. and indeclinable adj., enough ; sufficiently.

studeo, ere, ui, be eager, be zealous.

Phrases : ago cum, treat or confer with.

diem constituo, yz.r (or appohit) a day.

satis facio, satisfy, with dative (literally do

eno2igh for).

novae res, change, revohUion.


406. I.

A.—1. Audire volumus;se dedere nolent


malebarit. 2. Reduci nolueramus;incogniti esse male-


visne adesse ? 3. Posterum diem pugnae con-

stituit. 4. Munitidnicastrorum tempusrelinqui volebam.

5. lis legionibus, quas ima cum legatd miserat, timebat.

. His de rebus te consulere vult;tecum agere malo. 7.

Rei publicae boni elves semper consulunt. 8. Ostendit

id sibi satis futurum esse. 9. Hi tibi student, illi mihi.

* Coiisiilu, when meaning consult, takes the accusative ; when meaningtake thought (for), the dative.


268 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

10. Proficisci dubitabat quod post tergum hostem

relinquere ndlebat. 11. Quid ageretur deferre ndlle

videbantur. 12. Quaerit quibuscum agere velim.

B.—13. Defensores oppidd idonel deliguntur. 14.

Omnes fere Galli novis rebus studebant. 15 . Num servi-

tutem perferre mavultis? 16. Demonstravimus quas in

partes auxilia proficisci vellemus. 17. Ita multis de

causis navibus veritus est. 18. Diem concilid cdnstituere

ndld. 19. Caesari omnia und tempore qrant agenda. 20.

Mdns quern a legatd occupari voluisti, ab hostibus tene-

tur. 21. Hdc praesidium huic rei satis esse arbitra-

bantur . 2 2 . Se senatui populdque Rdmand satis facturds

esse polliciti sunt. 23. Amici existimari volebamus.

24. Huic rei homd summae fortitudinis deligendus est.

407. II.

A.—1 . You wish to be Roman citizens;you do not wish

to be a soldier;we prefer to dwell here. 2. He asked

why we did not wish to return here;he asked where we

preferred to dwell;he asked where we wished to be

sent. 3. He had fixed a day for the cavalry battle.

4. It is scarcely enough for me. 5. He wishes to do

nothing else;he prefers to do nothing at all. 6. They

said that they wished to treat with him about these

matters. 7. He asks how large a number wishes to

follow him. 8. They are unwilling to take thought for

the whole state;they prefer to take thought for them-

selves. 9. Since they are eager for a change, they

collect as large a fleet as possible. 10. He sends scouts

in advance to choose a suitable place for a camp.

B.—11. They fear the sea without cause. 12. He.

has fears for the safety of the legion;he feared for the

legions. 13. Since he wished to consult the chief men,

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 269

he appointed a day for this business. 14. He is un-

willing' to leap down into the water. 13. He felt that

they had been unwilling' to satisfy him. 16. All menwish to be free; everyone is eag'er for freedom. 17.

Have our men chosen a place for the camp? 18. I

suspected for what reason they had wished war to be

waged. 19. He says he had rather be killed than be

severely wounded. 20. He was aware why they hadpreferred to encamp across the river.

Soldiers Crossing a Bridge of Boats. (From Trajan's Column

270 Latin Lessons for Beginners.


Subordinate Clauses in Indirect Discourse.

408. Illustrative Examples.

Copiae quas exspectat pervenerunt, the troops which he

is awaiting have arrived.

Audit copias quas exspectet pervenisse, he hears that the

troops which he is awaiting have arrived.

Dixerunt copias quas exspectaret pervenisse, they said that

the troops which he was awaiting had arrived.

Commoti sunt quod copiae missae sunt, they are alarmed

because troops have been sent.

Credit eos commotos esse quod copiae missae sint, he

believes they are alarmed because troops have been sent.

Negaverunt se commotos esse quod copiae missae essent,

they denied that they were alarmed because troops had

been sent.

Jussus est copias quas coegisset mittere, he was ordered to

send the troops which he had collected.

Quaesivit quis coegisset copias quae mitterentur, he asked

who had collected the troops which were being sent.

These sentences illustrate the following’ points:—

a. Relative and other subordinate clauses which ordin-

arily have the indicative, have the subjunctive

instead, when dependent on a clause which is itself

dependent on some verb of saying, thinking,

knowing or perceiving,orde7'hig or asking.

b. This rule holds not only of indirect statements, but

of indirect questions and commands, all of which

are included under the term Indirect Discourse.

The indicative in fact has no place in the indirect

quotation of another’s words or thoughts.

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 271

c. The tenses of the subjunctive follow the rules for the

sequence of tenses (387). It should be observed

that in English the tense of the dependent clause

is similarly influenced by that of the main verb.

409,. vocabulary.

circumdo, dare, -dedi, -datum, surround^enclose.

Helvetii, orum, m. plur., the Helvetians (a Gallic

tribe dwelling in what is now Switzerland),

impetro, are, avi, atum, obtahi one' s request^ obtain.

reddo, ere, reddidi, redditum, give back, restore.

Phrase : ad salutem contendo, hasten to a place of safety.

N.B.—The compounds of do with monosyllabic pre-

positions are regularly of the third conjugation like

reddo*; compare abdo, dedo, trado (= trans-do). But

compounds with dissyllabic words are of the first con-

jugation like do itself, as circumdo.


410. I.

A.—1. Obsides, quos habemus, reddemus. 2. Polli-

centur se obsides, quos habeant, reddituros esse. 3.

Polliciti sunt se obsides, quos haberent, reddituros esse.

4. Obsides qui accept! sunt, redditi sunt. 5. Dicit

obsides qui accept? sint, redditds esse. 6. Dixit obsides

qui accept! essent, redditos esse. 7. Scripsit se Gall5s

qui ea loca incolerent expulisse. 8. Intellegebat eumlocum, unde Helvetii discessissent, provinciae nostrae

finitimum esse. 9. Arbitrantur facile fore se defendere

quod prope ex omnibus partibus locus flumine et palude

circumdatus sit. 10. Id cum impetravissent,t polliciti

sunt se in fines suds unde essent prefect! reversuros esse.

*The prefix re- has the form red- before vowels, as well as with -do.

t The object of liupetro can often be best rendered by an adjective modi*

isring the word request ; as, liOc Inipetrd, I obtain this request.

272 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

B.—11. Helvetii legates miserunt qui dicerent s§

velle iter per provinciain facere, quod aliud iter haberent

nullum. 12. Audiverant id, quod ipsi aegerrime fecis'

sent, ilium fecisse facillime. 13. Credunt in acie prae-

stare interfici quam libertatem quam acceperint amittere.

14. Jussi sunt ea quae audivissent ad Helvetiosdeferre.

15 . Renuntiavit montem quern a legatd occupari voluerit,

ab hostibus teneri. 16. Num creditis Gallos ea quae

polliceantur facturos? 17. Scripsit summam fuisse

difficultatem, quod omnia un5 tempore essent agenda.

18. Quaerit cur ea quae acceperint reddere ndlint. 19.

Cognovit Helvetios, eruptidne facta, eisdem itineribus

quibus e5 pervenissent ad salutem contendisse. 20.

Ostenderunt Caesarem, quod ad hostium castra acce-

deret, expeditas legiones ducere.

411. II.

A.—1. They have surrounded with a double wall the

town which they are defending. 2. He learns that they

have surrounded with a double wall the town which

they are defending. 3. He found that they had sur-

rounded with a double wall the town which they were

defending. 4. The towns which they have taken by

storm are surrounded* by forests. 5. He reports that

the towns which they have taken by storm are sur-

rounded by forests. 6. He wrote that the towns which

had been taken by storm were surrounded by forests.

7. He replied that he had fears for the prisoners whomthey were unwilling to restore. 8. The Helvetians

hope to obtain from him what they have been seeking.

9. He said that he preferred to be left on the continent,

because he feared the sea. 10. He was ordered to

Use the perfect tense (243 N.B.).




Latin Lessons for Beginners. 273

return to the camp where the baggage of the whole

army had been left.

B.—11. He announces that he will lead the legion he

has with him into our province. 12. They thought that

it was easy to obtain what they wished. 13. They' promised to do what he had required. 14. He orders

the prisoners . whom they are holding in slavery to be

given back. 15. They saw that the Helvetians hadbeen thrown into confusion because they had been sur-

rounded by the cavalry. 16. He points out that these

are the same enemies with whom we have often wagedwar. 17. He asked who was in command of the forces

that were being sent. 18. He perceives that the Hel-

vetians are hastening towards those who are finishing

these fortifications. 19. He learns that the ships which

these nations use are smaller. 20. He learned that

several ships had been carried back to the same harbour

from which {Jiterally whence) they had set out.



adulescens fluctus natid praefectus

classis genus negdtium servitus

commeatus magistratus pars tribunus

corpus mors potestas triduum

fama via


apertus incredibilis ingens potens satis


ita nondum sic vix

jam satis tarn

274 Latin Lessons for Beginners.


absum coorior institud possumadorior deferd maid praeficid

adsum desum noced praesumagd doced ndld reddd

animadvertd efficid occurrd referd

appropinqud ferd pared resistd

circumdd flud pared revertor

cdnferd imperd patior studed

cdnfidd impetrd perferd subsequot

cdnsequor inferd perspicid utor

cdnsulo insequor persuaded void


The Self-Devotion of Decius. (343 b.c.;340 b.c.)

413. vocabulary.

devoveo, ere, -vovi, -votum, devote, sacrifice.

Samnites, ium, m. pi., the Samnites (a tribe residing

in the centre of Italy among the Appenines).

valles, is, f., valley.

Cum Gall5s Romani expulissent, bellum-de principatu

Italiae coortum est cum Samnitibus, quorum fines in

media erant Italia, et montibus magna altitudine conti-

nebantur. Samnites tantae erant virtutis, tantumque

in re militari usum habebant, ut numquam populus

Rbmanus cum audacidre hoste bellum gereret.

Cdnsul Romanus, dum exercitum contra Samnites

ducit, prope magnam calamitatem accepit. Nam {for)

expldratores n5n praemiserat ut sine periculd iter faceret,

et hostes, cum cdgnovissent R5man5s ea via iter facturos

®sse, se in silvas et superidra loca abdiderant, ut

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 275

Romanos ab lateribus duobus subito adorirentur. Cumjam maxima pars exercitus in vallem silvis circumdatam

prdgressa esset, fama ad consulem perfertur bostes

adesse. Ille sensit summum esse periculum, quod

Romani prope circumventi essent, sed, cum nollet

hostem post tergum relinquere, exercitum signa con-

vertere jubere dubitabat.

Dum exercitui timet, neque scit quid faciendum, sit,

Publius Decius tribunus, adulescens summa virtute,

appropinquavit et haec dixit :‘ Hostes adventum reliqui

exercitus exspectare videntur, et cum novissimum agmenin conspectum venerit, non diutius morabuntur sed

statim impetum facient. Una est spes salutis. ' Videsne

collem ilium, quern hostes nondum occupaverunt ? Exillo colle hostes a tergo adoriri poterimus, si in nostrds

impetum facere cdnati erunt. Ita impetus impedietur,

neque Samnites audebunt vos insequi, ne magnumincommodum ipsi accipiant. Paucas cohortes huic rei

satis fore arbitror. Nos volumus interfici ut reliqui ex

valle excedant.”

Hoc consilio probato, consul Decium cum paucis

cohortibus expeditis misit qui collem occuparet. Ipse

cum reliquis copiis, iisdem itineribus quibus e5 perve-

nerat, ad salutem contendit. Interim Decius in magnoerat periculo. Nam hostes cum animadvertissent quid

ageretur, ira {by anger) adducti, omnes se a legionibus

ad Decium convertuiit. Collem muro circumdare insti-

tuunt ut omnes Romani caperentur. Sed cum jam noxappropinquaret neque tempus munitioni relinqueretur,

posterum diem oppugnatidni constituerunt;sed media

nocte Romani, eruptione facta, per medios hostes auda-

cissime perrumpunt incolumesque omnes se ad suos


276 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

Propter has res gestas Decius magnam inter Romanosauctoritatem consecutus est, et post tres annos consul

factus est, eodem anno qu5 Manlius Torquatus, alter

consul, de qu5 supra demonstravimus, filium suuminterfici jussit. Post mortem adulescentis illius, proe-

lium commissum est. Superiore nocte uterque {eacJi)

consul somniaverat {had dreamed) se virum videre

ingenti magnitudine corporis, qui nuntiaret* : “Alter

exercitus imperatdrem, alter victoriam amittet.”

Proelio commisso, Decius animadvertit Manlium, qui

dextrd cornu praeerat, hostes repellere, sed sinistrum

cornu, cui ipse praefectus erat, premi ab hostibus et

pedem referre. Itaque {according-ly) ne Romani supera-

rentur, se pro {o?i -behalf of, w, abl.) exercitu devovere

constituit, et statim in medios hostes se conjecit ut

auxilium labdrantibus suis ferret. Ibi fortiter pugnans

brevi cecidit, multis vulneribus confectus. Hoc cumreliqui conspexissent, subsecuti sunt et hostes in fugamdederunt.

Ita illis temporibus cives rei publicae semper cdnsule-

bant. Hujus generis militibus nem5 resistere poterat.


Ablative of Specification. Ablative of Manner.414. Illustrative Examples.

Erant virtute pares, they were equal in valor.

Omnia oppida, numero duodecim, incendunt, they burn

all their towns, twelve in number,

a. The ablative without a preposition is used, as in

these sentences, to show iii what respect a state-

ment or term is to be taken as applicable. This

usage is known as the Ablative of Specification.

* For the mood see 108, a., soniulo being a verb of thinking or perceiving.

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 277

415^ Illustrative Examples.'

Summa celeritate ad castra cont^ndunt, with the utmost

swiftness they hasten towards the camp.

Magno cum periculo et magna cum virtute res sunt ad-

ministratae, operations have been conducted at great

risk and with great valor.

Consuetudine sua desiluerunt, according to their custom^

they leaped down.

«. The Ablative of Manner, both with and without the

preposition cum, is used to express the manner or

the attendant circumstances of an action. In the

exercises which follow, cum should not be used

except with the words diligentia and periculum.*

b. The ablative is also used without a preposition, to

denote that in accordance with which something is

done, as in the last sentence.


diligentia, ae, f., care, diligeyice.

modus, i, m., manner ; means ; kind, sort.

nomen, -minis, n., name.

praesto, are, -stiti, -statum or -stitum, be superior


surpass (with dative).

ratio, -onis, f., method ; manner, way.

studium, i, n., zeal, eagerness.

supero, are, avi, atum, surpass, excel.

tumultus, us, m., none, uproar, commotion.

valeo, ere, ui, itum, be strong.

vox, VOCis, f., voice ; cry.

Phrases: magna voce, in a loud voice; (so also with clamor).

communi consilio, by co7n7no7i consent (lit. plaii).

plurimum valeo, be very stro7ig, be stro7igest.

* No general rule for the use or omission of ^nm with the ablative of

manner can be given with advantage at this stage of the pupil’s progress.

278 Latin Lessons for Beginners.


417. I.

A.—1. Interim ad legatum incredibili celeritate de

victoria Caesaris fama perfertur. 2. Haec civitas longe

plurimum totius Galliae equitatu valet. 3. Adule-

scentem, Lucium ndmine, equitibus praeficit. 4. Dis-

positis praesidiis, magna cum diligentia munitiones

defendant. 5. Hostes maximo clamore novissimumagmen adorti sunt. 6. Summ5 studio viginti naves

hujus modi instituunt. 7. Hie vir ceteris virtute et

usu rei militaris praestabat. 8. Magna voce causamtumultus quaesivit. 9. Eadem ratidne omnia communiconsilio facta erant.

B.—10. Cum summa diligentia milites in castris con-

tinet. 11. Simul edrum permdtus vdcibus, portas

occupari jubet. 12. Neque hac recent! vietdria neque

ndmine populi Rdmani deterreri possunt. 13.Quod hos-

tibus appropinquabat, ednsuetudine sua Caesar legidnes

expedites ducebat. 14. Quam in partem aut qud ednsilid

educerentur, quaerere coeperunt. 15. Sic communiednsilid imperium tdtius Galliae obtinebat. 16. Re-

spondit se ednstituisse, quod haec civitas hominummultitudine superaret, sescentds omnind obsides impe-

rare. 17. Omni modd* huic rei studebimus, ne oppri-

mamur. 18. Sese paratds esse demdnstrant omnibus

ratidnibus* Caesari satis facere.

418. II.

A.—1. They were said to excel the others in valor.

2. Our ships are superior to the enemy’s fleet in speed

alone. 3. When he had said this in a loud voice, he

leaped down into the waves. 4. He perceived at what* These expressions have the same meaning, by every means or in every


Latin Lessons for Beginners. 279

{literally how great) risk they had done this. 5. Atfirst the river flows with very great swiftness. 6. First

they collected all their infantry forces, in which they

were very strong. 7. He ordered the camp to be movedat daybreak with less commotion. 8. War should

have been waged according to another method. 9.

With the same zeal they began to fortify their campaccording to our custom.

B.—10. This was the name of the island;the island

was called Britain. 11, An island of vast extent,

Britain by name, was not far distant from Gaul. 12.

They set out at midnight amid {literally with) great com-

motion. 13. By common consent the other bank hadbeen granted to the allies. 14. The camp had not been

fortified on this side with the same care. 15. He orders

all the cavalry, fifteen thousand in number, to assemble

at the beginning of spring. 16. He remembered that

he had come with another purpose (cdnsilium). 17.

They surpass us in everything. 18. They can by nomeans overtake you.



Eo, Fio.


Eo, ire, ivi or il, itum, go.



earn eamuseatis


IS eas




it eunt

ibam, ibas, etc.

ibo, ibis, etc.


280 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

Perfect ivi or ii

Pluperfect iveram or ieram

Future Perfect ivero or iero.

infinitive. participles.

Present ire ‘ Present iens, euntis.)

Perfect ivisse or iisse Future iturus

Future iturus esse

a. Notice that eo, while very irregular, belongs on the

whole to the fourth conjugation, the stem vowel

i, however, becoming e before a, o and u, as in eo,

eunt, earn, euntis, but iens;the future indicative is

formed after the model of the first and second con-


b. In the perfect system the forms without v are those' commonly used, both in the simple verb and in its


420. Paradigm,

Fio, fieri, factus sum, be made, become.


Present fi5 (fimus) fiam fiamus

fis (fitis) fias fiatis

fit fiunt fiat fiant

Imperfect fiebam fierem

Future fiam

Perfect factus sum factus sim

Pluperfect factus eram factus essem

Future Perfect factus er5


Present fieri Perfect factus

Perfect factus esse Gerundive faciendus.

a. In the present system fio has the regular forms of

the active voice of the fourth conjugation, except

Iverim or ierim

ivissem or iissem

Latin Lessons for Beginners, 281

in the present infinitive and imperfect subjunctive.

The vowel i is long-, except in fit and before -er,

Fio is used as the passive of facio, which has the

regular passive forms only in the perfect system.

The compounds of facio with prepositions have their

passives throughout formed regularly from the

active voice; as, interficior, interfici, interfectus

sum ; conficior, confici, confectus sum.


adeo, ire, ii, itum, advance ; approachyvisit,

aditus, us, m., approach ; means of approach,

eo, ire, ivi or ii, itum, goyadvance.

exeo, ire, ii, itum, goforth; leave (with ex and abl.).

fi5, fieri, factus sum, be made, be done ; happen

ineo, ire, ii, itum, enter ; enter upony begin,

redeo, ire, ii, itum, return.

transeo, ire, ii, itum, cross; cross over.



consilium ineo (or cSLpio)jform {adopt) aplan.

inita aestate, at the beghining of summer(ablative absolute).

N.B.—Adeo, ineo and transeo may be used transitively

and govern the accusative case. As transitive verbs,

they have passives formed in the regular way from the

active;as adiri, initus, transeundus (gerundive).


422 . I.

A.—1. Hac via ire non poterant; eadem via ibant.

2 . Rhenum navibus transeunt;Rhenum transire c5n-

sueverunt. 3. Quaesivit unde rediremus;

scio qu5eatis. 4. Propter paucitatem nostrorum nihil fieri

poterat. 5. Eodem tempore ab latere aperto impetus

fiebat. 6. Inita hieme in provinciam e Gallia exibunt.

282 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

7. Insulam adire et aditus cdgnoscere volebat. 8.

Peditatu repulso, fit equestre proelium;

sine labore

opus efficitur. 9. Exploratores jussit quid fieret cogno-

scere;quid fiat cognoscent. 10. Scripsit se duabus de

causis Rhenum transiisse. 11. Liberius et audacius de

bell5 consilia inibant. 12. Equites, in castra redeuntes,

hostibus occurrunt.

B.—13. Tertia bora exit una cum nuntio. 14. Quid

fieri vellet, ostendit. 15. Omnes vicos quos adire

potuerant, incenderant. 16. Hoc idem reliquis fit

diebus. 17. Quid faciendum esset, providerat. 18.

Proximd ann5 cdnstituit sibi Rhenum esse transeundum.

19. His initis consiliis, frumentum ex agris comportant.

20. Cum ad su5s rediisset, nuntiavit se aditum. rep-

perisse. 21. Duas legidnes praemisit ut undique uno

tempore in hostes impetus fieret. 22. Ipse, eodemitinere quo hostes ierant, triduum progressus est. 23.

Tanta celeritate milites ierunt ut hostes impetum susti-

nere non possent. 24. Caesar dixit se cum sola decima

legione iturum, de qua non dubitaret.

423. II.

A.— 1. They were going by that road;they will go

by another road, 2. On account of the scarcity of

ships, they have not yet crossed;they cannot cross

because ships are lacking. 3. He orders a sally to be

made;he orders them to be put to death. 4. Mean-

while they are informed of his death. 5. They are

reconnoitring the roads that they may go forth from

their territories. 6. We shall often visit these nations;

he is goingto visit the remaining states before autumn.

7. They had left the town at the beginning of the

second watch. 8. He was aware what was happening.

9. They believed that no one would cross over into

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 283

Britain. 10. He was informed that those who had

crossed the river had not yet returned. 11. They report

that the camp has an easy approach. 12. They believe

he is returning (has returned, will return);they hear

he is restoring (has restored, will restore) the prisoners.

B.—13. Influenced by this speech they form a newplan. 14. We shall not allow the Helvetians to go

through our territories. 15. If he returns, he will be

put to death;when he returns he will be made king.

16. That river the Helvetians were already crossing.

17. Outposts should be stationed lest a sally be suddenly

made. 18. Alarmed by the approach of so great a

multitude, they determine to prevent the Germans from

crossing. 19. While crossing the marsh he waswounded by a spear. 20. He points out what he wishes

done {literally to be done). 21. This same thing is done

also in the adjacent districts. 22. The river cannot be

crossed;the river is crossed with difficulty. 23. If the

ships are detained here by storms, a surrender will be

made; the business will be finished in a short time.

24. They posted garrisons with the greatest care, that

the Germans might not cross over.

Coin of Hadrian.

284 Latin Lessons for Beginners.


Substantive Clauses of Purpose.

424. Illustrative Examples.

Ndbis persuadet ut ad hostes secum transeamus, he per-

suades us to cross over to the enemy with him.

Suis imperavit ne tela conjicerent, he ordered his men not

to hurl missiles.

Petivit ut in Gallia relinqueretur, he asked to be left (or

that he might be left) in Gaul.

In connection with these sentences note the following:


a. After verbs meaning’ urge., ask or command, Latin

uses dependent clauses with ut or ne and the

subjunctive, where English has the infinitive (or,

less frequently, a dependent clause with thai).

b. The ut or ne clause is a substantive or noun clause

telling’ what is urged, asked or commanded.*

c. Jubeo furnishes an important exception to the general


d. The sequence of tenses is the same as in clauses of

purpose, the present subjunctive being used after

primary tenses, the imperfect after secondary

tenses, t

e. The reflexives sui and suus in the subordinate clause

will refer to the subject of the main verb, as in all

forms of indirect discourse (323 b. 363, fn.).

* Latin conceives this as something’ willed or desired, and accordingly

uses the same form of expression as in the ordinary clause of purpose (386).

t The historical present in Latin (59, fn.) may take either primarysequence^according to its form), or secondary sequence (according to its meaning).

Oompare i'il, sentences 2 and 5, or 14 and 15.

JLatin Lessons for Beginners. 285

42S. Here may profitably be reviewed the sections

which explain various ways of expressing in Latin the

English infinitive with to


123. Complementary infinitive: with aude5, coepf,

cogo, Conor, c5nstituo, consuevi, contendo, dubito,

jubeo, patior, possum, volo, etc.

320. With passive verbs of saying and thinkings and

with videor {seem).

328. With polliceor and spero.

386. Adverbial clauses of purpose.

388. Relative clauses of purpose.

424. Substantive clauses of purpose.


atque or ac, conj.


cohortor, ari, atus sum,

hortor, ari, atus sum,

impero, are, avi, atum,

moneo, ere, ui, itiim,

oro, are, avi, atum,

persuaded, ere,-suasi, -suas

peto, ere, “ivi(or-ii),-itum,

and; a7id also.

ejicourage, urge, exhort,

encourage^ urge.




begy entreat.

L, persuadeyinduce{w\th.dzt.).

Zy request (with ab and abl.)*.

N.B.—Atque is used before vowels or consonants, ac

before consonants only. Of the four Latin words for

a7idy et simply connects;-que joins more closely than et

terms which naturally go together, or related clauses

and phrases;atque and ac add something of importance,

something to be more or less emphasized.

* Distinguish clearly between peto with a substantive clause of purpose<= ash ov request with the infinitive) and qiiaerO with an indirect question

ask or inquire followed by an interrogative clause).

286 Latin Lessons for Beginners.


427 . I.

A.—1. Helvetiis persuasit ut de finibus suls cumomnibus c5piis exirent. 2. Monet centuriones ne slgna

in hostes inferant. 3. Suis ut idem faciant imperat.

4 . Audacius resistere ac fortius pugnare coeperunt.

5 . Hac oratidne his persuadet ne diutius morarentur.

5. Hortatur pedites ut simili ratione. per medids hostes

perrumpant. 7. Petunt atque drant ut sibi parcamus.

8. Monui legatum ut celeriter reverteretur;


est se quam celerrime reversurum;celerius revert! ndn

ausus est. 9. Cohortatus milites ut ipsum Caesarem

adesse existimarent, dat signum proelii.

B.—10. Legato imperavit ut quae gererentur cdgnd-

sceret. 11. Nds drat ne hdc cdnsilium ineamus. 12.

Servd spe libertatis persuadebit ut litteras ad Caesarem

deferat. 13. Auctdres belli jussit cap! atque interfici.

14. Monet ut omnia longe lateque oppida incenderentur.

15. Belgas hortatur ut communis libertatis causa armacapiant. 16. Flentes a Rdmanis petebant ne sibi noce-

rent. 17. Milites cohortatus est ne perturbarentur

hdc incommodd. 18. Petebant ut equites qui praemissi

essent* revocarentur.

428. II.

A.—1. He urged his men to renew the battle; he

urged his men’ not to give way. 2. They persuade

their neighbors to set out along with them. 3. Heorders this young man to visit the nearest states. 4.

He advised the leading men and the senate to despatch

embassies in all directions. 5. He asks and urges that

we fix a day for the meeting. 6. After encouraging

For the subjunctive see 408 a., b.

Latin Lessons for Beginners, 287

the soldiers, he warned them not to lose the military

standards. 7. They are begging Caesar to give them

aid;they were begging (me)* to give them aid. 8. He

ordered (jubeo a7id impero) the scouts to find an easier

approach;he sent scouts to find the easiest approach


they hoped to find a less difficult approach. 9. Theyseem to despair of themselves and of the state.

B.—10. They requested Caesar not to move his campnearer. 11. He ordered the leader of the Germans not

to injure the allies of the Roman people. 12. He ex-

horts the troops to withstand bravely the enemy’s

onset. 13. He promised to induce them to allow the

Helvetians to go through these territories. 14. Theybegged the commander not to advance further. 15. Heprefers to be called king and friend by the senate andRoman people. 16. The tribunes and centurions should

be advised to take thought for their own and the

soldiers’ safety. 17. We wish to persuade you not to

cross the Rhine. 18. According to his custom, heurged the troops to attend carefully to everything.


Review of Genitive and Dative Cases.

429. (a) The genitive case as used in these lessons

may be classified under five heads : Partitive Genitive

(174), Genitive of Quality (383), Possessive Genitive,

Subjective Genitive and Objective Genitive.

(/5) The Possessive Geyiitive is used with a noun to

denote the owner;

as, agri Helvetiorum, the lands of the



impedimenta nostri exercitus, the baggage of

our army ; filii regis, the king' s so7is.

*The person is clearly indicated by the subject of the following verb.

288 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

(c) The Subjective Genitive is used with nouns ex-

pressingf action or feeling, to denote the person whoacts or feels

;as, Caesaris adventus, Caesar's arrival


militum studium, the zeal of the soldiers.

(d) The Objective Genitive is used with nouns express-

ing action or feeling, to denote that to which the action

or feeling is directed;as, timer belli, thefear of war


munitio castrorum, thefortifying of the camp ; spes salutis,

the hope of safety.

The objective genitive is used also with many adjec-

tives to complete their meaning, especially with adjec-

tives denoting desire, knowledge or ignorance; as, memorvestri, mindful ofyou.

430. The dative case as used in these lessons maybe classified under four heads : the Dative of Indirect

Object (39 ), the Dative of the Agent (354), the Dative of

Interest (404) and the Dative of Purpose (404). Ofspecial importance is that variety of the dative of in-

direct object found with certain intransitive verbs which

are ordinarily rendered by English transitive verbs

with a direct object (355). Closely related to the dative

of indirect object also is the dative completijjkg the

meaning of certain adjectives (173).

431. Illustrative Examples.

Gallis magno eraf impediments, it was a great hindrance

to the Gauls.

Has cohortes castris praesidio- relinquit, he leaves these

cohorts as garrisonfor the camp (or toguard the camp).

Auxilio Caesari veniebant, they were coming to Caesar's

aid (more literally, as aidfor Caesar),

a. In these sentences the dative of purpose (impedi-

ments, praesidiS, auxiliS) is used in the predicate

289Latin Lessons for Beginners.

. to denote the purpose served (that which something

tends to be or is intended to be), and is accompanied

by the dative of interest (Gallis, castris, Caesari).

b. This usage (sometimes called the Double Dative) is

confined to a few nouns with such verbs as sum,

mitto, venio and relinquo. With sum the dative of

purpose has almost the force of the ordinary pre-

dicate noun.


CUpidus, a, um, desirous,fond {of); eager (for), (with .


imperitus, a, um, inexperienced {in) ; unacquainted

{with), (with genitive).

peritus, a um, skilful, skilled {in) ; acquainted

{with), (with genitive).

subsidium, i, n., support, reinforcements.

Phrase: usui sum, be useful, be of service (literally be

for an advantage)


N.B.—The objective genitive, whether with nouns or

adjectives, may often require translation by some other

preposition than of, but this will always be a preposition

equivalent to as regards.


433 . I.

A.—1. Valid pedum novem hiberna circumdat. 2.

Hac de causa mihi Rhenus est transeunduS . 3. Nostris

laborantibus subsidium fert. 4. Hoc magno sibi usui

fore arbitrabantur. 5. Viros summae virtutis ac rei

militaris peritissimos huic negotio deligunt. 6. Nequead concilia veniunt neque imperio Caesaris parent.

7 . Frater regis cupidus imperii est et vir magnaeauctoritatis. 8. Milites cohortatus est ut harum victo-

290 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

riarum memoriam retinerent. 9. Tantus erat timoi

mortis ut fugae similis discessus copiarum esse vide-

retur. 10. Milites qui praesidid eastris relicti erant, cumclamores barbarorum audivissent, subsidio suis ierunt.

B.— 11. Hie rel frumentariae commeatusque causa

moratuiT sunt. 12. Magnam multitudinem hostium.

fugientium interfecerunt. 13. Monuit filium ut memornostri esset

;ille pollicitus est se nobis semper fidelem

fore. 14. Caesari decima legid praemittenda erat, cui

maxime cdnfidebat. 15. Milites legidnum duarum quae

in novissimd agmine praesidid impedimentis fuerant,

jam in cdnspectum hostium venerant. 16. Num tantae

altitudinis turrim sese mdturds esse cdnfidunt? 17.

Magnae partis harum regidnum imperium diu obtinebat.

18. Tam nostrae cdnsuetudinis imperiti erant ut Caesari

obsides dare ndllent. 19. Num recentium injuriarum

memoriam depdnere possum? 20. Oppidi oppugnatid

loci natura impediebatur.

434. II.

A.—1. Influenced by the hope of booty, they have

made war on us. 2. He left a guard of five cohorts for

the rest of the baggage. 3. On being informed of the

flight of the allies, he sent all the cavalry to the assist-

ance of his men. 4. He found that a large part of the

state was eager for a revolution. 5. We ought to burn

the town, that it may not be of service to the Romans.

6. On the top of the hill he drew up a line of four

legions. 7. Our men were so inexperienced in this

kind of fighting that they were no match for the enemy.

B.—8. He sent large forces of infantry and cavalry

to the town to support our men. 9. They persuaded

Caesar not to give the Germans lands in Gaul. 10.

This seems to me to be unlike that. 11. The bravest

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 291

and most skilful of the centurions of this leg-ion

have fallen in sight of their commander. 12. Whowas in command of the cavalry that the Gauls had

sent to aid Caesar ? 13. The exploits of the Romansare unknown to none of us (are known to all of us). 14.

A forest of vast size extends through the middle of the


C.—15. Everything was lacking to us which wasof service

;they reported to Caesar that there was the

greatest scarcity of everything that was of service. 16.

He assigned the warships to the legions, the transports

to the cavalry. 17, On account of the length of the

column, he feared for the whole army. 18. They hadnot yet heard the shouts of those who were coming to

(their) aid, 19. Which of the two does he obey? Heis obedient to the rule of neither. 20. He demandedthree thousand horsemen from the rest of the state.


Review of the Accusative and Ablative Cases.

435 . The accusative case as used in these lessons

may be classified under six heads : Direct Object of

transitive verbs (32), Predicate Accusative (54), Ac-

cusative with Prepositions (97, 98), Subject of Infinitive

(complementary 123, indirect discourse 320), Accusa-

tive of Duration of Time (159) and Accusative of

Extent of Space (23l).

The accusative is used not only with the prepositions

ad, ante, contra, in, inter, per, post, propter and trans,

but with several others, of which the most important

are apud, circum, intra, ob, praeter and sub.

392 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

436. The ablative case as used in these lessons maybe classified under nine heads : Ablative of Means (47,

145), including- the ablative with utor (356) ;Ablative

with Prepositions (97, 98), including- the ablative of

agent (144) ;Ablative of Time When (159) ;

Ablative of

Comparison (242) ; Ablative Absolute (298, 299, 303)


Ablative of Quality (383) ;Ablative of Specification

(414) ;Ablative of Manner (415) ; and Ablative of

Separation (437).

The ablative is used not only with the prepositions

ab, cum, de, ex, in and sine, but with several others,

of which the most important are pro and sub.

437. Illustrative Examples.

Agris expulsi, in Galliam transeunt, being driven fromtheir lands, they cross over into Gaul,

Inimicos ex finibus expellunt, they drive their enemies out

of the state.

Ex finibus excedunt,W>^(^ withdrawfrom their territories,

Finibus excedunt, j or, they leave their territories.

a. The ablative in these sentences is used both with

and without a preposition, to denote that from

which there is removal or exclusion. This usage

is called the Ablative of Separation.

b. The idea of separation is commonly expressed by the

ablative with ab, ex or de, especially in the literal

local sense. With certain verbs, such as excedo,

expell5, egredior, prohibeo, intercludo, dejicio and

desists the preposition may either be used or be


with verbs of freeing, depriving or

lacking (such as liberS) the preposition is regularly


Latin Lessons for Beginners. 193


apud, prep. w. acc., withy among,

circum, prep. w. acc., aroundy about,

dejicio, -ere, -jeci, -jectum, cast down ; dislodge.

desisto, ere, -stiti, -stitum, cease; abandon (with abl .)

egredior, i, egressus sum, goforth y leave.

intercludo, ere, -clusi, -clusum, cut ojf.

intra, prep. w. acc., within.

libero, are, avi, atum, free.

ob, prep. w. acc., on account ofy because cf,

praeter, prep. w. acc., except,

pro, prep. w. abl., before y infront of,

sub, prep. w. abl., underyatfoot of; w. acc., close to.

Phrases: ob hanc rem, ob hanc causam, for this


sub noctem, at nightfall.

sub lucem, just before daw7i.

itinere prohibeo (or intercludo), keepfrommarching y keep from advancing.

navi (or navibus) egredior, landy disembark.

spe dejicio, disappoint in a hope (literally

cast down from a hope).


439. I.

A.—1. Locis superioribus occupatis, itinere exercitum

prohibere conantur. 2. Eodem die ab exploratoribus

certior factus est hostes sub monte cdnsedisse milia

passuum ab Romanis octo. 3. Omnes praeter Romanosvirtute atque usu belli superamus. 4. Sic pacem cumGermanis confirmaverunt, quibuscum multds annos con-

tinenter bellum gesserant. 5. Barbari, ea spe dejecti,

oppugnatidne desistunt. 6. Centurio ipse pro castris

fortissime pugnans interficitur ; reliqui sese incolum^


294 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

intra munitiones recipiunt. 7. Docet ingenti magni-

tudine corporum Germanos esse et incredibili virtute.

B.— 8. Confectd sub lucem itinere, sub altissimo

monte consederunt. 9. Ob has causas eisdem navibus

exercitum reportavit quibus superiore aestate usus erat.

10. Romanos re frumentaria intercludi posse confide-

bant. 11. Accidit ut hie vir apud Helvetios longe

nobilissimus esset ac potentissimus. 12. Crebris

nuntiis litterisque commotus, de fide Belgarum

dubitare coepit. 13. Non aequum est Germanos suis

finibus egredi atque in Galliam transire. 14. Alii arbi-

trantur aggerem altiorem esse miird, alii demonstrant

aggerem vix pedes duodeviginti esse altum.

C.—15. Omni periculd liberabit eos qui sub imperio

populi Romani sunt. 16. Dum haec apud Helvetids

geruntur, per exploratores cogndscit hostes magnumspatium abesse . 17. Servitutem alid nomine appellant


servitutem deditionem appellant. 18. Prima nocte e

castris egressi, eodem quo venerant itinere ad Rhenumcontendunt. 19. Pecora deducere suaque omnia ex

agris in oppida conferre instituunt, e5 consilio* ut fru-

mento commeatuque nostros prohibeant. 20. Tanta

diligentia omnes suos intra castra continebat, ut hostes

suspicarentur nostros neque numerd neque virtute sibi

pares esse.

440 » II.

A.—1. At the beginning of the second watch, they

left the camp amid {literally with) great commotion.

2. He learned that this island, Britain by name, wassmaller than Gaul, but that the Britons were equal to

the Gauls in number. 3. For this reason he filled with

* Translate With this design, explained by the following substantive

clause of purpose, in apposition with couslUo.

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 295

water two trenches fifteen feet wide (and) of the same

depth. 4. We call boys sons, and girls daughters.

5. The soldiers who had been stationed on guard before

the gates of the camp, throwing away their arms, took

to flight. 6. Being dislodged from the wall and tower,

they suddenly made a sortie from {literally by means of)

all the gates. 7. He said that Caesar was doing more

than he had promised.

B.—8. After waiting for several days, he set sail

at nightfall;he proceeded by night eight miles


before dawn he reached the harbor;

at daybreak he

disembarked. 9. Being freed from this danger, he

ordered all the legions except the tenth to take up their

position at the foot of the wall. 10. They will by no

means keep the legions who are wintering about that

town from marching. 11. They said they had marched

twenty miles the preceding day before noon. 12. Theyare going, to free the children whom they have been

keeping with (apud) them in slavery. 13. Exhausted bytheir wounds, they withdraw (excedo) from the battle.

C.—14. These towers were about two hundred feet

apart. 15. As the enemy had hidden themselves in their

thickest forests, he abandoned this plan. 16. Healways has a large number of slaves about him, that he

may be freed from all toil {literally toils). 17. Theyasked Caesar to keep the cavalry from fighting for three

days. 18. At the first attack the enemy are thrown

into confusion on the right wing, and are driven within

their walls. 19. Burdened by the heavy weight of their

arms, the legionary soldiers whom he had brought over

hesitated to disembark. 20. Being unable to throw our

ranks into confusion by this kind of fighting, they sud-

denly began a cavalry battle.

296 Latin Lessons for Beginners



N.B.—Words marked with an asterisk occur in the

remaining- Lessons LXXV. to LXXX.WAR.

commander-in-chief make war keep from

staff officer *fight marching

tribune advance unprotected flank

centurion fall back *obtain plunder

cavalry officer cut off adopt a plan

bring {or give) aid enclose *carry out a plan

support (noun) dislodge be of service

encourage supplies be strong

pursue *pillage be superior

follow closely fleet *forage (verb)

overtake *sail disembark


at nightfall already fix a day

just before dawn not yet three days "

^season *beginning at the beginning(of

’^interval of time summer, etc^


magistrate *vigor rumoryoung man stature namerevolution voice way, route

commotion death approach

Violence, force slavery kind, sort

by common consent zeal method

body care means


incredible huge skilful

desirous loud inexperienced

occupied open enough

any *each 'certain

Latin' Lessons for Beginners. 297


set about carry induce

do cross urge

be done approach warn

cause go commandbuild return advise

make, be made restore ask = request

*g'ive an opportunity enter ask = inquire

*put an end to go forth consult

*set the example collect treat with

take thought surround entreat

be disappointed free obtain (a request)

be eager become acquire

report cease endure, bear

bring a report surpass submit to

carry back satisfy carry down


The Honor of Fabricius (280-278 b.c.).


cursus, us, m., course.

Epirus, i, f. ,Epirus (a district in the north of Greece),

Graecia, ae, f., Greece.

Graecus, a, um, Greek.

medicus, i, m., physician.

orbis, is, m., circle; orbis terrarum, the world.

praemium, i, n. ,reward.

pretium, i, n., price, ra?isom.

sol, solis, m., the sun.

Tarentini, orum, m., the Tarentines (the inhabitants

of Tarentum, a city in southern Italy).

venenum, i, n., poison.

298 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

Romani cum jam imperium totius fere Italiae conse-

cuti essent, bellum Tarentinis, qui iru inferidre parte

Italiae _incolebant, intulerunt. Tarentini legates adregem Epiri, Pyrrhum nomine, miserunt^qui peterentut

auxilium contra Romanos sibi ferret. Epirus ill5 tem-

pore longe plurimum omnium civitatum Graeciae

valebat, et Graeci milites omnibus ceteris virtute et

usu rei militaris praestare existimabantur. Pyrrhus,

vir summae .virtutis ac belli peritissimus, pollicitus

est se auxilium quod peterent legati laturum esse,

atque in Italiam non solum magnas copias equitatus

peditatusque transduxit sed etiam complures elephantos

{elephants) quibus Romani in bello uti non consue-


Hujus generis pugnae Romani tarn imperiti erant ut

primo hostibus non pares essent. Ingenti magnitudine

elephantdrum perterriti pedem rettulerunt, et ordinibus

perturbatis, magnus numerus militum captus atque

interfectus est. Sed tarn acriter restiterant ut Pyrrhus

post proelium diceret se, cum militibus tantae virtutis,

facile orbem terrarum superare posse. Ob hanc causam

de victoria desperavisse videtur, atque alia ratione supe-

rare instituisse. Nam {for) cum Romani legates ad

Pyrrhum de captivis misissent, rex novum consilium

iniit, atque ut amicitiam populi Romani consequeretur,

respondit se captivos quos haberet sine pretio reddi-


Hujus legationis princeps fuit Caius Fabricius, vir

fidelissimus ac prudentissimus, qui consul fuerat et

magnae inter cives auctoritatis erat. Hunc virum rex

magnd sibi usui fore arbitrabatur. Itaque {therefore)

Fabricium ad se vocat atque quid fieri velit ostendit;

hortatur eum ut Romanos moneat ut pacem secum

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 299

faciant, atqne ex ilia parte Italiae discedant. Sirtml

pollicitus est se Fabricio incredibilia praemia daturum

esse. Sed nullo omnino modo Fabricio persuadere

poterat, atque ea spe dejectus, hoc consilid destitit.

Atque leg-ati, qui ad senatum ab rege missi erant, renun-

tiaverunt Romands pacem numqnam cum eis facturds

esse qui suis finibus egressi essent atque in Rdmanumagrum transiissent.

Proximo annd Rdmani rursus pulsi sunt et in fugamconjecti

;sed Pyrrhus tarn multds ex suis amisit ut vix

praestare videretur superare quam superari. His

proeliis factis, tertid annd belli Fabricius cdnsul fit et

contra Pyrrhum cum exercitu inita aestate proficiscitur.

Dum Rdmani bellum parant, medicus Pyrrhi nocte ad

Fabricium venit et demdnstrat se paratum esse Pyrrhuminterficere.

‘‘ Si satis magnum praemium ’

’ inquit {said

he) “ mihi dederis, ego in castra hostium redibd atque

regem, qui de fide mea ndn dubitat, venend necabd.”

Hunc Fabricius statim ad Pyrrhum reduci jussit, et

una cum ed nuntium misit qui has litteras ad regemdeferret: “ Tu, Pyrrhe, malis hominibus cdnfidere

videris, bonis bellum infers. Cdnsul Rdmanus te monetut majdre cum diligentia saluti tuae cdnsulas. Hie

medicus tarn nostrae ednsuetudinis imperitus erat ut ndnsciret Rdmands nulla alia ratidne quam virtute hostes

superare ednsuevisse.” His litteris acceptis, Pyrrhus

magna vdee dixit facilius esse sdlem a cursu avertere

{to turn aside) quam Fabricid persuadere ut injuriam

ullam faceret.

Post complures annds, cum jam Rdmani nulld modd his

vietdriis commoveri viderentur, Pyrrhus, tertid proelio

superatus, ab Italia discedere ednstituit, neque postea

{thereafter) populd Rdmand bellum inferre ausus est.

300 Latin Lessons for Beginners.





Genitive. Dative. Accusative.

Conj. /. amandi amando amandumConj. II. monendi monendo monendumConj. III. regendi regendo regendtim

Co7ij. IV. audiendi audiendo audiendumConj. ///.z?z-iocapiendi capiendo capiendnm

Fero ferendi ferendo ferendum

Eo eundi eundd eundum


Conj. I. conandi conandd conandumConj. II. verendi verendd verendumConj. III. sequendi sequendo sequendumConj. IV. * sortiendi sortiendo sortiendum

C(?;2y.///.z«-iorpatiendi patiendd patiendum







conando .





a. The Gerund is a verbal noun found only in the

genitive, dative, accusative and ablative singular.

It is formed from the present stem and belongs to

the active voice, being one of the few active forms

possessed by deponent verbs. Of the irregular

verbs, only fero and eo have the gerund.

444. Illustrative Examples.

Pugnandi cupidi sunt, they arefond offighting.

Pugnandi causa progrediuntur, they advance for the pur-

pose offighting (or, in order to fight).

Ad pugnandum inutiles erant, ) they were useless for

Ad pugnam inutiles erant, ) fighting.

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 301

a. The Latin g;emnd corresponds closely in use to the

English gerund or verbal noun in -ing* It

seldom occurs except in the genitive with adjec-

tives and nouns (especially with causa), and in the

accusative with the preposition ad, meaning with a

view to, for.



bell5, are, avi, atum,

dimico, are, avi, atum.

make war.

fight, engage.

frumentor, ari, atus sum, forage.


sail (with in and acc. = to),

plunder, pillage.

initium, i, n.,

navigo, are, avi, atum,

praedor, ari, atus sum.

Phrases: facultatem dare

potestatem facere

finem facere, make an end ofy put an end to

(with genitive).

initium facere, be thefirst to, set the example

^(with genitive).-,

give an opportunity.


446. I

A.—1. Reliquas naves paratas ad navigandum invenit.

2. Cognoverat equitatum praedandi frumentandique

causa trans flumen missum esse. 3. Sperabat fore

* The distinction between the participle and the gerund, both ending in

English in -ing, though with different endings in Latin, should be carefully

-observed. Contrast the following


Participle. Gerund.He saw themfleeing. They are ashamed offleeing.Rising early, we set out at once. Rising early will he beneficial.

We lost sight of those crossing the We lost much time in crossing the

river. river.

t The nominative of the gerund is replaced in Latin by the present infini-

tive (124) ; as. Facile est haec facere. doing this is easy (Uterally to do this

is easy).

302 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

nullam fugiendi facultatem. 4. Copias bellandi causa

traduxerat. 5. Hunc ad egrediendum idoneum locum

arbitratur. ' 6. In mediis Belgarum finibus hiemandi

causa consederat. 7. Altera pars exercitus itinere pro-

hibenda est. 8. Caesar omnibus obsidibus qui apud se

erant discedendi potestatem fecit. 9. Cum hostes tran-

seundi initium non fecissent, Caesar suos intra castra

redMt. 10. Monet e5s ut finem orandi faciant.

B.—11. Ea quae ad oppugnandum usui erant, com-

parare coepit. 12. Equites frumentandi causa praemit-

tendi erant. 13. In his locis legionem hiemandi causa

collocat. 14. Cur non flendi finem faciunt? 15. Spe

bellandi dejecti erant. 16. Potestas revertendi deerat.

17. Helvetii erant tarn bellandi cupidi ut continenter

finitimis bellum inferrent. 18. Cotidie instructa acie,

pugnandi potestatem facit. 19. Cum finem oppugnandi

nox fecisset, legati de deditione ad eum venerunt. 20.

Quinque cohortes, quas n5n satis firmas ad dimicandum

esse existimabat, praesidio castris reliquit.

447. II.

A.^1. They had been summoned for the purpose of

consulting. 2. Several ships had' been shattered, and

the rest were useless for sailing. 3. They again left

the camp in order to pillage. 4. He is desirous of

returning here. 5. After that time there will not be

an opportunity of coming. 6. The example of fleeing

is set by the cavalry. 7. They are equal neither in

number nor in zeal for"*^ fighting. 8. These nations are

eager for making war, but they are not ready for (ad)

war. 9. No opportunity of leaping down is given.

10. Ho perceived that those who had crossed the river

in order to forage had not yet returned.



Portus et Classis : Harbor and Fleet

Latin Lessons for Beginners.

B.—11. For these reasons the difficulty of sailing- was

very great. 12. He had now got suitable weather for

setting out. 13. The spirit of the enemy is so ready

for engaging, that time, is lacking for these matters.

14. This was the reason for {litef'ally cause of) crossing.

15. They have not yet put an end to the pursuit

{literally made an end of following). 16. Which of the

two was the first to set out ? 17. Large forces hadassembled for the purpose of making war. 18. Sud-

denly making a sally, they left the enemy no oppor-

tunity of finding out what was being done. 19. Theyare skilled both in resisting and in pursuing. 20. Theyscarcely ventured to send an embassy for the purpose

of persuading Caesar not to advance.

304 Latin Lessons for Beginners.


Gerundive Construction.

448 , In the sentences of the previous lesson nq

example occurred of a gerund with an object in the accu-

sative, such as, His potestatem facit legates mittendi,

he gives them the opportunity of sending e?ivoys. This

construction is found in Latin, but as a rule is avoided

(invariably so after prepositions):

In preference to the gerund governing the accusative,

Latin uses the gerundive construction (449).

449 ^Illustrative Examples.

Summa erat difficultas the difficulty of building the


faciendi pontis, bridge was very great.

(faciendi pontem),

Legates ad eum miserunt they sent envoys to him for

f pads petendae causa, the purpose of seeking

1 (pacem.petendi causa), peace.

Naves sunt inutiles ad copias the ships are useless for

pertandas, carrying troops,

a. In all such sentences as these, Latin prefers not to

use the gerund governing a substantive in the

accusative (as in the phrases in parentheses), but

instead, puts the substantive in the case in which

the gerund would have been, and uses the gerund-

ive in agreement with it. This usage is termed

the Gerundive Co7istruction

450 . {a) A more literal rendering of the Latin sen-

tences in 449 would be as follows '

The difficulty of the bridge to be built was very great


They send envoys to him for the sake ofpeace to be sought


The ships are useless with a view to troops to be carried.

*With intransitive verbs, including those like persufulco which takedie dative case (355), the gerund, not the gerundive construction, is used.

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 305

One slionld in all cases, however, translate the gferund-

ive construction as he would the corresponding- con-

struction with the gferund, i.e. by a verbal noun in

-ing in the active voice followed by an object.

ib) The same meaning- is thus expressed by two

widely differing g-rammatical constructions

The gerund is a verbal nouuy of the active voice,

gover^ihig its object;the gerundive is a verbal adjective^

of the passive voice, agreemg with its substantive.

451. It should be observed that the g-erund and the

gerundive with causa or with ad furnish additional waysof expressing- purpose in Latin

;these constructions are

confined, however, to short clauses. Thus the sentence.

They sent envoys to him for the purpose of seeking peace,

may be translated

Legates ad eum miserunt

pads petendae causa (449)

ad pacem petendam (449)

ut pacem peterent (386)

qui pacem peterent (388)

(For a fifth method see 470.)

N.B.— Here also should be reviewed the passive

periphrastic conjugation, the other common use of

the gerundive (346-348).


occupatuS) a, um, occtipied, busy, engaged.

spatium, i, n., space, time, hiterval.



praedam faciO) obtain plunder.

tempus anni, season, time ofyear,

res conficio, complete arrangements, carry out


N.B.—Spatium is chiefly used of the time required or

left for doing something, or of an interval of time.

306 Latin Lessons for Beginners.


453, I.

A.—1. In agris vastandis occupati erant. 2. Rursus

ad insequendos hostes proficiscitur. 3. Caesar in his

locis navium parandanim causa morabatur. 4. Quanta

praedae faciendae facultas daretur demdnstraverunt.

5. A Caesare petebant ut ad has res conficiendas sibi

tridui spatium daret, 6. Spe expugnandi oppidi ad-

ductus, majdres copias cdgere coepit. 7. Omnia deerant

quae ad pontem faciendum usui erant. 8. Praedandi

ac belli inferendi causa transierant,

B .— 9 . Ad _eam regidnem vastandam equitatum

emisit. 10. Ejus loci relinquendi facultas paucis

dabitur. 11. Naves latiores faciendae sunt ad multitu-

dinem equorum transportandam. 12. Neminem belli

inferendi causa in Britanniam transiturum confidebant.

13. N5nne dixistis vos esse ad bellum gerendum para-

tissimos ? 14, De expugnando oppidd et de flumine

transeundd hdc cdnsilium inierat. 15. Ad eas res cdn-

ficiendas negant triduum sibi satis esse. 16. Multis de

causis acciderat ut subitd Galli belli renovandi populdque

Rdmand resistendi cdnsilium caperent.

454, II.

A.— 1. They assemble from all sides to defend the

town (the camp, the province, the fortifications, their

allies). 2. The next day he set out for the province

in order to ask aid. 3. On account of the season he had

no opportunity of waging war . 4 . They had formed this

plan of injuring the enemy. 5. They are occupied in

fortifying the camp and in foraging. 6. Time had not

been given them for (ad) drawing their swords or hurling

their missiles. 7. He answered that this legion should

be sent for the purpose of seeking supplies.

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 307

B.—9. A young- man of great influence among the

Gauls is chosen to carry out these plans. 10. Theopportunity must not be given them of marching

through the province. 11. Raising a shout, they hasten

to the edge {literally beginning) of the woods in order

to give aid. 12. He sends several scouts in advance

to ascertain these things. 13. In forming their plans

they never take thought for themselves. 14. . Theseason was scarcely suitable for sailing to Britain.

15. As time had not been left for encouraging the

soldiers, he at once gave the signal for {literally of)

joining battle. 16. He chose a suitable place before

the camp for drawing up the line of battle.

LESSON LXXVILIndefinite Pronouns. Review of Pronouns.

455. Paradigm.


Singular. Plural.

Masc. Fem. Neut. Masc. Fem. Neut.


i quis qua

!.qui ' (quae)



qui quae qua


Gen. cujus cujus cujus quorum quarum quorumDat. cui cui cui quibus quibus quibus


^ quern quam quid


quos quas qua


Abl. quo qua quo quibus quibus quibus

Compare the declension of quis indefinite with that of

quis interrogative (34l) and qui relative (254).

The forms quis and quid are used as pronouns, qui

and quod as pronominal adjectives in agreement with a

noun. The feminine is used only as an adjective.

308 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

456. {a) Certain compounds also of quis or qui are

used as indefinite pronouns. Such are

(d) Aliqui and the forms with quod are used as adjec-

tives. It should be further noticed that only quis and

aliquis have qua in the nominative singular feminine

and nominative and accusative plural neuter;the other

compounds have quae.

(c) Aliquis is declined in every respect like quis.

Quisquam, quisque, quidam and quivis are declined like

quis or qui with the syllables -quam, -que, -dam and -vis

respectively suffixed to each form. But quisquam has

only the masculine and neuter singular in use, and in

the declension of quidam, as in that of idem (306), mbecomes n before d, e.g. quendam for quemdam.

(d) Another indefinite pronoun is uterque, utraque,

utrumque, a compound of uter, and declined like it

(205, 208).

457. Illustrative Examples.

Gohortem ibi collocavit ne quis flumen transiret, /le sta-

tioned a cohort there lest a7iyone should cross the river.

Negat se cuiquam nocuisse, he de?iies that he has injured


Negat se ulli civitati nocuisse, he denies that he has in-

jured any state.

Ad quemvis numerum hostium adire audent, they dare to

advance against any number of the enemy.

aliquis, aliqui


aliqua aliquid, aliquod

quidquam (quicquam)




quaeque quidque, quodque

quaedam quiddam, quoddamquaevis quidvis, quodvis

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 309

a. Of the various Latin words meaning’ U7iy, quis is used

after si, nisi, ne and num ;quisquam is used as a

pronoun and ullus as an adjective, in negative sen-

tences*, where the idea of" no otie or no?te is


quivis (meaning anyone you wish) is

used in affirmative sentences, where the idea of

any and every is suggested.

458. Illustrative Examples.

Aliquis reperietur, some 07ie will befound.

Nonnullos ex suis amittunt, they lose some of their men.

Quidam Gallus deligitur, a certain Gaul is choseji.

a. Aliquis (generally singular) means some or other., as

opposed to no7ie, but quite indefinite. Nonnulli

(generally plural) has the force of so7ne few, a

number. Quidam means some, or a certain number,

of what is not specified, but might be specified

more exactly if necessary. So77ie . . . others is to

be translated by alii . . . alii (207).

459. Illustrative Examples.

Militum quemque consistere jubet, he orders each of the

soldiers to take up his positio7i.

In utraque ripa fluminis dimicabant, they werefightmg on

each ba7ik (or on both banks) of the river.

a. Of the two Latin words meaning each, qnisque is

used when more than two are spoken of, and is

especially frequent with the reflexive!;


means each of two, and thus, by a free translation,

both. Compare uter and neuter (208).

* This will include clauses containing such words as vlx, aegre and slue.

t <lnlsqae regularly follows the reflexive, as slbl quciuque, suumcaique.

310 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

460. The various classes of pronouns should now be

reviewed. The pronouns are classified as follows

Personal pronouns (266, 267).

Reflexive pronouns (277, 278).

Possessive pronouns (279-281).

Demonstrative pronouns (292, 293 ; 306, 307).

Relative pronouns (254, 255).

Interrogative pronouns (340, 341.)

Indefinite pronouns (455-459)


461 . I.

A.—1. Stationes positae sunt ne qua subito eruptio

fieret. 2. Sibi quemque consulere jussit. 3. Cuidamex equitibus persuadet ut secum proficiscatur. 4.

Neque obsides v5bis dabimus neque cujusquam im-

perio parebimus. 5. Sic accidit ut neque hoc neque

superidre anno ulla omnino navis amitteretur, 6. Ali-

quos ex utraque navi egredientes conspexit. 7. Con-

silid edrum probatd, ipse eddem itinere in prdvinciam

nostram revertitur. 8. Accidit ut ndnnulli milites

praesidid relicti essent. 9. Postulasne a me ne quammultitudinem hominum ex Germania in Galliam tra-

ducam ? 10. Equites post fugam sudrum se in fines

Germandrum receperant, seque cum iis conjunxerant.

B.—11. Ob earn rem eundem numerum obsidum

cuique civitati imperat. 12. Clamdre sublatd, ab

utrdque latere impetum fecerunt. 13. Cum quibus-

dam principibus vult agere. 14. Ad hunc se ab illd

omnes convertunt. 15. Praestat quidvis-pati quamnds dedere. 16. Si qua in parte nostri labdrare aut

graviter premi videbuntur, vds subsidid mittam. 17.

Quantam quisque multitudinem ad id bellum pollicitus

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 311

esset, cognover'ant. 18. E suis aliquem ad te mittet.

19. Alii sperant se bellum sine ullo labSre et periculo

confecturos. 20. Acerrime reliqui resistebant neque

quisquam proelio excedebat.

^ 462 . I.

A.—1. He says that he cannot give any lands to ns.

2. For that reason he summoned to him the leading menof each state. 3. The leaders of both armies {literally

each army) are unwilling to set the example of recalling

the cavalry. 4. On the same day a means of approach

was observed by a certain soldier. 5. We hope to have

some opportunity of following. 6. He ordered all the

horses to be removed, lest any hbpe remain {literally

be left) in flight. 7. Embassies were sent to him from

some (other, the other, certain, these, the same, both,

no) states. 8. Some were unwilling to give up their

arms, others preferred to surrender. 9. Scarcely any-

one visits that island except sailors.

B.—10. You must build the ships sufficiently strong

to stand any storm. 11. He himself informed us

that all the other Belgians were in arms, and that the

Germans had joined them. 12. Certain of these cameto him that same day. 13. They asked him to choose

some place for the meeting;they ask me not to choose

anyone for this business. 14. They compel us to report

what each of us has heard about each matter. 15. If

anyone learns anything, he - will report (it) to the

magistrates. 16. Our men are hard pressed and no{literally and not any) reinforcements ean be sent. 17.

He begged that they should inj^^lo- one {literally that

they should not injure anyorle);, ^'l8. He advised themto say nothing.

312 Latin Lessons for Beginners.


Imperative. Subjunctive in Independent Clauses.

463. Paradigms.


(a) Active Voice. (b) Irregular Verbs.

Singular. Plural. Singular. Plural.

Conj. I. ama amate Sum es este

Conj. II. mone monete N516 noli nolite

Conj. III. rege regite £5 i ite

Conj. IV. audi audite Fero fer* ferte

Conj. III. {in -it) cape capite

(c) Passive Voice. (d) Deponents.Singular. Plural. , Singular. Plural.

Conj. /. amare amamini conare conamini

Conj. II. monere monemini verere veremini

Conj. III. regere regimini sequere sequimini

Conj. IV. audire audimini sortire sortimini

Conj. ///.(2>^-ior)capere capimini patere patimini

a. In the case of the regular verbs, notice the relation

in form of the endings of the singular of the im-

perative (active, passive and deponent) to the

endings of the present infinitive active (l22), and* also of the endings of the plural of the imperative

(passive and deponent) to the endings of the second

plural present indicative passive (l65).

464. Illustrative Examples.

Mihi crede, believe me.

Egredere ex oppido, leave the town.

Noli ex oppido egredi, do not leave the town.

Nolite cedere, do notyield.

* The imperative singular of died, dtted and faclO is similaxly shortened

to die, dde and fac.

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 313

The simple imperative is used, as in these sentences,

to express commands and entreaties, while in pro-

hibitions {i.e. negative commands and entreaties)

the imperative of nol5 is used with a complementary


465. Illustrative Examples.

Redeamus, let us return

Captivus interficiatur, let the prisoner be put to death.

Ne redire audeant) let them not venture to return.

a. While the subjunctive in Latin is most commonlyfound in dependent sentences, it is also used

in independent sentences with varying meanings.

One such usage is illustrated in these sentences,

namely, that which is sometimes terrned the Voli'

tive Subjunctive (from volo, / wilt). The volitive

subjunctive is used in the present tense {a) in the

first person (plural) to express an exhortation, and

{b) in the third. person (singular or plural) to ex-

press a command. The negative is ne, not non


the subject is of course in the nominative (contrast

the English construction).*

466. Illustrative Examples.

Facultas nobis detur, may an opportunity be give7t us.

Incolumes redeatis, may you retumi in safety.

Ne hoc accidat, may this 7iot happeji.

a. The present subjunctive is also used independently

to express a wish that something may or may not

take place, the negative being ne. This usage is

termed the Optative Subjunctive (from opto, I desire).

*When the subjunctive expresses an exhortation, it is often termed theHortatory Subjunctive, and when expressing a command the Jussive Sub-junctive, from hortor and jubeO respectively.

314 Latin Lessons for Beginners.


'467.' '


Magna voce snos. hortatur, “In fluctus de^

silite, milites. Nolite dubitare navi egredi.” 2. Nein deditionem veniamus. 3. Ne quod incommodumaccipiant. 4. Auxilium nobis fer, Caesar; pedemreferte, milites. 5. Omnis senatus necetur. 6. Hocutrique usui sit. 7. Adorimini agmen novissimum.

8. Signa convertite;signa inferantur. 9. Noli pertur-

bari;gladium destringe. 10. Aliud consilium inea-

mus. 11. Ite;

redite;revertimini. 12. Sibi quisque


B.—13. Tertia inita vigilia, loca superibra occupentur.

14. Finem facite dimicandi;nolite initium facere fugae.

15. Alter equitatui praesit, alter cohortibus. 16. Patere

nos praedam facere. 17. Has litteras defer ad matremmeam. 18. Omni periculo liberer. 19. Inimici populi

Romani civitate expellantur. 20. Harum rerum ges-

tarum nblite memoriam deponere;memoria amicitiae

nostrae semper retineatur. 21. Re frumentaria ne

intercludamur. 22. Aliquam facultatem nbbis da

praedae faciendae. 23. Bono animo es. 24. Haec,

quae petimus, impetremus.

468. II.

A.—1. Let us await the fleet there. 2. Let us not

delay here (any) longer. 3. Do not make war on us.

4. May they not be put to flight;may they not suffer

defeat. 5. Set out along with us. 6. Be prudent; do

not be bold. 7. May you attain your freedom. 8. Let

someone be present. 9. Spare us;do not injure any-

one. 10. At the same time let an attack be made on

the unprotected flank. 11. Let us not despair of safety


I^ATiN : I^eSBQNS ; FOR: Beginners, 315

do not despair of : the state.' 12. Let the forces be

increased’ may the number of defenders increase.

B.—13. Let us not turn and flee. 14. Appoint a day

for.the rheeting-.- 15.:May yotir influence.be very strong

with them. ' 16. Set sail at midnight;disembark just

before dawn. . 17. , Let the legion be led thither in light

marching order. 18. Follow closely the Gauls fleeing

towards the river,; do, not give them any opportunity of

fleeing into German}^ 19. Let us take up arms, at the

beginning of spring. 20. May we not be disappointed

in this hope. 21. Do not fear for the ships. 22. Let

us keep the Romans from marching. 23. Abandon the

assault. 24. Let bad citizens lose their citizenship.


Supine. Review of Verb-Forms.469, Faradigm '


Conj. /. Conj. II. Conj. III. Conj. IV. Conj. III. {hi -io.)

Acc. amatum monitum rectum auditum captumAbl. amatu monitu rectu auditu captu

a. The Supine is a verbal noun (with active force) of the

fourth declension, and found only in the accusative

and ablative singular.

b. The principal parts of the verb include one which

is identical in form with the supine, and which is

therefore said to furnish the supine stem. But as

;the supine is a form of rare occurrence in Latin,

many grammars prefer to regard this principal

part as the neuter singular of the perfect participle

i passive, and to speak therefore of the participial

(not the supine) stem.

316 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

470. Illustrative Examples.

Legates ad eum miserunt pacem petitum, they sent envoys

to him to seek peace.

Facile est factu, it is easy to do (literally in the doing).

a. The accusative supine is used, as in the first sen'

tence, to denote purpose, after verbs of motion,

such as venlo, mitto, eo.

b. The ablative supine is used, as in the second sen-

tence, to state in what respect a statement or term

is applicable . Compare the ablative •of specification

(414). This usage is found chiefly with the supines

factu and dictu, after such adjectives as facilis,

diffleilis and optimus.

The accusative supine furnisher* « fifth (though in-

frequent) of expressing purpose, in addition

to those given in 451.

471. {a) With the exception of the comparatively rare

future imperative (active and passive) and future infini-

tive passive, all the regular forms of the Latin verb

have now been studied, and may be reviewed at this


ip) The Latin verb has

two voices. Active and Passive (Deponent verbs being

an important exception)


four regular conjugations (including the verbs of the

third conjugation in -io) ; in addition to the regular

conjugations, there are also the active and passive

periphrastic conjugations, and certain irregular

verbs, especially sum, possum, fero, eo, fi5, void,

nolo and malo.

the indicative mood (active and passive), with six tenses

(present, imperfect, future, perfect, pluperfect and

future perfect)


Latin Lessons for Beginners. 317

the subjunctive 'mood (active and passive), with four

tenses (present, imperfect, perfect and pluperfect)


the imperative mood (active and passive), with two

divisions sometimes called present and future;

the infinitive (active and passive), with three tenses

(present, perfect and future)


the participles, including: the present and future parti-

ciples of the active voice, and the perfect participle

and the gerundive of the passive voice,

the gerund and the supine of the active voice.


nisi, if not ; unless^ except.

rogo, are, avi, tom, ask.*

vis, irregular, f., in singular, violence^ might;

in plural, strength^ vigor.

N.B.—Vis has in the singular the nominative vii^

accusative vim, and ablative vi, in common nse ; tlf

plural is vires, virium, viribus, vires, ^ires, vMbus.EXERCISES.

473 . I.

A.—1. Dum ea geruntur, legio ex consuetudine unafrumentatum missa est. 2. Facilius est dictu quamfactu. 3. Naves factae sunt ad quamvis vim perfe-

rendam. 4. Legates ad eos mittit, rogatum ut sibi

militibusque parcant. 5. Vi coacti erant commeatumad eum portare. 6. Negant se quidquam nisi communicdnsilio acturos esse. 7. Principatu dejecti,t novis

rebus studebant. 8. Pedestres c5pias educturus est


ab hoc consilio deterrendus est. 9. Respondet optimum^factu esse fiumen ponte jungere. 10. Vires militum

integrae esse videntur.

* Rogo is used like both peto and qiiaero (426, fn.).

t Translate dejlclS here by deprive.

t Translate the best thing to do.' similarly IR

318 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

B.—11. Ceteri, cum haec animadvertissent, sua

omnia in oppida contulerunt. 12. Scisne qu5 eas ?

Num terremini ? N5nne utilissimum erit? 13. Dato

signo, e castris erumpant;eruptionem faciant


fiat. 14. Eum locum, quern probaverat, duplici murofirmare instituit. 15. His rebus permdti, magnopere

perturbabantur;navibus verebar. 16. Ubi habitatis ?

Incolimus extremes fines Belgarum. 17. Gallia est

divisa in partes tres. 18. Monitum venimus te, n5n

oratum. 19. Facile factu est propius accedere. 20.

Legati vobis ad Caesarem satis faciendi causa mittendi


474. II.

A.—1. He sends out five cohorts to forage. 2. Noth-

ing is easier to say. 3. They ask what is best to do.

4. Being unable to defend themselves, they sent envoys

to Caesar to ask aid. 5. So great a storm has arisen

that we cannot endure the violence of the waves. 6.

What do you wish except to seize our lands by (per)

violence. 7. No one has yielded; some have fallen.

8. We shall be seen by someone;we were approaching

the sea. 9. We found the soldiers occupied in pitching

the camp. 10. They met the foot-soldiers fleeing. 11.

This report will be borne to the most distant regions.

B.—12. They had rushed out of the camp that they

might not be surrounded. 13. The swdftest of the

warships had been shattered; a shout arises. 14. Let

us dare to endure anything; we shall go out (exe5)

lest we hear anything. 15. He put his brother in

command of the left wing;he himself was in command

of the right. 16. They remember that this will be

very difficult to do. 17. The commanders of cavalry

had not yet perceived what was being done {use both

Latin Lessons for Beginners, ^19

ago and facio). 18. He is said to have been superior

in strength of body. 19. They will surround both

circumvenio and circumdo);

they will restore;they

will return {use both reded a7id revertor). 20. On his

approach they send envoys to ask reinforcements, that

they may be able to withstand the might of the enemy.


Conditional Sentences. Review of Subjunctive.

475. A conditional sentence is a complex sentence con-

sisting of two clauses:

{a) a subordinate clause con-

taining some supposition, and introduced usually in

English by if or unless, in Latin by si or nisi; {b) a

principal clause containing the conclusion which follows

the supposition. These clauses are termed respectively

the Pf'otasis and the Apodosis.

In conditional sentences in Latin both the indicative

and the subjunctive are used, but regularly the samemood occurs in both clauses, that is, either both clauses

have the indicative or both have the subjunctive.

476. Illustrative Examples.

Si Romanus civis est, liber est, if he is a Romancitize7iy he isfree.

Si hoc fecerunt, inimici erant, if they did this, they

were eriemies.

a. These sentences present a form of conditional

sentence referring to present or past time, whichstates what logically follows upon something whiehmay or may not be true. The indieative moodis used in both English and Latin, the tenses

having their usual values.

320 , Latin Lessons for Beginners.

477. Illustrative Examples.

Si Caesar adesset, acrius pugnarent, if Caesar werepresent^

they wouldfight more vigorously.

Si Caesar adfuisset, dcrius pugnavissent, if Caesar had

been present^ they would havefought more vigorously


a. These sentences also refer to present or past time,

but they do not deal with a supposed case which

may or may not be true. Rather, it is implied

that as a matter of fact Caesar was not present,

and therefore the fighting was not so vigorous.

In conditional sentences contrary to facty Latin

uses the subjunctive in both clauses, the imperfect

subjunctive for present time, the nluperfect sub^

junctive past time

47S. Illustrative Examples.

(1) Si obsides miserint, pacem faciemus,"^^ they send

hostages, we shall make peace.

Si amici esse videbuntur, copias reducet, if they {shall)

seem to befriendly, he will lead back his troops.

(2) Si obsides mittant, pacem faciamus, if they were to se7id

hostages, we should make peace.

Si amici esse videantur, copias reducat, if they shoidd

seem to befriendly, he would lead back his troops^

a. All these conditional sentences refer to the future.

The two groups of suppositions and conclusions

relate to the same state of affairs, but the latter

group (2) refers to them less simply and directly

than the former (l), treating them rather as con-

ceivable cases. These two groups are often dis-

tingfuished as the more vivid and the less vivid

form of future conditions.





Latin Lessons for Beginners. 32i

b. It will be noticed that in the more vivid future con-

ditional sentences, English ordinarily uses shall or

, will^ and in the less vivid, should or would or were



and furth^ that in the protasis of the morevivid form Eatm has the future or future perfect

indicative (for the use of these tenses review 224),

and in both clauses of the less vivid form the

present subjunctive.

479. Two methods of classifying these four kinds

conditional sentences may be suggested

a. First method


Present or Past Time

Future Time

/Simple (476).

t Contrary to Fact (477).

(More vivid (478, l).

\Less vivid (478, 2).

b. Second method


fPresent or past time (476).

(Future time (478, 1).Logical


Ideal (478, 2).

Unreal (477).

480. The following uses of the Latin subjunctive

have now been studied

In indirect questions (362).

In clauses of purpose-

adverbial, with ut or ne (386).

relative, with qui (388).

substantive, with ut or ne (424).

In clauses of result (371).

With cum, causal or temporal (397).

In subordinate clauses in indirect discourse (408).

In conditional sentences (477, 478).

In independent clauses of exhortation, command or

wish (465, 466)

322 Latin Lessons for Beginners.


481 . I.

A.—1. Magna praedae faciendae facultas dabitur, si

Romanos castris expulerimus. 2. Si hoc fecissent,

viribus corporum praestitissent. 3. Si periculosum hoc

esse existimas, cur non aliquem mittis qui auxilium

roget ? 4 . Si primi ordines graviter prementur, auxilium

feremus. 5. Si hanc rem impetret, omni periculo

liberetur. 6. Nisi subsidium noctu missum esset,

diutius vim hostium sustinere non potuissemus. 7.

Etiam si acerrime factus erit impetus, pedem nonreferemus sed pro castris pugnantes cademus. 8. Si

obsides a vobis Caesari dentur, ut ea quae polliceamini

VOS facturos intellegat, pacem vobiscum faciat. 9. Hunccollem si tenebunt nostri, hostes aqua commeatuque pro-

hibebunt. 10. Si hoc fiat, omnino spes fugae tollatur.

B.—11. Hac oratidne quam in concilid habuerat, per-

suaserat Helvetiis ut finibus suis exirent. 12. Cum jam

in cdnspectum agminis nostri venissent, fuga destiterunt.

13. Primd perspicere ndn possunt unde aut quam in

partem hdc flumen fluat. 14. Finem subsequendi facia-

mus, ne ab nostris intercludamur. 15. Morte sudrum ita

perterriti erant, ut summd tumultu ad alteram ripam

transiissent. 16. Respondit adulescentem summa forti-

tudine delectum esse, Lucium ndmine, qui apud Gallds

magnam auctdritatem haberet. 17. Si prudens fuisset,

sensisset quid hie ageretur. 18. Primum nds cohortatus

est ut ante autumnum ejus modi classem efficeremtis.

19. Renuntiant se tela intra munitidnes conjicere ndn

potuisse, quod castra fossa incredibili latitudine cir-

cumdata essent. 20. Cum haec natid, de qua supra

scripsimus, plurimum tdtius fere Galliae equitatu valeat,

longe lateque circum se fines vastaverunt.

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 323

482. II.

A.—1. If anything’ happens, I shall return here at

once. 2. If anything- should happen, I should return

there at once. 3. If you can hear their voices, they are

not far distant. 4. If you were to set out at dawn, you

would reach the lake at nightfall. 5. Unless you do

this, I shall go alone. 6. If they had been in-

experienced in sailing, they would not have reached

land so easily. 7. Since the lower part of the island

faces the continent, the inhabitants would often cross

over, if they were skilled in sailing. 8. If they should

prefer to cross the Rhine, lands would be given themin Gaul. 9. If the number of the enemy increases, the

Gauls will gather all their property into one place. 10.

Thus, even if they are fond of making war or of pil-

laging, opportunity is lacking.

B. ;—11. Since Caesar himself is present, they are

more eager for fighting. 12. If Caesar himself is pre-

sent, they will fight with greater zeal. 13. He begged

them not to seek safety in flight. 1 4 . For these reasons


if they had attempted to cross by (per) force, weshould have prevented (them). 15. Because of the

season, let them not attempt to visit the most distant

nations. 16. These reported that they had found all

the troops occupied in foraging, except those who had

been left to guard the baggage, 17. He commands the

tribunes, centurions and officers of cavalry to seize the

approaches and roads in a similar manner. 18. Unless

the magistrates satisfy me, I shall spare no one. 19.

If he should ask me what is the best thing to do, I

should urge him not to set the example of flight. 20.

Since all men are by nature eager for freedom, we wish

to be made free.

324 Latin Lessons for Beginners,



aditus modus spatium tumultus

diligentia ndmen studium vis

initium ratio subsidium vox


cupidus imperitus occupatus peritus


aliquis quis quisque uilus

nonnulH quisquam quivis uterque


adeo eo intercludo praedor

bello exeo libero praesto

cohortor t~6 mone5 reded

dejicio friimentor navigo rogd

desisto hortor oro superd

dimic5 impero persuaded transed

egredior ineo peto valed


ab contra inter praeter

ad cum intra prd

ante de ob propter

apud ex per sine

circum in post sub



ac, atque dum neque sed

aut et, -que nisi si

cum ne quod ut

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 335


The Story of Regulus. (256 b.c.;250 b.c.)


Africa, ae, £., Africa.

Carthaginienses, ium, m. pi., the Carthaginians (in-

habiting the city of Carthage in North Africa),

catena, ae, f., chain^ fetter


in plnr. freely, prison.

conservo, ^e, avi, atum, keep.

erudelis, e, cruel.

Graecus, i, m., Greek.

Punicus, a, um, Punic, Carthaginian.

senectus, -tutis, f. ,

old age.

uxor, -oris, f., wife.

Nono anno primi Punici belli, quod populus Romanuscontra Carthaginienses gerebat, Romani consilium in

Africam transeundi inierunt belli inferendi causa. Adhas res conficiendas classis trecentarum triginta naviumeffecta est, et plurimi milites, spe praedae faciendae

adducti, ad portum convenerunt. Regulus c5nsul, qui

huic classi praefectus erat, idoneam ad navigandumtempestatem nactus, inita aestate_ naves solvit, et classe

Carthaginiensium superata, ad Africam pervenit. Ibi

milites, navibus egressi, complura proelia fecerunt et

multa oppida ceperunt. Primo Carthaginienses neque

virtute neque studid pugnandi Romanis pares erant.

Multis incommodis acceptis, cum se defendere nonpossent, legates ad Graecos miserunt rogatum ut sibi

auxilium ferrent, et aliquem mitterent qui exercitui


Dux quidam, Xanthippus nomine, rei militaris

peritissimus, missus est, atque proximd anno, cumjam Carthaginienses ad dimicandum paratos esse

326 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

arbitraretur, copias suas contra Romands eduxit, qui in

agris vastandis occupati erant. Proelid commissd,

Romani tantam calamitatem acceperunt ut fere omnes

ant caperentur aut interficerentur. Vix duo milia se ad

mare receperunt, et Regains ipse ab hostibus captus et

in catenas conjectus est.

Sed Romani consilio desistere ac finem dimicandi

facere nolebant, atque majoribus copiis coactis bellum

renovaverunt. Post quinque annos Carthaginienses,

magna accepta calamitate, legationem ad senatum de

pace mittere cdnstituerunt. Simul Regulum adeunt et

certidrem eum de hdc cdnsilid faciunt :

‘‘ Legatds mis-

suri sumus Romanis persuadendi causa utpacem faciant.

Visne una cum illis proficisci et populd Rdmand osten-

dere quid optimum sit factu ? Atque si senatus qudsdam

adulescentes ndbiles, qui capti sunt, ndbis ndn red-

diderit, hue statim ipse redibis ? Nam {for) nisi haec

te facturum pollicitus eris, ndn te ire patiemur.”

Cum Regulus pollicitus esset, legati profecti sunt, sed

cum ad urbem venissent, Regulus ndluit in munitidnes

ingredi {to enter), quod civis esse Rdmanus destitisset.

Sperabant Carthaginienses Regulum, ut ipse liber fieret,

Romanos moniturum esse ne captives retinerent, sed

pacem cum hostibus ednfirmarent. Sed cum senatus

qudsdam misit qui cum ed agerent, haec dixit :

‘‘ Moni-

tum VOS, Patres, veni, ne pacem faciatis. Cartba-

ginienses, proeliis fracti, vix ullam spem habent neque

quisquam edrum diutius bellandi est cupidus. Bondanimd este

;cives ne de victoria desperent. Ndlite

captiVOS reddere;vires cujusque illdrum integrae sunt ;•

ego, senectute cdnfectus, usui esse rei publicae nulld

modd possum. Ndlite mihi timere : praestat quidvis

pati quam rei publicae nocere.”

Latin Lessons for BeginnerSo 327

Hac oratione senatui persuasit ne quern captivumredderet. Atque cum nonnulll eum retinere conarentur,

hortatus est amicos ut finem flendi et orandi facerent,

et dixit se illo die, qu5 captus esset, civitatem amisisse.

Turn {theri) uxorem et liberos a complexu {his embrace)

remdvit, et ad Africam rediit, nulla vi coactus praeter

fidem {pledge) quam dederat host!. Tamen {a?id yet)

sciebat se ad certissimam mortem et ad crudelissimbs

hostes se reverti, sed fidem esse cdnservandam existi-

mabat. Sed si sibi cdnsuluisset, n5n rei publicae, numfama tantae fortitudinis ad ultimas regiones perlata

esset ?

Templum : Temple.

328 Latin Lessons for Beginners.


Caesar’s First Campaign in Gaul.(b.c. 58.)

(a) The Helvetian War.

485 . Helvetii proximi sunt Germanis, qui trans Rhe-

num incolunt;reliquos Gall5s virtute praecedunt, quod

fere cotidianis proeliis cum Germanis contendunt. Sed

undique loci natura continentur : una ex parte est flumen

Rhenus altissimus et latissimus;altera* ex parte m5ns

Jura altissimus;tertia ex parte flumen Rhodanus no-

stram provinciamt ab Helvetiis dividit. His de causis.

Helvetii non late vagari poterant, nee facile finitimis

bellum inferre. Jtaque, cum essent homines bellandi

cupidi, angustos se fines habere arbitrabantur. His

rebus adducti, oppida sua omnia vicosque incendere et

de finibus suis cum omnibus copiis exire constituerunt

et optimum partem totius Galliae occupare. Itineribus

omninb dudbus domo exire poterant;quorum unum

erat per Sequands, angustum et difficile;alterum per

prdvinciam nostrum, multd facilius. Caesar, cui prd-

vincia Gallia ed annd decreta erat, audivit Helvetids per

prdvinciam nostrum iter facere cdnari, Statim ab urbe+

proficiscitur et in Gallium pervenit.

486 . Ubi de ejus udventu Helvetii certidres facti

sunt, legatds ad eum mittunt;

sed Caesar negat se

posse iter ulliper prdvinciam dare. Relinquebatur una

per Sequands via. Mox Caesari renuntiatur Helvetids

per agrum Sequandrum iter in Santonum fines facere,

qui ndn longe a prdvincia nostra absunt. Intellegebat

* Translate by a second (524).

t Since 118 B.c. the southern part of Gaul had been a Roman province.

(Hence the modern name Provence.) See map facing page 344.

t Rome is meant.

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 329

periculosum provinciae fore, si homines bellicosi, populi

R5mani inimici, prdvinciae finitimi essent.* Ob eas

causas in Italiam contendit;

duas ibi leg-iones con-

scribit, et tres ex hibemis edueit;cum his quinque

legidnibus in Galliam per Alpes ire contendit. Helvetii

jam per fines Sequandrurn suas cdpias traduxerant, et

in Aedudrum fines pervenerant, edrumque agrds popula-

bantur. Itaque ne omnes fortunae socidrum cdnsume-

rentur, Caesar e castris profectus ad Helvetids pervenit.t

Tres jam partes Helvetidnim flumen Ararim transierant


ceterds aggressus, magnam partem edrum occidit, re-

liqui sese in proximas silvas abdiderunt. Hdc proelid

factd, ut reliquas cdpias Helvetidnim cdnsequi posset,

pontem facit itque ita exercituns; xaducit. Turn per

multds dies Caesar Helvetids insequitur, novissimumque

agmen lacessit.

487. Tandem ut rei frumentariae prdspiceret, iter ab

Helvetiis avertit, atque ad oppidum Aedudrum maxi-

mum et cdpidsissimum ire contendit. Helvetii Rdmandstimdre perterritds esse et discedere a se existimabant.

Itaque, itinere conversd, nostrds insequi ac lacessere

coeperunt. Postquam id animadvertit, Caesar cdpias

suas in proximum collem subducit, aciemque instruit.

Helvetii impedimenta in unum locum contulerunt;


sub primam nostram aciem successerunt. Caesar, co-

hortatus suds, proelium commisit. Diu atque acriter

pugnaverunt. Sed cum diutius sustinere nostrdrum

impetus ndn possent, Helvetii legatds de deditidne ad

Caesarem miserunt. Caesar Helvetids in fines suds,

unde profecti erant, reverti jussit, et oppida vicdsque

* Translate by should (or were to) he. SI with 'the iniperf. or pluperf.

subjunctive may represent future conditions put in indirect discourse (408).

t Translate by came up with.

330 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

restituere. Helvetiorum trecenta et sexaginta octo milia

dom5 exierant;

vix centum ct decern milia domumredierunt.

(6 ) The War with Ariovistus.

488. Hoc bell5 confecto, totius fere Galliae principes

ad Caesarem convenerunt atque petierunt ut sibi auxi-

lium ferret contra Ariovistum, rege.m Germanorum, qui

multa milia suorum in Galliam traduxisset optimumqueagrum occupavisset, atque Gallos ex finibus pelleret.

Demdnstrant Ariovistum Gallorum copias proelid vicisse

et nunc crudeliter imperare atque obsides* ndbilissi-

morum liberos poscere;neque posse ejus imperium

diutius sustineri. His rebus cognitis, Caesar Gallorum

animds cdnfirmavit, pollicitusque est se Galliam ab

Ariovisti injuria defensurum. Hac dratione habita

principes dimisit. Simul Germands cdnsuesceret in

Galliam transire populd Rdmand periculdsum esse

videbat, ne, cum omnem Galliam occupavissent, in prd-

vinciam exirent atque inde in Italiam contenderent.

Itaque cdnstituit ad Ariovistum legatds mittere qui

ab ed postularent ut aliquem locum colloquid diceret.

489. Quodf cum ndllet Ariovistus facere, iterum ad

eum Caesar legatds mittit qui postularent primum ne

amplius Germands trans Rhenum in Galliam traduceret


deinde ut obsides Gallis redderet neve bellum iis in-

ferret. Ad haec Ariovistus respondit se Gallds viciase

atque jure belli uti cdnstituisse;

se obsides redditurum

ndn esse, neque Gallis injuria§ bellum illaturum si im-

* Translate by as hostages


for the case see 54.

t See 124.

t To emphasize the connection with the preceding words, Latin often uses

qui for liic or Is, placing it even before a conjunction. Here translate bythis, literally which.

§ Translate by wrongfully (415). For parerent and vellet see 486, fn.

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 331

perio suo parerent ;atque si Caesar vellet secum con-

gredi, intellecturum quanta esset virtus invictorum


490. Eodem tempore Caesar certior factus est Ger-

manos, qui nuper in Galliam transportati essent, fines

Aedudrum popular!, et magnam multitudinem Suebdrum

ad ripas Rheni venisse, qui Rhenum transire cdna-

rentur. Quibus* rebus Caesar vehementer commdtus,

maturare cdnstituit, ne nova manus Suebdrum cumveteribus cdpiis Ariovisti sese conjungeret. Itaque re

frumentaria quam celerrime comparata, magnis itineri-

bus ad Ariovistum contendit. Cum tridui viam prd-

cessisset, nuntiatum est ei Ariovistum cum suis omnibus

cdpiis ad occupandum Vesontidnem, quod est oppidummaximum Sequandrum, contendere. In ed oppidd

omnium rerum quae ad bellum usui erant summa erat

facultas, idque natura loci egregie muniebatur. HueCaesar contendit, occupatdque oppidd ibi praesidium


491. Dum paucds dies ibi re! frumentariae causa

moratur, milites falsis rumdribus magnopere perturbati

sunt. Nam Gall! ac mercatdres Germands ingenti

magnitiidine esse corporum, incredibilique virtute prae-

dicabant. Caesar cum animadvertisset milites propter

timdrem castra movere ac signa contra hostes ferre

ndlle, convocatd concilid, demdnstrat Germands saepe ab

Helvetiis superatds esse, qui tamen pares esse exercitui

Rdmand ndn potuissent. Turn affirmavit se proxima

nocte quarta vigilia castra mdturum, atque si praeterea

nemd sequeretur, tamen se cum sdla decima legidne

iturum, de qua ndn dubitaret. Hac dratidne habita,

332 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

summa alacritas et cupiditas belli gerendi innata est,

atque quarta vigilia, ut* dixerat, profectus est cum omniexercitu. Septimd die ab exfloratoribus certior factus

est Ariovisti copias milia paisuum . quattuor et vigrinti


492. Cognitd Caesaris adventu, Ariovistus legates ad

eum mittit qui dicerent Ariovistum, cum Caesar propius

accessisset, colloqui cum e5 jam velle : simul postulabat

ne quenj peditem ad colloquium Caesar adduceret, sed

ut uterque cum equitatu veniret;

vererit se ne per

insidias ab eo circumveniretur. Planities erat magnainter castra Ariovisti et Caesaris. E5 uterque cumequitatu ad colloquium venit atque cum paucis equitibus

in mediam planitiem progreditur. Reliqui equites medi-

ocri intervallot constiterunt.

493. Caesar initid orationis ostendit quanta a se

senatuque beneficia Ariovistus accepisset;simul docebat

Aeduds diu socids populi Rdmani fuisse. Postulavit

deinde eadem quae§ legati. Ariovistus respondit se

rogatum esse a Gallis ut Rhenum transiret;ndn sese

Gallis sed Gallds sibi bellum posted intulisse;


iniquum esse exercitum Rdmanum in suds fines venire!

Postulavit igitur ut Caesar decederet et liberam possessi-

dnem Galliae sibi traderet. Dum haec in colloquid

geruntur, Caesari nuntiatum est equites Ariovisti pro-

pius. accedere, et lapides telaque in nostrds conjicere.

Caesar loquendi finem fecit, seque ad suds recepit,

suisque imperavit, ne quod omnind telum in hostes

* lit in the sense of as takes the indicative.

t Indirect discourse, the verb of saying being understood.

JThe ablative, as well as the accusative, is used to express distance.

Tianslate here by at.

i Translate by made the same demands as.

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 333

rejicerent, ne pulsi hostes dicere possent se in colloquio

per insidias circumventos. Quibus rebus cognitis,

multo majus studium pugnandi exercitui injectum est,

494. Post paucos dies Ariovistus, castris metis,

praeter castra Gaesaris suas copias traduxit et milibus

passuum duobus* ultra eum castra fecit, e5 consilio ut

frumentd commeatuque Caesarem intercluderet. Turn

dies continuos quinque Caesar pr5 castris suas copias

produxit et aciem instruxit. Ariovistus autem, etsi

dimicandi potestas n5n deerat, his omnibus diebus exer-

citum castris continuitt, et equestri proelid cotidie con-

tendit. Ubi eum castris se tenere Caesar intellexit, ne

diutius commeatu prohiberetur, ultra eum locum ubi

German! consederant, circiter passus sescentds ab iis,

castris idoneum locum delegit, acieque triplici instructa

ad eum locum venit. Primam et secundam aciem in

armis essej, tertiam castra munire jussit. Turn copias

Ariovistus misit quae nostros munitione prohiberent.

Caesar tamen, ut antea constituerat, duas acies hostempropulsare, tertiam opus perficere jussit. Munitis

castris, duas legiones reliquit et partem auxiliorum,

quattuor reliquas in castra majdra reduxit.

495 . Proximd die Caesar e castris utrisque copias

suas eduxit, paulumque a majoribus castris prdgressus

aciem instruxit, hostibusque pugnandi potestatem fecit.

Ubi ne turn quidem eos prodire intellexit, circiter meri-

diem exercitum in castra reduxit. Postero die praesidio

utrisque castris quod satis esse visum est reliquit, atque

triplici instructa acie usque ad castra hostium accessit.

Turn demum necessario German! suas copias eduxerunt.

* For the ablative see 492, fn. t

f Translate by kept in camp.

I Tcaoslate by to remain wnder arms.

334 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

omnemque aciem redls et carris circumdederunt, nequa spes in fuga relinqueretur. E5 mulieres impo-

suerunt, quae in proelium proficiscentes milites flentes

implorabant ne se in servitutem Romanis traderent.

496. Caesar a dextrd cornu, quod earn partem minimefirmam hostium esse animadverterat, proelium commisit.

Ita nostri acriter in hostes, sign5 dato, impetum fecerunt,

itaque* hostes celeriter prdcurrerunt, ut spatium pila in

hostes conjiciendi n5n daretur. Rejectis pilis, comminusgladiis pugnant. Cum hostium acies a sinistro cornu

pulsa atque in fugam conversa esset, a dextro cornu

vehementer multitudine su5rum nostrum aciem preme-

bant. Id cum animadvertisset Publius Crassus, qui

equitatui praeerat, tertiam aciem laborantibus nostris

subsidio misit. Ita proelium restitutum est, atque

omnes hostes terga verterunt, neque prius fugere de-

stiterunt quam ad flumen Rhenum milia passuum ex eo

loco circiter qulnque pervenerunt. Ibi perpauci salutem


int his fuit Ariovistus, qui naviculam

deligatam ad ripam nactus, ea profugit. Reliquos

omnes cdnsecuti equites nostri interfecerunt.

Hoc proelio trans Rhenum nuntiato, Suebi qui ad

ripas Rheni venerant, domum reverti coeperunt. Caesar

una Restate duobus maximis bellis confectis, maturius

paulo quam tempus anni postulabat, in hibema in+

Sequanos exercitum deduxit. Hibemis Labienum lega-

tum praefecit;ipse in citeriorem Galliam profectus est.

* Itaqiie here = Ita + que ; contrast Kaque, 487, 1. 5.

t Translate here by among.

t 'rmnslate here by among ; the phrase modifies a verb of motion.

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 335

The Story of Ulysses.

{Chiefly from Ritchie^ Fabulae Faciles.)

The Trojan War.

497 . Olim Paris, filius Priami regis Trojanortmi,

cum in Graeciam mare transiisset, Helenam, ux5rem

Menelai regis Spartae, abduxit. Itaque Menelaus omnes

reges Graeciae convocavit, et oravit ut auxilium sibi

ferrent. Mox, classe mille ducentarum navium coacta,

magnis cum copiis profectus est ut injuriam ulcisceretur.

Agamemndn, Menelai frater, toti exercitui Graecorum

praefectus est;et una cum his duobus regibus Achilles,

qui omnibus hominibus virtute praestabat, et Ulixes,

vir summae prudentiae, naves solverunt.

Graeci, navibus egressi, Trojam valid fossaque cir-

cumdare non cdnati sunt, sed in litore non longe a

navibus consederunt. Inter mare et urbem planities

erat magna, atque ibi Trojani, acie instructs, saepe cumGraecis proelia committebant. Post novem annos

Graeci plurima oppida expugnaverant, quae circum

Trojam socii Priami habebant, et tanta incommodaTrojani acceperant ut minus saepe proelium facere


498 . Decimo anno belli, controversia magna inter

Agamemnona* et Achillem orta est, atque Achilles, ira

incensus, pugna abstinere constituit. Trojani, cumhaec cognovissent, Graecos audacius adorti sunt, atque

naves eorum incendissent, nisi Patroclus, qui Achilli

amicissimus erat, eum rogavisset ut auxilio Graecis

veniret. Neque Achilli persuadere potuit ut ipse in

* Some nouns of the third declension, borrowed from the Greek, havethe Greek ending *a in the acciisative singular.

336 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

proelium rediret ; sed Achilles arma et equos suos

Patrocld dedit et milites suos subsidid Graecis labd-

rantibus misit. Adventu eorum Trojani repulsi sunt


sed Patroclus ipse ab Hectore, fortissimo ex filiis Priami,

interfectus est. Turn Achilles, magmS dolore affectus,

mortem amici ulcisci contendit, et, rursus armis captis,

in medios hostes irruit atque Hectora interfecit. Sed

post pancos dies ipse, a Paride vulneratus, cecidit, et

Graeci de victoria jam desperare coeperunt.

499. Cum jam multi hortarentur ut in Graeciam

reverterentur, Ulixes Graecis persuasit ut aliud con-

silium inirent. Equus ligneus ing-enti magnitudine est

effectus atque viris armatis completus est. Turn reliqui

Graeci in naves conscenderunt et se in Graeciani navi

gare simulabant. Trojani, non insidias suspicati, equumin urbem traxerunt, cum arbitrarentur Graecds muneri

eum deis reliquisse. Sed noctu Ulixes et Menelaus,

ceterique qui se in equd abdiderant, egressi sunt et

custddes portarum necaverunt. Turn reliqui Graeci,

signd datd, in urbem ex navibus irruperunt. Trdjani

aut interfecti sunt aut in servitutem abducti;


ipsa incensa est.

500. Tandem Graeci, longd belld fessi, domum redire

cdnstituerunt. Omnibus igitur rebus ad profectidnem

paratis, naves deduxerunt et iddneam ad navigandumtempestatem nacti magnd cum gaudid naves solverunt.

Ulixes, qui regnum insulae Ithacae obtinuerat, pauld

antequam cum reliquis Graecis ad bellum profectus est,

puellam fdrmdsissimam ndmine Penelopen* in matri-

mdnium duxerat. Nunc igitur, cum jam decern annds

* Some nounsof the first declension, borrowed from the Greek, have (in the

singular) -5 in the nom., -cs in the gen., -en in the acc., and -e in the abl.










Latin Lessons for Beginners. 337

quasi in exsilio cdnsumpsisset, magna cupiditate patriae

et uxoris videndae ardebat. Postquam tamen pauca

milia passuum a litore Trojae progress! sunt, tanta

tempestas subito coorta est, ut nulla navium cursumtenere posset, sed passim disjicerentur. Navis autemilia, qua ipse Ulixes vehebatur, vi tempestatis ad meri-

diem delata, decimd die ad litus Libyae pervenit.

The Lotus Eaters.

501. Ancoris jactis, Ulixes constituit nonnullos e

sociis in terram exponere, qui aquam ad navem refer-

rent et qualis esset natura ejus regidnis cognoscerent.

Hi igitur e navi egressi imperata facere parabant. Dumtamen fontem quaerunt, quidam ex incolis occurrunt

atque hospitio acceperunt. Accidit autem* ut mir5 quo-

dam fructu quern 15tum appellabant bi homines viverent.

Quern cum Graeci gustavissent, patriae et socidrum

statim obliti, affirmaverunt semper se in ea terra man-surds, ut dulci illd cibd in perpetuum fruerentur.

502. Ulixes, cum ab hdra septima ad vesperum

exspectavisset, veritus net socii in periculd essent,

ndnnullds e reliquis misit, ut, quae causa esset morae,

cdgndscerent. Hi igitur in terram expositi, cum ad

vicum qui ndn longe aberat pervenissent, socids suds

quasi vind ebrids reppererunt, atque eis persuadere

cdnabantur, ut secum ad navem redIrent. Illi tamenresistere ac manu se defendere coeperunt, saepe cla-

mitantes se numquam ex ed locd discessurds. Quae cumita essenti, nuntii re infecta ad Ulixem redierunt. His

rebus cdgnitis, Ulixes ipse cum omnibus qui in navi

* Translate anteiii by noxo, and fructfl by on, literally hy means of.

t After a verb otfearing, iie means lest or that.

I Translate freely by under these circumstances.

338 Latin Lessons fou Beginners.

relict! sunt ad locum venit;

et sociSs frustra hortatus

ut sponte sua redirent, manibus eorum post terga vinctis,

invitos ad navem reportavit. Turn, ancoris sublatis,

quam celerrime e portu navem solvit.

The Giant Polyphemus.

503. Postero die postquam totam noctem remis con-

tenderant, ad terram ignotam pervenerunt. Turn, quodnaturam ejus regidnis ignorabat, ipse Ulixes cum duo-

decim e sociis in terram egressus loca explorare con-

stituit. Paulum a litore progress! specum ingentem

invenerunt, quern, etsi intellegebant se non sine periculo

id facturos, intraverunt. Ibi magnam cdpiam lactis

invenerunt in vasis ingentibus conditam. Dum omnesmirantur quis eum locum incoleret, subito monstrumhorribile conspexerunt, humana quidem specie etfigura,

sed ingenti magnitudine corporis. Hunc gigantem

cum animadvertissent unum omnind oculum habere in

media fronte positum, intellexerunt hune esse unum e

Cycldpibus, de quibus famam jam acceperant.*

504. Graeci igitur, ubi mdnstrum viderunt, timbre

perterriti in interidrem partem speluncae cdnfugerunt.

Polyphemus autem (id enim gigantis ndmen erat) pecora

sua in speluncam egit;turn cum saxd ingenti portam

obstruxisset, ignem in medid specu fecit. Mox ciim

Graecds animadvertisset,' magna vdce clamavit. “ Qui

estis homines? Mercatdres ant praeddnes ? ” Turn

Ulixes respondit set neque mercatdres esse neque prae-

dandi causa vdnisse;

sed e Trdja redeuntes vi tempe-

statum a cursu depulsds esse. Oravit etiam ut se sine

* Tra.nslatc by had heard.

t In double questions an is used with the force of or.

J Translate by they; Ulysses speaks for himself and his comrades.

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 339

injuria discedere pateretur. Turn Polyphemus, nullo

dato responso, duo e Graecis manu corripuit et membris

eorum divulsis carnem devorare coepit.

505. Dum haec g’eruntur, Graecorum animos tantus

terror occupavit, ut, omni spe salutis deposita, mortempraesentem exspectarent. Polyphemus autem humiprostratus, somn5 se dedit. Quod cum vidisset Ulixes,

tantam occasionem non amittendam arbitrates, in anim5

habebat gladio interficere. Sed cum saxum animad-

vertisset, quo introitus obstructus erat, nihil se profec-

turum* intellexit, si Polyphemum interfecisset. Tanta

enim erat ejus saxi magnitude, ut ne decern quidem

homines movere possent. Prima luce, Polyphemus jam

e somno' excitatus idem quod superiore die fecit;cor-

reptis enim duobus e reliquis viris, carnem eorum sine

mora devoravit. Turn, cum saxum remdvisset, ipse

cum pecore e specu prdgressus est, atque postquam

omnes oves exierunt, saxum in locum restituit.

The Device of Ulysses.

506, Ulixes vero qui, ut supra demonstravimus, vir

magnae fuit prudentiae,etsi intellegebat quantum esset

periculum, nondum omnino desperabat, sed hoc cepit

consilium. Sub noctem cum Polyphemus ad specumrediisset et eodem modo quot antea cenavisset, Ulixes

utrem vini prompsit, quern forte secum habebat, et

giganti dedit. Polyphemus, qui numquam antea vinumgustaverat, statim hausit. Hoc fact5 quaesivit quonomine Ulixes appellaretur. Hie respondit se Neminemappellari. Quod cum audivisset, Polyphemus ita locutus

est :

‘‘ Hanc tibi gratiam pr5 tantd beneficio referam


* Erpm proficlo, not from proflclscor ; note the quantity,

t Translate by as ; compare 493, fn., §.

340 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

te ultimum omnium devorabo. ’’ His dictis, cibo vinoque

gravatus, brevi somno oppressus est. Turn Ulixes sociis

convocatis dixit :

‘‘ Habemus facultatem quam peti-

mus.” Turn postquam quid fieri vellet ostendit, sudempraeacutam conquirebat. Quam cum repperisset, igni

calefecit, atque oculum Polyphemi dum dormit trans-

fodit ; hoc facto, omnes in ultimas speluncae partqs se


507. Turn ille subito illo dolore e somno excitatus,

clamdrem maximum sustulit, et dum per speluncam

errat, Ulixem et socios manu comprehendere conabatur.

Cum tamen jam omnino caecus esset, nullo mod5 hoc

efficere potuit. Interea reliqui Cyclopes clamore audito

undique ad speluncam convenerunt et quid gereretur

quaesiverunt, et quam ob causam tantum clamdrem

sustulisset. Ille respondit se graviter vulneratum esse;

cum tamen ceteri quaesivissent quis ei vulnus intulisset,

respondit ille Neminem id fecisse. Quibus rebus auditis,

unus e Cycldpibus dixit : “Si nemd te vulneravit, ap-

paret cdnsilid dedrum, quibus resistere nec possumus

nec volumus, hdc supplicid te affici.” His rebus dictis

discesserunt Cycldpes,eum in insaniamincidisse arbitrati.

The Escape.

508. Polyphemus, ubi socids suds discessisse sensit,

furdre atque amentia impulsus Ulixem iterum quaerere

coepit. Tandem cum portam invenisset, saxum remdvit,

ut pecus ad agrds exiret. Turn ipse in introitu sedit et

ut* quaeque ovis ad locum venerat, tergum ejus manibus

tractabat, ne viri inter oves effugere possent. Quodcum animadvertisset Ulixes, hdc iniit cdnsilium


* Translate as in 491, fn. ; although the clause here refers, not to manner,

but to time (ut=whenever). The pluperfeot following should be translated

by the English simple past.

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 341

lexit enim omnem spem salutis in dolo magis qnam in

virtute poni. Primum tres pinguissimas ex ovibus

delegit;quas cum inter se* conexuisset, unum sociorum

ventribust earum ita subjecit, ut omnind lateret. Deinde

oves, hominem secum ferentes, ad portam egit. Id

accidit quod forej suspicatus erat. Polyphemus enim,

postquam manus tergist earum imposuit, oves exire

passus est. Eodem modo Ulixes omnes socids emisit


ipse ultimus evasit.

509. His rebus ita cdnfectis, Ulixes magnopere veritus

ne§ Polyphemus dolum sentiret, celeriter cum sociis ad

litus contendit;qud cum venissent, ab els, qui navi

praesidid relicti erant, magna cum laetitia accepti sunt.

Turn. Ulixes ndn satis tutum esse arbitratus si in ed locd

maneret, quam celerrime proficisci cdnstituit. Jussit

igitur. omnes in navem cdnscendere et ancoris sublatis

paulum a litore in altum prdvectus est. Turn magnavdce clamavit, “ Tu, Polypheme, qui jura hospitii

spemis, justam et debitam poenam solvisti.” Hacvdceaudita, Polyphemus ira incensus ad mare se contulit et

ubi intellexit navem paulum a litore remdtam esse,

saxum ingens manu corripuit atque in earn partem

conjecit, unde vdcem venire sensit. Graeci autem, nulld

acceptd incommodd, cursum tenuerunt.

The Island of Circe, the Enchantress.

510. Brevi intermissd spatid, Graeci insulae cuidamappropinquaverunt quam Circe, filia Solis, incolebat.

* Translate by lo one another, literally among themselves.

t The dative, having the force of with reference to, is often used withcompound verbs, where it is freely translated by the preposition suggestedby the prefix, here under (sub), and on <lu).

t Literally would be, freely would occur.

8 See 502, fn., t.

342 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

E6 cum pervenissent, Ulixes frumentandi causa navi

egredi cdnstituit ;cdgnoverat enim frumentum qucd in

navi haberent jam deficere. Sociis igitur ad se con-

vocatis, qu5 in loc5 res esset* et quid fieri vellet, ostexidit.

Cum tamen omnes memoriam retinerent crudelis mortis

eorum qui nuper in terram Cycldpum egressi erant,

nemo repertus est qui h5c negotium suscipere vellet. t

Tandem res ad sortem revocatur, atque Euryloclius

cum duobus et viginti sociis in interiorem partem insulae

proficiscitur. Vix poterant ei qui in navi relicti erant

lacrimas tenere;credebant enim se socios suos numquam

iterum visuros.

511 . Illi interea aliquantum progressi ad villam quan-'

dam pervenerunt, summa magnificentia aedificatam


cujus ad januam cum adiissent, ipsa Circe exiit et

summa cum benignitate omnes invitavit ut introirent.

Eurylochus autem, insidias suspicatus, foris exspectare


reliqui rei novitate adducti intraverunf,

atque convivium magnificum inverierunt omnibus rebus

instructum. Sed Circe vinum medicaments quodammiscuerat

;quod cum illi bibissent, gravi sopore omnes

statim oppressi sunt. Turn Circe baculo aureo quod

gerebat capita eorum tetigit;quo fact5+

,omnes in porcos

subito conversi sunt. Interea Eurylochus ignarus quid

ageretur ad§ januam sedebat;postquam tamen ad solis

occasum frustra exspectavit, ad navem solus reverti


* Translate freely by how matters stood.

i Translate qui vellet by who ivas willing or to be willing. A relative

clause with the subjunctive is often used to characterize the antecedent as

belonging to a class.

t Translate by whereupon, more literally this having been done.

§ Translate here by at.

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 343

Ulysses Comes to the Rescue.

511 > Ulixes cum intellexisset socids suos in peri-

cul5 «sse, gladio correpto, Eurylocho imperavit, ut sine

mora viam ad illam domum monstraret. Ille tamenmultis cum lacrimis Ulixem complexus obsecrare coepit,

ne tantum periculum susciperet. Ulixes autem respon-

dit se neminem invitum secum adducturum;

ei licere,

si mallet, in navi manere;

se ipsum sine ullo auxilio

rem snscepturum. Hoc cum magna v5ce dixisset, e

navi desiluit.

AliQuantum progressus subit5 conspexit adulescentem

fdrma pulcherrima, aureum baculum manu gerentem.

Hie re gat :“ Quo proficisceris ? Nonne scis banc esse

Circes domum? Hie inclusi sunt amici tui, ex humanaspecif in porcos conversi. Num vis ipse idem malumpati? *'’ Ulixes simul ac vocem audivit adulescentem

esse deum Mercurium sensit;

nullo tamen modo ab

consilid deterreri potuit. Quod cum Mercurius sensisset,

herbs-m quandam ei dedit, quam contra carmina pluri-

mum valere dicebat. “ Hanc cape,’’ inquit, “ et ubi

Cired te baculd tetigerit, destricto gladio, impetum in

earn %c.”

The Enchantress Foiled.

57 1. Brevi intermisso spatio, Ulixes ad omnia peri-

culf subeunda paratus ad villam pervenit atque ab ipsa

Circe benigne exceptus est. Omnia eodem mod5 quo

antea facta sunt. Mox, ubi fames cib5 depulsa est,

Circe poculum aureum vino repletum Ulixi dedit. Ille,

etisi suspicatus est venenum sibi paratum esse, poculumexbausit. Qu5 facto, Circe, postquam caput ejus baculo

tfligit, ea verba locuta est quibus socids ejus antea in

p^:)rcds converterat. Res tamen omnind aliter evenit

fttque ilia speraverat. Tanta enim vis erat ejus herbae

344 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

quam dederat Mercurius, ut neque venenum neque

verba quidquam efficere possent. Deinde Ulixes, sicut

jusserat Mercurius, gladid destrictd, impetum in earn

fecit et mortem minitabatur. Turn Circe, cum sensisset

artem suam nihil valere, multis cum lacrimis eumobsecrare coepit, ne interficeret.

514. Ulixes autem ubi sensit earn timbre perterritam

esse, postulavit ut socibs sine morain humanam speciem


si minus*,ostendit se statim earn necaturum.

His rebus Circe vehementer commbta ad pedes ejus se

prbjecit et multis cum lacrimis pollicita est se, quae ille

imperavisset, omnia facturam. Ita sociis receptis Ulixes

nuntium ad navem misit, qui reliquis Graecis quae facta

essent nuntiaret.

Atque multa alia pericula Ulixes subiit;sed tandem

in patriam suam ipse pervenit incolumis, omnibus sociis

amissis, atque ibi uxbrem Penelopen vivam et salvam

repperit, atque cupide reditum suum exspectantem.

* Translate si mluns by otherwise or if not.

Coin of Antoninus Pius.





515. First Declension.


Nominative. mOnsa, F. mOnsae

Genitive. mensae mensarumDative. mensae mensis

Accusative. niensam mensas

Vocative. mOnsa mensae

Ablative. mensa mensis

516. Second Declension.


Nom. servus, M. puer, M. ager, M. templum, N.

Gen. servi pueri agri templi

Dat. servo puerO agrO templo

Acc. servum puerum agrum templumVoc. serve puer ager templum

Ahl. servo puerO agrO templo


Nom. servi pueri agri templa

Qen. servOrum puerOrum agrOrum templorum

Dat. servis pueris agris templis

Acc. servos pueros agrOs templa

Voc. servi pueri agri templa

Abl. servis pueris agris templis

Latin Lessons for Beginners.

517. Third Declension.

Consonant Stems. I-Stems.SINGULAR.

Nom. obses, M. p. opus, N. civis, M. F. animal, N.

Gen. obsidis operis civis animalis

Dat. obsidi operi civi auimali

Acc. obsidem opus civem animal

Voc. obses opus civis animal

Ahl. obside opere cive (i) animali


Nom. obsides opera Gives animalia

Gen. obsidum operum civium animalium

Dat. obsidibus operibus civibus animalibus

Acc. obsides opera cives (is) animalia

Voc. obsides opera cives animalia

Ahl. obsidibus operibus civibus animalibus

See also 86, page 49 ; 94, page 55 ; ISg.,page 116 ; 189, page 117.

518. Fourth Declension.


Nom. fructus, M fructus cornu, N. cornua

Gen. fructus fructuum cornus cornuum

Dat. fructui fructibus cornu cornibus

Acc. fructum fructus cornu 'cornua

Voc. fructus fructus cornU cornua

Ahl. fructu fructibus cornu cornibus

519. Fifth Declension.


Nom. res, F. res dies, M. dies

Gen. rei rerum diei dierum

Dat. rel rebus diei diebus

Acc. rem res diem dies

Voc. res res dies dies

AU. re rebus die diebus

348 Latin Lessons for Beginners.


Adjectives of First and Second Declensions.

() bonus, bona, bonum 65, page 37

() liber, libera, liberum 72, “ 41

(c) aeger, aegra, aegrum 72, “ 41

521. Adjectives of Third Declension.

() acer, acris, acre

() fortis, forte

(c) felix

{d) prQdens

113, page 67

113, “ 68

113, “ 68

113, " 68

522. Declension of Comparatives.

(a) fortior, fortius 170, page 105

(5) plus 197, “ 121

523. Irregular Adjectives of First and Second Declensions

(a) unus, una, unum 205, page 126

(6) neuter, neutra, neutrum 205, “ 126

For list o{adjectives with gen. in -Ins and dat. in -I, see 207, page 128.

524. Numerals.


1 . unus primus

2. duo secundus or alter

3. tres tertius

4. quattuor quartus

5. quinque quintus

6. sex sextus

7. septem Septimus

8. octo octavus

9. novem nonus

10. decern decimus

11 . undecim undecimus

12. duodecim duodecimus

Latin Lessons for Beginners, 349

13. tredecim tertius decimus

14. quattuordecim quartus decimus

15. quindecim quintus decimus

16 . sedecim sextus decimus

17. septendecim Septimus decimus

18 . duodeviginti duodevicesimus

19 . undeviginti undevicesimus

20. viginti vicesimus

30. triginta tricesimus

40. quadraginta quadragesimus

50. quinquaginta quinquagesimus

60. sexaginta sexagesimus

70. septuaginta septuagesimus

80. octoginta octogesimus

90. nonaginta nonagesimus

100. centum centesimus

200. ducenti, ae, a ducentesimus

300. trecenti, ae, a trecentesimus

400. quadringenti, ae, a quadringentesimus

500. qumgenti, ae, a quingentesimus

600. sescenti, ae, a sescentesimus

700. septingenti, ae, a septingentesimus

800. octingenti, ae, a octingentesimus

900. nongenti, ae, a nongentesimus

1000. mille millesimus

2000. duo milia bis millesimus

525. Declension of Numerals.


Nom. duo duae duo tres tria milia

Gen. duOrum duarum duOrum trium trium milium

Dat. duobus duabus . duobus tribus tribus milibus

Acc. duos, duo duas duo tr6s tria milia

Voc. duo duae duo ties tria milia

All. duobus duabus duobus tribus tribus milibus

For finus see 205, page 126.

For other numerals see 156, page 95 (ordinals) ; 216, page 134 (cardinals).

350 Latin Lessons for Beginners,


• 526. Personal, Reflexive and Possessive Pronouns.


Nom. ego nos tu VOS — —Gen.. mei /nostrum


tui /vestrum


sui sui

Dot. mihi nobis tibi vobis sibi sibi

Acc. me nos te VOS se (sese) se (sese)

Voc. — — tu VOS — —Ahl. me nobis te vobis se (sese) se (sese)

For meus, uoster, tuns, vester and suns see 279, page 175.

527. Demonstrative Pronouns.


Nom. hie haec hoc ille lUa illud

Gen. hujus hujus hujus illius illius illius

Dot. huic huie huic illi illi illi

Acc. hunc hanc hoc ilium illam illud

AU. hoc hac hoc illo ilia illo


Nom. hi hae haec illi illae ilia

Gen. horum harum horum illorum illarum illorum

Dai. his his his illis illis illis

Acc. hos has haec illos illas ilia

Ahl. his his his illis illis illis


Nom. is ea id ipse ipsa ipsum

Gen. ejus ejus ejus ipsius ipsius ipsius

Bat. ei ei ei ipsi ipsi ipsi

Acc. eum earn id ipsum ipsam ipsum

Ahl. eo ea eo ipso ipsa ipso


Nom. ei, ii eae ea ipsi ipsae ipsa

Gen. eorum earum eorum ipsorum ipsarum ipsOrum

Dat. eis, iis eis, iis eis, iis ipsis ipsis ipsis

Acc. eos eas ea ipsos ipsas ipsa

Ahl. eis, ils eis, iis eis, iis ipsis ipsis ipsis

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 351


Nom. idem eadem idem feidem,


eaedem eadem

Gen. ejusdem gjusdem ejusdem eorundem earundem eorundem

Dat. eidem eidem eidem feisdem, eisdem. eisdem.

liisdem iisdem iisdem

Acc. eundem eandem idem eosdem easdem eadem

Ahl. eodem eadem eodem feisdem. eisdem. eisdem.

liisdem iisdem iisdem

528. Relative Pronoun.



Nom. qui quae quod qui quae quae

Gen. cujus cujus cujus quorum quarum quorumDat. cui cui cui quibus quibus quibus

Acc. quern quam quod quos quas quae

Ahl. quo qua quo quibus quibus quibus

529, Interrogative Pronoun.



Nom. quis (qui) quae quid (quod) qui quae quae

Gen. cujus cujus cujus quorum quarum quorumDat. cui cui cui quibus quibus quibus

Acc. quern quam quid (quod) quQs- quas quae

Ahl quo qua qu5 quibus quibus quibus

530. Indefinite Pronouns.

() quis (qul)

() aliquis (aliqui)

(c) quisqmm{d) quisque

(e) quidam

(/) quu/is

(g) utiarque

qua (quae)






quid (quod) 455, page 307

aliquid (aliquod) 456, n 308

quidquam ' 456, ii 308

quidque (quodque) 456, m 308

quiddam (quoddam) 456, «i 308

quidvis (quodvis) 456, ^ i)08

utrumque 456, m 308

.152 Latin Lessons for Beginners.


531. Indicative Active.


First Conjug. Second Conjug. Third Conjug. Fourth Conjug

amO moneO regO audid

amas mones regis audis

amab monet regib audit

amamus monemus regimus audimus

amatis monetis regitis auditis

amanb monenb regunfc audiunb


amabam monebam regebam audiebam

[ama-bam, -bas, -bat, ama-bamus, -batis. -bant]


amabd monebo regam audiam

amabis monebis reges audies

amabib monebib regeb audieb

amabimus monebimus regemus audiemus

amabitis monebitis regetis audietis

amabunb monebunb regent audienb


amavi ttionui rSxI audivi

amavisti monuisbl rexisti audivisti

amavib monuib rexib audivib

amavimus monuimus reximus audivimus

amavistis ’ monuistis • rexistis audivistis

amaverunt* monuerunt* rexerunb* audiverunt*


amaveram monueram rexeram audiveram

[amav-eram, -eras, -erat. amav-eramus, -eratis, -eranbj

Future Perfect.

-'maverd monuero rexerO audiverfi

[amav-ero, -eris, -erit, amav-erimus, -eritis. -erint]

For .ernnt, -Sre also is found, especially in poetry.

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 353

532. Indicative Passive


Fir^ Cotyug. Second Conjug. Third Conjug. Fourth Conjug.

amor moneor regor audior

amaris* moneris* regeris* audiris*

amatur monetur regitur auditur

amamur monemur regimur audimur

amamin! monemini regimini audimini

amantur monentur reguntur audiuntur


amabar mongbar reggbar audigbar1MSS -baris*, -b&tur. ama-bamor, *bamin! , •banturj


amabor monfibor regar audiar

amaberis* moneberis* reggris* audieris*

amabitur mongbitur reggtur audigtur

amabimur mongbimur reggmur audigmur

amabimini mongbimini reggmini audigmini

amabuntur monebuntur regentur audientur


amatus sum monitus sum rgctus sum auditus sumM es n es II es II es

II esb •I est II est II est

amati sumus moniti sumus rgcti sumus auditi sumus

II estis II estis II estis II estis

II sunt II sunt II sunt 1 . sunt


amatus eram monitus eram rgctus eram auditus eram

[amatus eram, eras, erat. amati eramus, erMis, erant]

Future Perfect.

amatus er6 monitus erg rgctus erg auditus erg

[amatus erO, eris, erit, amati erimus, eritis, erunt. ]

*For .rlsy >re also is found, especially in the imperfect and future tenaes.

354 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

533 . Subjunctive Active.


First Conjug. Second Conjug. Third Conjug. Fourth Conjug

amem moneam regam audiamames moneas regas audias

ameb moneab regab audiab

amemus moneamus regamus audiamus

ametis moneatis regatis audiatis

ament moneant reganb audianb


amarem monerem regerem audirem

amares moneres regergs audires

amareb monereb regereb audireb

amaremus moneremus regeremus audiremus

amaretis moneretis regeretis audiretis

amarent monerenb regerenb audirenb


amaverim monuerim rexerim audiverim

amaveris monuerls rexeris audlveris

amaverib monuerit rexerib audiverib

amaverlmus monuerimus rexerimus audiverimus

amaveritis monueritis rexeritis audiveritis

amaverinb monuerinb rexerinb audiverinb


amavissem monuissem rexissem audivissem

amavisses monuisses rexisses audivisses

amavisseb monuisset rexisset audivissefc

amavissemus monuissemus rexissemus audivissem us

amavissetis monuissetis rexissetis audivissetis

amavissent monuissent rexissent audu issent

535. Gerund.

Gen. amandi monendi regendi audiendi

Dat. amando monendo regendo audiendo

Acc. amandum monendum regendum audiendum

Ahl. amandO monendo regendo audiendo

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 355

534. Subjunctive Passive.


First Conjug. Second Conjug. Third Conjvg. Fourth Conjug*

amer monear regar audiar

ameris* inonearis* regaris* audiaris*

ametur moneatur regatur audiatur

amemur- moneamur regamur audiamur

amemini moneamini regamini audiamini

amentur moneantur regantur audiantur


amarer monerer regerer audirer

amaieris* monereris* regereris* audireris*

amaretur moneretur regeretur audiretur

amaremur monSremur regeremur audiremur

amaremini moneremini regeremini audireminl

amarentur monerentur regerentur audirentur


amatus sim monitus sim rectus sim audibus sim

M sis II sis II sis II sis

II sib II sib II sib II sib

amatl simus monibi simus recbi simus audibi simus

•I sitis n sitis II sitis II sibis

II sint II sinb II sinb II sinb


amabus essem monitus essem rectus essem auditus essem

II esses II esses II esses II essgs

II esseb II esseb II • esseb II esseb

amati essemus moniti essemus recti essemus audit! essemui

- II essetis II essetis II essetis II essetis

II essenb II essenb II essenb H essenb

536 . Supine.

Acc, amatum monitum rectum auditum

Ahl. amatu monita recta audita

For -rls, -re also is found.

356 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

537. Imperative Active


Sing. 2. ama mone rege audi

riur. 2. amate monete regite audite


Sing. 2. amatd moneto regibo audits

3. amatO moneto regito audits

Plur. 2. amatote monetote regitote auditote

3. amantd monento reguntO audiuntO

539. Infinitive Active.


am&re monere regere audire


am§.viss(} monuisse rgxisse audivisse


amaturus esse moniturus esse rScttlrus esse auditurus esse

541 . Participles Active.


am§.ns monens reggns audi@ns


amatdrus monitOrus recttirus audittlrus

543 . Third Conjugation ; Verbs in -io.

Indicative. Subjunctive.

Act^ Pamm. Active. Passive.

PRES. oapio capior capiam capiar

capis caperis capias capiaris

capit capitur capiat capiatur

capimus capimur capiamus capiamur

capitis capimini capiatis capiamini

capiunt capiuntur capianb capiantur

IMPEBF. • capiebam capiebar caperem caperer

FUT. capiam capiar

PBBF. cepi captus sum ceperim captus sim

PLtJPERF. o^peram capbus eram cepisaem oaptus essem

'Wtrr. PEBF. oeperO capbus ©r6

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 357

538. Imperative Passive.


Sing. 2. amare monere regere audire

Plwr. 2. amamin! monemini regimini audimini


Sing. 2. amator monetor regitor auditor

3. amator monetor regitor auditor

Plur. 3. amantor monentor reguntor audiuntor

540. Infinitive Passive.


am&ri moneri regi audiri


amatus esse monitus esse rectus esse auditus esse


amatum iri monitum irl rectum Iri auditum iri

542. Participles Passive.


amatus monitus rectus auditus


amandus monendus regendus audiendus

544. Third Conjugation : Verbs in -io ('continued).

Imperative.Active. Passive.

pres. cape capere

FUT. capito capitor


PRES. capere capi

PERF. cepisse captus esse

FUT. capturus esse captum iri


PRES. capiens PERF. captus

FUT. capturus GER. capiendus

Gerund. Supine.

capiendi captum

358 Latin Lessons for Beginners.


Indicative, 314, page 199. Subjunctive, 370, page 241.

Infinitive, 334, page 213.


First Conj. Second Conj. Third Covj. Fourth Conj,

PRES. conare verere ' sequere sortire

FUT. conator veretor sequitor sorbibor


PRES. Conans verens sequens sortiens

FUT. cQnaturus veriturus secuturus sortiturus

PERF. conatus veritus secutus sortibus

GER. conandus verendus sequendus sorbiendus,


conandi verendi sequeridi sortiendi


cOnatum veritum secutum sortibum


546. Sum, esse, fui.

Indicative. Subjunctive.


sum sumus sim simus

es estis sis sitis

est sunt sit sinb


eram eramus essem essemus

eras eratis esses essebis

erat erant esseb essenb


erO erimus

eris eritis

erit erunt


fui fuimus fuerim fuerimus

fuisti fuistis fueris fueribis

fuit fuerunt) fuerib fuerint

Latin Lessons for Beginners.


" fueram fueramus fuissem fuissemus

fueras fueratis fuisses fuissetis

fuerat fuerant fuisset fuissent

FUTURE PERFECT.fuero fuerimus

fueris fueritis

fuerit fuerint

Infinitive. Imperative.

PRES. esse PRES. Sing. 2. es

PERE. fuisse Plur. 2. esbe

PUT. futurus esse or fore FUT. Sing. 2. esto

Participle. 3, esto

PUT. futurus Plur. 2. estote

3. suntO

547. Possum, posse, potui.

Indicative. Subjunctive.

-^RES. possum possumus possim possimus

potes potestis possis possitis

potest possunt possit possint

IMPERP. poteram possem

PUT. potero

PERP. potui potuerim

PLUPERP. potueram potuissem

PUT. PERP. potuero

Infinitive. Participle.

PRES. posse PRES, potens

PERP. potuisse {adj.)

548. Volo, velle, volui. Nolo, nolle, nolui.

Malo, malle, malui.


volQ nolo mal5

vis non vis mavis

vult non vult mavult

volumus nolumus malumusvultis non vultis mavultis

voluni nolunt malunv

360 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

IMPBBF, volebam nolebam malebamFUT, volam nolam malamPERF. volui nOlui malui

PLUPERF. volueram nolueram malueram

FUT. PERF. voluero noluero maluerO


PRES. velim nolim malim

IMPERF. vellem nQllem mallem

PERF. voluerim nOluerim maluerim

PLUPERF. voluissem noluissem maluissem


PRES. velle nolle malle

PERF. voluisse nOluisse maluisse


PRES. volens nolens


PRES. noli, nolite

FUT. nOlito

549. Fero, ferre, tuli, latum.


Active. Passive.

PRES. ferO ferimus feror ferimur

fers fertis ferris ferimini

fert) ferunt fertur feruntur

IMPERF, ferSbam ferebar

FUT. feram ferar

PERF. tuli latus sumPLUPERF. tuleram latus eram

PUT. PERF. tulerO latus ero


PRES. feram ferar

IMPERF. ferrem ferrer

PERF. tulerim latus sim

PLUPERF. tulissem latus esseoa


PBES. fer, ferte ferre

FUT. ferto fertor

Latin Lessons for Beginners, 361

Infinitive. -

PRES. ferre ferri

PERF. tulisse latus esse

FUT. laturus esse


latum iri

PRES. ferSns perp. latus

PUT. laturus GER.






550. E6, ire, ii, itum. 551. Fio, fieri, factus sum.


PRES. eo Imus

is Itis

it eunt

fio (fimus)

fis (fitis)

fit fiunt

IMPERF. Ibam fiebam

FUT. Ibo fiam

PERF. ii factus sumPLUPERF. leram factus eram

FUT. PERF. iero


factus ero

PRES. earn fiam

IMPERF. irem fierem

PERF. ierim factus sim

PLUPERF. iissem


factus essem



i, ite



fi, fite

PRES. ire fieri

PERF. iisse factus esse

FUT. iturus esse


factum iri

PRES. i6ns, Gen. euntis - perf. factus

FUT. iturus GER.




3. Capitol.

4. Colosseum.5. Arch of Constantine.

6. Arch of Titus.

9. Trajan's Column.10. Pantheon.11. Tomb of Hadrian.12. Baths of Caracalla.

13. Cloaca Maxima.


552. The Tomb of Hadrian (Moles Hadri^i). {Frontispiece.)

“ The Mole which Hadrian rear'd on high.

Imperial mimic of Old Egypt's piles."

This tomb, now known as the Castle of St. Angelo, was begun bythe Emperor Hadrian {Publius Aelius Hadrianus) and completed about140 A.D. In it were buried Hadrian and several other Romanemperors. The circular portion is more than 80 yards in diameterand the total height was about 165 feet. It is on the right bank of

the Tiber and is. connected with the city by the bridge of St. Angelo,formerly called Pons Aelius, after Hadrian, by whom it was built

136 A.o.

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 363

553. The Appian Way (Via Appia). (Page 17.)

“-He drove abroad, in furious guise.

Along the Appian Way.”

The Romans were the most skilful builders of enduring roads theworld has ever known. The most celebrated highway constructed

by them is the Appian Way, which even at the present day well

merits its ancient title “Queen of Roads.” It was built by AppiusClaudius Caecus about 312 b.c. and extends some 350 miles south-east

from Rome to Brindisi, the ancient Brundisium, the regular port of

departure for Greece. The road-bed is paved with stones, and is

about 16 feet wide.

554. Tomb of Caecilia Metella. (Page 32.)

“ Thus much alone we know—Metella died.

The wealthiest Roman's wife: Behold his love or pride."

Oh each side of the Appian Way, near Rome, were' tombs of famouscitizens. One of these tombs is that built in the time of Julius

Caesar in honor of Caecilia Metella, the wife of the triumvir Crassus.

It stands about two or three miles from the city gate, and is animmense circular pile about 70 feet in diameter, built of great blocksof hewn stone on a quadrangular foundation. The marble withwhich the basement was formerly coated was removed about threecenturies ago to make the fountain of Trevi in Rome.

555. The Pantheon. (Page 64.)

“ Sanctuary and homeOf art and piety—Pantheon !—pride of Rome.”

The Pantheon (the temple of all the gods), the best preservededifice of the ancient Romans, was built by Marcus Agrippa 27 B.c.,

as an inscription on the portico still bears witness. It is now theChurch of Sta. Maria della Rotonda. Its diameter is about 140 feetand its height 'practically the same. The vast rotunda is lighted bya circular opening, 27 feet in diameter, at the apex of the dome. Infront is a splendid portico, 110 feet wide and 45 feet deep, composedof 16 Corinthian columns of granite 13 feet in circumference and39 feet high.

556. The Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheatre). (Page 81.)

“ While stands the Coliseum, Rome shall stand.When falls the Coliseum, Rome shall fall."

The Colosseum, of which only about one-third remains, is thelargest theatre and one of the most imposing structures in the world.It was begun by the Emperor Flavius Vespasianus, and completed byhis son Titus in the year 80 a.d. Since the 8th century it hasgenerally been called the Colosseum, after the colossal statue of Nero

364 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

which formerly stood close by. It is more than 600 feet long and500 wide. The arena was about 280 feet by 175. The encircling

wall rises in four stories to the height of 156 feet. In the Colosseumtook place gladiatorial combats and fights with wild beasts. It wascapable of holding 87,000 spectators seated, or about 100,000 in all.

557. The Claudian Aqueduct. (Page 113.)

This famous aqueduct was builfc by the Emperor Claudius about50 A. D. It was constructed for the purpose of conveying water toRome from the lakes and springs in the Alban hills, a distance of

about 45 miles. Its ruins are now a striking feature of the RomanCampagna. Between 300 b.c. and 300 a.d. fourteen aqueducts werebuilt to supply Rome, and others were constructed in various parts of

the Empire, such as the one at Nemausus (now Nismes, or Nimes)in southern Gaul (page 239).

558. Cloaca Maxima. (Page 113.)

“ The Great Drain,” which is about half a mile in length, was con-structed in the time of Tarquinius Prisons, the fifth king of Rome(about 600 B.C.), for the purpose of rendering habitable the lowground which formed the site of the Roman Forum. After anextremely tortuous course it empties into the Tiber a little below theIsland. Several natural streams of water are collected in this drainand still run through it. Near its mouth it is formed by three tiers

of arches, one within the other, the innermost being a semicircular

vault about 12 feet high; elsewhere it has a single arch with

occasional bands.

559. Trajan’s Column. (Page 128.)

This column, which stands in Trajan’s Forum, is of marble, andwas erected in 114 a.d. It is about 130 feet high, including thebase, with a diameter of 11 feet at the bottom and 10 feet at the top.

It was formerly crowned by a statue of Trajan, but this was replaced^

in the 16th century by one of St. Peter. A series of bas-reliefs repre-

senting scenes in Trajan’s Dacian campaign, forms a spiral, 3 feet

wide and 660 feet long, round the shaft of the pillar. The reliefs are2 feet high at the bottom and gradually increase in size as they goupward, thus making the figures at the top and bottom seem of equalsize. One of these scenes is represented on page 269. It is said thatthe bones of Trajan were buried under the column.

560. Triumphal Arches. (Pages 160, 273.)

These arches, so characteristic of the ancient Romans, were erectedin the most frequented streets to commemorate the victories of

generals or emperors. According to the space available, they had asingle arch, or three arches, a large one in the centre for carriages,

and two smaller ones for foot-passengers. Ancient writers mention21 such arches in Rome. The arch of Septimius Severus (75 feet highand 82 feet broad) was erected in honor of that emperor and his two

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 365

sons in a.d. 203 to commemorate his victories over the Parthians andArabians; The arch of Constantine, the best preserved of thesestructures, was erected by the Senate and the people of Rome after

the defeat of Maxentius in 311 a.d., when Constantine declaredhimself in favor of Christianity.

561. The Baths of Caracalla. (Page 177.)

Many magnificent baths {thermae) were constructed at Rome byvarious emperors, among them those built by Caracalla about 215 a.d.

These were of such extent as to accommodate 1,600 bathers at onetime. The magnificent suite of marble halls devoted to the various

baths, gymnasia and galleries, was surrounded by a belt of gardens;

the halls were richly decorated with statues, columns, bas-reliefs andmosaics. These baths covered a space 360 yards square ; to-daythey form the largest mass of ruins in Rome, except the Colosseum.

562. The Roman Forum. (Pages 209, 224, 256.


“ Now thy Forum roars no longer,

fallen every purple Caesar’s dome.”

The Forum, originally the open tract lying between the Capitolineand Palatine hills, was afterwards closely surrounded by temples,shops and basilicas. In the Forum the citizens assembled to discussaffairs of state and to transact private business; there justice wasadministered, and there, from the rostra, orators harangued thepeople. It was, in a word, the heart of the Roman Empire. Accord-ing to an old tradition, it was in the Forum that the Sabine women,in the days of Romulus, intervened to make peace between theRomans and the Sabines (page 65).

563. The Basilica of Constantine. (Page 321.)

The Basilicas of ancient Rome were splendid public buildings(commonly adorned with columns and statues) which served both ashalls of justice and as business exchanges. The basilica becamethe type of the earliest buildings for Christian worship, and the nameis still given to the larger churches in Rome. The Basilica of Con-stantine, builb about 312 a.d., had a nave and two aisles, and was320 feet in length and 235 feet in breadth. There remain now onlythree gigantic arches of the north aisle.

564. The Spoils of Jerusalem. (Page 336.)

Spanning the Sacred Way is the arch of Titus, erected to com-memorate the conquest of Judea by Vespasian and his son Titus in

70 B.c. On the inner side of the single arch are bas-reliefs, repre-

senting on the one side the triumph of Titus, and on the other thespoils taken from the temple at Jerusalem, including the seven-

branched golden candlestick, the golden table and the silver trumpets,spoils which had been brought to Rome and deposited in one of its



LATIN-ENGLISH.[The numbers refer to sections.

Aft, alb, prep, with abl., from ;

by; on.

abdS, ere •didl, ‘dltum, hide, con-


abdflcft, ere, •dftxl, •ductnin, carry

away, carry off.

abjlclo, ere, -jeci, •Jectuiii, throwaway.

abstlneo, Sre, ui, >tentuiii, hold

aloof, abstain.

absuin, abesse, ftfiii, be away, be

distant, be absent.

ac, conj., and, and also.

aecSdC, ere, -cess*, -cessuni, ap-

proach, draw near.

aceldo, ere, -cldl, happen, befall.

acclplS, ere, -ceplj •ceptum, re-

ceive; suffer.

Acbllles, is, m., Achilles, the hero

ofHomer's Iliad.

acl€s, el, f., line (of battle).

acrlter, adv., fiercely., vigorously.

ad, prep, with acc.^ to, towards,

against ; with a view to, for ;until.

addaco, ere, -durl, -ductuni,

bring;influence, induce, move.

adeo. Ire, -ii, >lti*in, advance


approach, visit.

adltns, tts, m., appi«»ach, means of


admlulstro, are, avl, atiiiu,

manage, attend to

adorlor, iri, -orpins sum, attack,


adsum, >esse, '%i, be present, beat hand.

adulSscSns, •e»tls, m., young man.

adveutus, as, M., arrival, approach,

aedlflco, are, avl, atum, build.

Aednl, urum, m. plur., the Aedui,a tribe in central Gaul.

aegre, adv., with difficulty, scarcely,

aequus, a, um, fair, right,

aestas, *tfttls, f., summer,

afllclo, ere, -feci, -fectum, affect,

visit, overcome.

affirmo, are, avi, atum, declare.

Agamemuon, -onls, m., Agamem-non, a Grecian king.

ager, agri, m., land, field, territory,

agger, -erls, m., mound,

aggredlor, I, -gressns sum, attack,

agmen, -minis, n., line of march,column.

ago, ere, ggi, actum, drive, moveforward

; do ; treat, confer,

alacritiis, -tatis, f., ardor, activity,

aliquautum, adv., some distance.

ailquis(-qiii), -qua, -quid (-quod),

someone, something [456].

aliter, adv., in another way ; aliter

atque, otherwise than,

alius, a, ud, other, another [207].

Alpes, ium, f. plur., the Alps,

alter, era, erum, the other [207].

altltudo, -dlnls, f., height, depth,

altus, a, um, high, deep ; n., altum,I, as noun, the sea.

ftpientia, ae, f. , frenzy, madness,

amicltla, ae, f., friendship,

amicus, a, um, friendly; superLt

closest or dearest friend.

Latin Lessons for Beginners, 367

amlens, i, m., friend,

amltto, ere, >mlsf, •mlssnm, lose,

aniplliis, adv.,comparative,tavt\iev,

any more.

aiicora, ae, f., anchor,

aiigustus, a, uni, narrow, scanty.

anlniadTertS, ere, >11, >81101, notice,


animus, I, m., spirit, heart,

an11ns, I, M., year,

ante, prep, with ace., before,

antea, adv., before, previously,

aiiteqnam, conj., before,

apertns, a, nni, open, clear ; un-


appareo, ere, nl, Itnm, be clear, beevident.

appello, sire, avi, sitnm, name, call,

approplnqno, are, avl, atnm, ap-

proach, with dot.

apnil, prep, with acc., with, among,

aqua, ae, F., water.

Arar, Ararls, m., Arar, a river in


arbltror, ari, atus sum, think,


ardeo, ere, arsi, arsnm, burn, befired.

ArloTlstns, I, m., Ariovistus, a Ger-

man king.

arnia, oruni, N. plur., arms,

armsltus, a, um, armed,

ars, artls, p., art.

atque, conj., and, and also,

anetor, -torls, m., advocate, adviser,

anctorltas, -tatls, f., influence,


audacter, adv., boldly,

andax, >acls, bold, daring,

andeo, ere, ausus sum, venture,

dare 1313].

audio. Ire, ItI, Itnm, hear.

angeO, Ore, anxi, anctnm, increase [225, N.B.].

aureus, a, 11in, golden,

aut, conj., or ; ant . . ant, either. . or.

antem, conj., but, however,

antnmnns, 1, M., autumn,

anxlllnm, I, n., aid, help; plur.,

auxiliaries, reinforcements,

arerto, ere, -ti, >sum, turn aside.

Bbacnlnm, I, n., staff, wand,

barbarns, I, m., barbarian.

Belga, ae, m., Belgian,

belllcosns, a, 11m, warlike,

bello, are, avi, atnm, make war.

bellnni, I, n., war.

bene, adv., well.

beneftelum, i, n., kindness, favor,

benigne, adv., courteously, withkindness.

benignltsis, >tatls, f., kindness,


blbo, ere, blbi, drink,

bonus, a, 11m, good,

brevi, adv., soon, in a short time,

brevis, e, short, brief.

Britannia, ae, F., Britain.

Brltannus, i, m., Briton.

Ccado, ere, cecldi, eiTsiim, fall,

caeeiis, a, um, blind.

Caesar, >arls, m., Caesar, especially

Caius Julius Caesar, 100-kU B.C.

calamltils, >tatls, f., disaster, de-


calefaclu, ere, -feci, -factum, heat,

eaplo, ere, cepi, capl 11111, take,

capture ; take up ; adopt, form,

captivns, i, m., prisoner, captive,

caput, capitis, N., head.

368 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

earmen, •minis, n., song; charm,


car5, caruls, f., flesh,

carrns, I, m., cart, wagon,

castra, oruiii, n. plur., camp,

cansa, ae, f., cause, reason ; abl.

causa, for the sake (of), for the

purpose (of) [181].

cSdO, ere, cessi, cessnm, give way,retire.

celer, erls, ere, swift, speedy,

celerlt&s, •tails, f., swiftness, speed,

celerlter, adv., quickly, swiftly,

speedily, soon.

cCn5, are, avi, fltnm, dine,

centum, a hundred.

centurlS, •dnls, m., centurion,

certus, a, um, flxed, certain ; cer^

tl5rem facl5, inform,

ceterl, ae, a, the others, the rest,

clbus, I, M., food.

Clrc€, ®s, F., Circe, a sea-nymph andsorceress.

elrclter, adv. and prep, with acc.,


clrcum, prep, with acc., around,


clrcumdo, dare, -dedi, •datum,surround, enclose.

clrcumTeulo, Ire, •vSnl, •ventum,surround.

clterlor, •Oris, nearer ; Clterlor

dallla, hither Gaul, south of the

Alps and north of Italy.

elvls. Is, M., citizen.

clTltOs, •tails, F., citizenship ; state,


clOmltO, Ore, Ovi, atum, cry out.

elOmO, Ore, OtI, Otum, shout, cry


elftmor, •Oris, m., shout, shouting,


elasils. Is, F., fleet.

coepl, Isse, began [125].

cOgnOscO, ere, cOgnOvl, cOgnltum,learn, find out, ascertain ; perfect,


cOgO, ere, coegl, coOctnm, collect


compel, force.

cohors, cohortls, f., cohort,

cohortor, ari, atus sum, encourage,

urge, exhort,

coins. Is, M., hill.

collocO, are, OtI, atum, station,

colloquium, I, N., interview, con-


colloquor, I, •lociltus sum, havean interview, confer,

commeatus, Qs, M., supplies, pro-


commlnus, adv., hand to hand, at

close range.

commlttO, ere, •mlsi, •mlssum,Join, engage ; entrust.

commoveO, ere, •mOvi, •mOtum,alarm, dismay, disturb, excite,

commflnls, e, common, general,


comparO, are, avI, Otum, get

together, procure.

compello, ere, •pull, •pulsum,drive.

complector, 1, •plexus sum, em-brace.

compleS, ere, evl, etum, fill,

complfires, a (gen. •lum), several,

comporto, are, iivi, iitiim, bring

together, collect.

comprehendo, ere, •beudl, •hen^

sum, seize, catch.

concMS, •ere, •cessi, cessum, grant,


concilium, I, n., meeting, council,

condo, ere, -dldl, •dltnm, store, putaway; found.

cOnectO, ere, •nexnl, •nexam,fasten together.

Latin Lessons for Beginners, 369

cSnferS, ferre, contnll, coliatnm,collect, gather, convey; se con-ferre, betake one’s self, go.

cAnftclS, ere, -feci, -fectnm, finish,

accomplish ; confectns, exhausted.

cSnfIdO, ere, -fIsas sam, trust, with

dat. [313].

cdnfIrmO, are, fivl, atum, strength-

en ; encourage, arouse ; establish ;


c5nfugl9, ere, -ffigi, flee,

congredlor, 1, -gressus sum, en-

gage, fight.

coiijlelo, ere, -jeci, -jectnm, hurl,


conjnngd, ere, -Jfinxl, -jauctum,unite, join [282, N.B.].

cSnor, ari, atns sum, try, attempt.

conquirS, ere, -quislTl, -qalsltum,

look about for.

cSnscendo, ere, -scendi, -scensum,climb ; embark.

conscribS, ere, -scrips!, -scriptum,

enrol, enlist.

consequor, I, -secAtus sum, over-

take ; attain, acquire.

c5nsld5, ere, -sedl, -sessam, en-


cSnslllam, I, n., plan, design, pur-

pose ; commAnl conslllo, by com-mon consent.

consists, ere, -stltl, take up posi-

tion ; halt.

conspectus. As, M., sight, view.

consplclO, ere, -spexi, -spectnm,see, observe.

constltnO, ere, -ul, -Atum, deter-

mine ; fix, appoint.

cSnsnOscO, ere, -snev!, -snetum,become accustomed [243, N.B.].

eOnsnOtAdo, -dints. F., custom.

•Onsnlo, ere, -ul, -turn, consult


take thought.

cousAmo, ere, -sAmpsI, -sAmptum,spend ; exhaust, destroy,

contends, ere, -tend!, -tentum,strive ; hasten ; contend,

contlnens, -entls, incessant, con»

tinual ; unbroken, continuous,

contlnens, -entls, f., mainland, COU"


contlnenter, adv., continually, con-


contlneS, ere, ul, -teiitum, confine,

restrain, hem in ; enclose, bound,

contlnuns, a, um, successive,

contra, ijrep. with acc., against.

contrOversla, ae, f., quarrel, dis-


convents. Ire, -venl, -ventum,coma together, assemble,

converts, ere, -vertl, -versum,turn, change [282, N.B.].

convlvliim, I, n., feast, banquet.

convocS, are, SvI, atum, call to

gether, summon.

coorlor, Irl, -ortus sum, arise, breakout.

cSpla, ae, f., plenty, supply, abund-ance ; plur., forces, troops.

cSplSsns, a, um, rich.

cornA, As, N., horn ; wing,

corpus, -oris, N., body.

corrlplS, ere, -rlpul, =reptumsnatch up, seize,

cotldlanns, a, nm, daily,

cotidle, adv., daily, everyday,

Crassus, I, m., Crassus, a Romanname.

creber, bra, brum, frequent, numer-ous.

credS, ere, -did!, -dltum, believe.

crAdells, e, cruel.

crAdelltep, adv., cruelly, withcruelty.

cum, prep, with abl„ with.

370 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

cam, cory., when ; since, as.^

enplde, adv., eagerly,

cnpidltiis, -tatls, F., eagerness, long-


cupldiis, a, nni, desirous, eager,


cflr, adv., why.

cnrsns, us, m., course,

cnstfis, -odls, M., guard, keeper.

CyclSps, -opts, M., Cyclops, one ofafabulous race ofgiants, in Sicily.

DA^,prep. with abl., down from, from,

down ;concerning, about, of.

dSbltns, a, um, due, proper, well


decedO, ere, -cessi, •ccssnm, with-


decern, ten.

dCcerno, ere, -crevi, •ci-Stuni, de-

cree, assign,

declmns, a, nm, tenth,

dedltlo, ‘Oitls, F., surrender [263].

dedo, ere, -dldl, •dltnm, surrender,

[282, N.B.].

dSdrico, ere, -duxl, •ductiim, lead

off, withdraw ; draw down, launch,

defendu, ere, •fendi, -feiisnm, de-


defSusor, «drls, m., defender.

d6fero, -ferre, -full, •latum, carrydown ; bring ; report,

deficlo, ere, -feci, -fectuni, fail,

give out.

delude, adv., then, next,

dejlcio, ere, -JecI, jectum, cast

down ; dislodge ; disappoint,

dellgd, are, avi, alum, tie, moor.

dCllgS, ere, -legi, •lectuin, choose.

dSmSnstro, are, iivi, atum, pointout, explain ; mention, make men-tion.

demnm, adv., at length,

densns, a, um, thick, dense,

depello, ere, ‘PulI, ^pulsum, drive

away, drive, remove,

depono, ere, •posui, -posltum, lay

down; deposit; putaway, abandon.

deslllS, Ire, •slliii, •sultum, leat


deslsto, ere, •stltl, •stltnm, cease,


despero, are, avI, atum, despair,

destrlngo, ere, -strioxi, -strictum,

draw, unsheathe.

desum, deesse, defui, be wanting,be lacking.

deterreo, ere, ui, Itiim, deter,


detlneo, ere, ui, •teutum, detain,


deus, I, M., a god.

devoro, are, avi, atum, devour, eat.

dexter, tra, trum, right.

dice, ere, dixi, dictum, say, speak


appoint, fix.

dies, ei, m„ day.

dllDcllls, e, difficult, hard,

dlfllcultas, ‘tatls, f., difficulty,

dillgeus, ’entls, careful, diligent,

dillgenter, adv., carefully,

dillgentla, ae, f., care, diligence.

diinlcO, are, avi, atum, fight, en-


dimltto, ere, -misi, -mlssum, sendout, despatch ; dismiss.

dlscedr>, ere, -cessi, -cessum, with-draw, depart, leave,

dlsccssus, fits, M., departure, with-drawal.

dlsjlcio, ere, -jeci, -Jectum, scat-


dlspono, ere, -posui, -posltum,pb c<^ <at intervals), post,

dlssluillls, e, dissimilar, unlike.

Latin Lessons for Beginners, 371

dIstO, ftre, be apart,

dlstrlbno, ere, -ul, fitniu, assign,

distribute, allot ; divide,

dill, adv., long, for a long time.

divellS, -ere, -velli, -Tnlsnm, tear


divldo, ere, -visi, -visnm, divide,


do, dare, dedi, datum, give,

doceo, ere, ul, doctnni, teach, ex-


dolor, 'Orls, M., pain, grief,

dolus, I, M., craft, cunning ; trick,

domus, fts, F., house, home ; do-mum, home, towards home ; do-mo, from home,

dormlo. Ire, ivi, itum, sleep,

dublto, are, avi, atum, hesitate;

have doubts.

ducenti, ae, a, two himdred.

ddc5, ere, dfixl, ductum, lead,

dulcls, e, sweet, pleasant,

dum, conj., while [273].

duo, ae, o, two.

duodeclm, twelve.

duodSvlglnti, eighteen,

duplex, -Icls, twofold, double,

dux, duels, M., leader, guide.

Eex, prep, with dbl., out of, from, of.

ebrlus, a, um, drunken.

Edfleo, ere, -dfix!, -ductum, lead


efflclo, ere, -feci, -fectum, eflfect,

accomplish, make; construct, build.

efTiiglo, ere, -fiigl, escape,

egi, from agii.

ego, mel, I.

egredior, i, -gressus sum, go forth,

issue forth ; leave ; disembark,


SgreglS, adv., excellently.

€Jlcl6, ere, -j6cl, -Jectum, throwout ; s6 ejlcere, rush out.

emlttb, ere, -misl, -mlssum, sendout.

enlm, conj., for.

eo. Ire, li (IvI), Itum, go.

eo, adv., thither, there, thereon,

eqiies, eqiiltls, M., horse-soldier;

plur., cavalry.

equester, trls, tre, of cavalry,


eqiiltatus, fis, M., cavalry,

equus, i, m., horse,

erro, are, avI, atum, wander,

erumpo, ere, -rupl, -ruptnm,break out, sally out.

SruptlG, -onls, f., sally, sortie,

et, conj., and ; et , . et, both . . ana.

etlam, adv., even, also,

etsi, conj., although.

Euryloebus, 1 , m., Eurylochus, acompanion of Ulysses.

evado, ere, -vasi, -vasum, escape.

evenlG, Ire, -v5nl, -ventum, turnout.

ex, prep, with abl., out of, from, of.

excedo, ere, -cessi, -cessum, with-draw.

exclplo, ere, -cepi, -ceptum, re-

ceive, welcome,

exclto, are, avi, atum, arouse.

exeo, Ire, -11, -Itum, go out, goforth, leave.

exercitus, us, m., army.

exhaurlo. Ire, -liaiisl, -haustum,drain.

exlstlmo, are, avi, atum, think,consider.

expedlo, ire, ivi, Itum, set free,

make ready; expeditus, in lightmarching order.

expello, ere, -puli, -pulsum, driv«out.

372 Latin Lessons for Beginners,

expl5rator, -tSFls, m., scout.

explorS, are, avi, atnni, examine,


exp5n5, ere, -posui, -posltum, putout ; In terrain exp5no, land, putashore.

expfigno, are, avi, atnni, storm,

take by storm,

exsllluni, I, N., exile,

exspecto, are, avi, atnni, await,

wait (for) ; expect ; wait.

extrSmns, a, nni, outermost ; mostdistant, remotest.


facile, adv., easily,

facllls, e, easy.

faclo, ere, feci, faetnni, do ; make,build.

facnltas, *tiltls, F., opportunity



falsns, a, niii, false,

filina, ae, f., rumor, report,

fames. Is, f., hunger,

fere, adv., almost, nearly.

ferS, ferre, tnli, latum, bear, carry,

bring ; endure, stand,

fessus, a, urn, wearied.

fldeUs, e, faithful,

fides, ei, f., faith, faithfulness,


flgara, ae, f., shape, figure,

filla, ae, f., daughter,

flllns, i, M.^son.

finis. Is, M., end ; plur., borders,


finltlmns, a, uni, neighboring,

adjacent ; as noun, neighbor,

f15, fteri, factiis sum, be made ; bedone ; happen.

firms, are, avi, atiiiii, strengthen,

flrmns, a, nm, strong.

fle5, 6re, Cvi, etnm, weep, be ill


flnctns, tts, M., wave,

flfimen, ^mlnls, n., river,

fluo, ere, flftxi, Iluxum, flow,

fluvlns, i, M., river,

fous, fontls, M., spring, fountain,

foris, adv., out of doors, outside,

forma, ae, p., form, appearance,

formosus, a, uni, beautiful,

forte, adv., by chance, as it hap-


fortls, e, brave.

fortlter, adv., bravely, gallantly.

fortltfldS, ‘dlnis, F., bravery,

fortflna, ae, p., fortune ; plur., re-

sources, possessions, property,

fossa, ae, p., trench,

frango, ere, fregi, fractiim, break,

shatter ; crush,

frater, -trls, m., brother.

frOns, frontls, f., forehead,

frnctus, ds, m., fruit,

frumentarlus, a, urn, of grain [274].

framentor, ari, atus sum, forage,

get provisions.

framentum, i, n., grain, corn,

fruor, I, fructus sum, enjoy, with


fi*jlstra, adv., in vain,

fnga, ae, p., flight [211, 289].

fiiglo, ere, fdgi, fugltnm, flee, es-


furor, 'Srls, m., rage, frenzy.

GCiallla, ae, p., Gaul.

Gallus, i, M., a Gaul,

gaudlnm, i, n., joy, rejoicing,

genns, *eris, n., kind, sort.

Germania, ae, f., Germany.

Germaniis, i, M,, German.

Latin Lessons for Beginners^ 373

gero, ere, gessl, gestum, carry,

conduct ;carry on, wage ; passive,

be done, take place; res gesta,

exploit, deed,

glgas, -antis, m., giant,

gladlus, I, M., sword.

Graecla, ae, f., Greece.

Graecus, I, M., Greek,

gratia, ae, F., gratitude; gratlamrefer©, make a return,

gravis, e, heavy, severe, serious;


gravlter, adv., seriously, severely,

gravo, are, avi, atum, overcome;

gravatus, heavy,

gusto, fire, fivi, fituin, taste.

Hhaheo, ere, ui, Itniu, have ; hold.

haMto, fire, fivI, fitnm, dwell,

hasta, ae, f., spear,

baiirlo. Ire, hausi, haustnm, drink


Hector, -oris, m,. Hector, the greatest

of the Trojan warriors.

Helena, ae, f., Helen, the fairest

woman of Greece.

Helvetll, oruni, lA.plur., the Helve-tians.

herba, ae, f., plant, herb,

blbema, orum, n. plur., wintercamp, winter quarters.

Me, baec, h6c, this ; the following;


Me, adv., here.

Memo, fire, fivi, fitnm, winter, passthe winter.

Mems, Memls, f., winter,

bomfi, -Inis, m., man ; plur., people,

bora, ae, f,, hour,

borrlbllls, e, terrible, dreadful,

bortor, firi, fitus sum, encourage,urge.

bospltlnm, i, N., hospitality,

bostls. Is, M., enemy,

bttc, adv., hither, here,

bfimfinus, a, urn, human,

buml, adv., on the ground.


Ibl, adv., there.

Idem, eadem. Idem, the same.

Idoneus, a, um, fit, suitable.

Igltnr, adv., accordingly, therefore.

Ignfiriis, a, um, ignorant, not know-ing.

Ignis, Is, M., fire.

ignoro, fire, fivi, fitnm, not know,be ignorant (of).

Iguotus, a, um, unknown, strange,

llle, a, ud, that, he.

impedlmentiim, I, n., hindrance;

plur., baggage.

Impedlo, Ire, ivl, Itiim, hinder, im-


Im-pello, ere, -pull, -pnlsiim, in-

cite, drive, impel.

Imperfitor, -torls, m., commander(in chief).

Imperfitum, i, n., command, order,


Iniperltus, a, nm, inexperienced,


Imperlnm, i, n., command, control,

rule, sway,supremacy,sovereignty,

Impero, fire, fivi, fitnm, give orders,

command, order, rule, govern, withdat.; require, demand [181, N.B.].

Impetro, fire, fivi, fitnm, obtain (a


Impetus, Its, M., attack, onset.

Imploro, fire, fivi, fitnm, beseech.

Impono, ere, -posnl, -posltnm,place upon, place.

In, prep, with dbl., in, on, among;with acc., into, to, on.

374 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

Incendo, ere, •eendi, •censani,

burn ; inflame,

Incldo, ere, -cldi, -casum, fall into.

Includu, ere, •clfisi, -clfisum, shut

up, imprison.

Incognltus, a, nni, unknown,

liicola, ae, m., inhabitant.

Incolo, ere, -colui, dwell, inhabit.

Incolnmls, e, safe, unharmed, in-


Ineommodnm, I, N., misfortune,

loss, damage.

Incredlbllls, e, incredible.

Inde, adv., thence ; then.

Ineo, -Ire, -li, -Itnm, enter; enter

upon, begin ; adopt, form [421].

Infectns, a, nm, not done ; re In-

fects!, ahl. absol., without accom-

plishing one’s purpose.

Inferior, -oris, lower,

infero, ferre, Intiill, lllatUni,

bring ; cause, inflict [394].

Ingens, -entls, huge, vast.

Inlnilcns, a, nm, unfriendly, hostile;

M., as noun, enemy.

Iniquus, a, nm, unfair, unjust.

Inltlum, I, N., beginning [445].

Injlclo, ere, -jeci, -Jectnm, put in ;

impart (to), inspire, arouse (in),

with dat.

Injfirla, ae, f., wrong doing, wrong,

injury, violence.

Innascor, I, -natns sum, spring up,

be aroused.

Inopla, ae, P., want, scarcity.

Inqiilt, defective verb, said he.

Insslnla, ae, f., madness; In Iii-

saiilani Incldo, become mad.

Inseqnor, I, -secfltus sum, follow

up, pursue.

Insldlae, ;!rnni, f. plur., ambush,

treachery ;per lusldlsis, treacher-


instltno, ere, -nl, -fltnm, under.

take ; set about [398] ; build, estab*


Instrno, ere, -strlixl, -stractnm,draw up, arrange ; equip, furnish.

Insula, ae, p., island.

Intellego, eve, -lexi, -leetnm, un-

derstand, be aware, perceive.

Integer, gra, grnm, fresh.

Inter, prep, with acc., between,among.

Interclildo, ere. -clfisl, -clAsum,cut off [438].

Interea, adv., meanwhile.

Interflclo, ere, -feci, -fectnm, kill,

slay, put to death.

Interim, adv., meanwhile, in the


Interior, -oris, inner, interior.

Intermltto, ere, -misl, -mlssnmput between ; passive, elapse.

Intervallum, I, N., interval, dis


Intra, prep, xoith acc., within.

Intro, are, avi, iitnm, enter.

Introeo, -Ire, -II (-ivi) -Itnm, enter.

Introltus, us, M., entrance.

Ihutllls, e, useless.

Invenlo, Ire, -veni, -ventum. And,

come upon.

Invlctns, a, uni, unconquered, in-


Invito, are, avI, iitnm, invite, urge.

Invltns, a, nm, unwilling, against

(one’s) will.

ipse, a, uni, himself, he himself.

Ira, ae, P., anger, wrath.

Irrumpo, ere, -rupl, -rnptum,

burst in, rush (in).

Irruo, ere, -rul, rush (in).

Is, ea, Id, he ; that, this, the.

H.a, adv., thus, so, in such a way.

italla, ae, f., Italy.

Latin Lessons for Beginners, 375

itaqne, aciu, accordingly, therefore.

Iter, Itliieris, N.,road, route ;march;

passage, right of passing.

Iteruni, adv., again, a second time.

Itbaca, ae, f., Ithaca, an island

west of Greece.


Jacl5, ere, jeci, Jactnni, hurl, throw,


Jam, adv., now, by this time, already.

Jilnua, ae, f., door, entrance.

Jubeo, ere, Jnssi, Jnssnm, order,

jungo, ere, Junxi, JAnctum, join


.lAra, ae, m.. Jura, a range ofmoun-tains in Gaul.

JAs, JArls, N., right, law.

JAstns, a, iiiii, just.


LablSnus, I, M., Labienus, tfne ofCaesar's staff in Gaul.

labor, m., toil, labor.

labSro, are, axl, atum, toil,

struggle, be in distress,

lac, lactis, n.,milk,

lacesso, ere, -Ivi, -Itnm, harass,

lacrlma, ae, f., tear,

lacus. As, M., lake,

laetltla, ae, p., joy, rejoicing,

lapis, -Idls, M., stone,

late, adv., widely, extensively,

lateo, ere, ul, be hidden.

latltAdo, •dials, f., width,

latns, a, urn, broad, wide,

latns, -erls, n., side, flank.

I€gatl5, -onls, f., embassy,

legatns, I, m., lieutenant, staff-

officer; ambassador, envoy,

leglo, -5nls, f., legion (6000 men).

leirlSuArlus, a, urn, legionary.

levls, e, light, slight, unimportant,

liber, era, erum, free ; undisturbed,

libere, adv., freely,

llberi, drum, m. piur., children,

libero, are, avi, atum, free.

Ubertas, ‘tatls, F., freedom.

Libya, ae, f., Libya, North Africa,

licet, ere, llcult, it is permitted,

with dat. and injin. ; renderfreely

by may, might,

llgueus, a, um, wooden,

llttera, ae, p., letter ; plur., des-

patch, letter.

lltus, -oris, N., shore, coast,

locus, I, M., place, position ; plur.

loca, N., places, ground, district.

locAtns, from loquor.

louge, adv., far.

lougltAdd, -dluls, p., length,

lougns, a, um, long,

loqiior, 1, locAtus sum, speak, say.

IStus, i, f., lotus.

LAclns, I, M., Lucius, a Romanname.

lAx, lAcls, F., light; prima lAx,

daybreak, dawn.

Mmagls, adv., more ; rather,

maglstratus. As, m., magistrate.

magulAceutla, ae, f., splendor.

magulAcus, a, um, splendid, sump-tuous.

magultAdo, -dluls, p„ greatness,

extent, size.

maguopere, adv., greatly, exceed-


luAguus, a, um, great, large ; forced

[95] ;loud [416] ; strong [500].

male, adv., badly,

malo, malle, malul, prefer, hadrather [401].

376 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

malum, I, n., evil, mishap, mis-


malus, a, um, bad, evil,

luaueo, ere, mausl, mausum, re-


maniis, as, f., hand; band, force.

Hlarcus, I, m., Marcus, a Romanname.

mare, marls, n., sea.

mater, matrls, f., mother.

matrlmSnlnm, I, n., marriage ; lumatrlmonlnm dtteo, marry,

miltare, adv., early, soon,

matard, are, avi, atum, make haste,

medlcameutiim, I, n., drug,

medloerls, e, moderate,

medlns, a, um, middle, mid [175].

membrum, 1, n., limb,

memlul, Isse, remember [268].

memor, -oris, mindful,

memorla, ae, f., memory [268].

nieueiaus, I, M., Menelaus, king ofSparta in Chreece.

mercator, -tSrls, M., trader.

Mereurlus, I, m,. Mercury, the mes-senger of the gods.

meridles, ei, m., midday, noon



lueus, a, um, my, mine,

miles, mllltls, m., soldier,

mintarls, e, military; of war.

mlnlme, adv., least, by no means,

mlnltor, arl, atns sum, threaten,

minus, adv., less ; si minus, if not.

miror, ari, atns sum, wonder,

mlrus, a, um, wonderful.

mlseeS, ere, mlscni, mlxtnm, mix.

mitts, ere, mlsl, mlssum, send,

modus, I, M., manner, fashion ; kind,

sort ;means.

moneS, Sre, ul, itum, advise, warn.

mOns, montls, m., moimtalu.

monstro, are, avl, atum, point out,,


mSustrum, 1, n., monster,

mora, ae, f., delay,

moror, ari, atus sum, delay, wait,

mors, mortis, f., death,

moves, ere, niSvI, mStum, move,

mox, adv., soon,

mulleis -erls, F., woman.

multltadS, -dliils, F., large number,amount.

multS, adv., much,

multum, adv., much,

multns, a, um, much ; plur., many,

munis, ire, ivi, Itnm, fortify, pro-


mttnltlS, -Suls, f., fortification,


mOuus, -erls, n., gift, offering,

marns, 1, m., wall.


uam, conj., for.

uanclscor, I, nactns sum, get, ob-

tain, meet with.

uatlS, -Suls, F., tribe, nation,

uatara, ae, F,, nature,

uanta, ae, m., sailor,

uavlcnla, ae, f., boat.

navlgS, are, avl, atum, sail,

navis. Is, F., ship,

ue, adv., lest, that . . not; not.

nee, conj., nor, and not ;uec . . uec,

neither . . nor.

uecessarlS, adv., necessarily, of ne-


uecS, are, fivi, atum, kill, slay.

negS, are, avl, atum, deny, say . .


uegStlum, 1, N., business, affair.

nemS (uSmlnls), M., no one, nobody;

m 606, 607, Noman [349].

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 377

neqne, conj., nor, and not; ueque .


ucque, neither . . nor.

neuter, tra, trum, neither [205J.

neve, conj., and not.

nllill, indeclinable, n., nothing,

nisi, conj., if not ; unless, except,

nobllls, e, well-born, noble; famous,

noceo, ere, ul, Itnm, harm, injure,

damage, with dat.

uoctli, adv., by night,

nolo, nolle, uOlnl, be unwilling, donot wish [401].

uomeu, -minis, n., name,

non, adv., not.

nondum, adv., not yet.

nSuue, not, in questions [342].

uonuftlll, ae, a, some, some few.

nos, nostrum, we.

uoster, tra, trnni, our [282].

nStfls, a, nm, known, familiar,

uovem, nine.

novltils, -tatls, F., novelty,

uovns, a, iiiii, new ; novae res,

change, revolution,

nox, uoctls, F., night,

nflllus, a, um, no, none, not one [205].

unm, in questions [342].

nnmerus, I, m., number,

numquam, adv., never,

nunc, adv., now.

nAntlS, sire, slvl, atnm, announce,report ; uantlsltum est, word wasbrought.

nAntlus, I, m., messenger,

nllper, adv., lately.

Oob, prep, with acc., on account of,

because of.

obllvlscor, I, oblltns sum, forget,

be forgetful, with gen.

obsecrS, are, avi, atnm, beg, be-


obses, obsldls, m., hostage.

obstruo, ere, -struxi, -straetnm,barricade.

obtempero, sire, avI, sltum, obey,

obtlneo, ere, ui, obteutum, hold,


oeeasl5, -5uls, f., opportunity,

occasns, lis, m., setting,

oceldo, ere, -cldi, -cisum, slay, kill,

oecnpatus, a, nm, occupied, busy,


oeenpo, are, sivi, atnm, seize, take

possession of.

occnrro, ere, -curri, -cursum,meet, with dat.

oeeauus, I, m., ocean,

oeto, eight,

ocnlus, i, M., eye.

ollm, adv., once upon a time,

omnlno, adv., in all, altogether ;

entirely ; only ; at all.

omuls, e, all, every,

ouerslrlus, a, nm, for b\irdens ;

navis onerslrla, transport,

onus, -erls, n., burden, weight,

oppldum, i, N., town,

opprlmo, ere, -pressl, -pressnm,overpower, overcome, burden.

oppfignatlo, -ouls, f., attack, as-


wppligno, are, slvl, atnm, attack,


optlmns, a, nm, best [195].

opns, >erls, n., work, task,

oratlo, -ouls, f., speech [300].

ordo, -dlnls, m., order ; rank, line,

orlor, Irl, ortns sum, arise, rise.

5r6, are, iivi, sltum, beg, entreat,

ostendd, ere, -tendl, -tensum or-teutum, show, disclose, declare,

ovls, Is, F., sheep.

378 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

ppalfls, «adls, F., marsh,

par, parts, equal [176],

parco, ere, peperci, parsiim, spare,

with dat.

p&reo, ere, ni, Itiim, be obedient,

obey, with dat.

Paris, 'Idls, m., Paris, a prince ofTroy.

par5, are, slTi, fitiim, prepare, pro-

cure [349] ; paratiis, a, iini, ready,

pars, partis, f., part ; side, direc-

tion [365].

parvus, a, iiin, small,

passim, adv., in every direction,

passns, fls, m., pace ; mDle passfls,

mile [231, fn.].

pater, patrls, m., father,

patlor, I, passus .sum, allow ; en-

dure, suffer.

patrla, ae, f., native land.

Patroelus, I, m., Patroclus, a Greekwarrior.

pauci, ae, a, few.

paucltiis, -tatls, f., small niimber.

paulu, adv., a little, shortly, some-


paulum, adv., a little, a short dis-


pax, pads, f., peace,

pecus, -oris, n., cattle, herd ; flock,

pedes, pedltls, m., foot-soldier ;

plur., infantry.

pedester, -trls, -tre, of infantry,

pedltatiis, as, m., infantry.

pellS, ere, pepnll, pulsum, drive;


PSnelope, es, F., Penelope, the wife

of Ulysses.

per, prep, with acc., through,

throughout ; about [507].

perfero, -ferre, -tuU, -latum, bring


report ; bear, submit to.


perfteia, ere, -fEci, -fectum, finish,

perlculosiis, a, iiiii, dangerous,

periculum, I, n., danger, risk,

perltiis, a, um, skilful, skilled, ac-

quainted, with gen. [432].

permoveo, ere, -movi, -motum, in-

fluence, affect, alarm,

perpauel, ae, a, very few.

perpetuus, a, um, unbroken, last-

ing;lu perpetuum, for ever.

perriimp5, ere, -rdpi, -ruptum,break through.

persplclu, ere, -spexi, -spectum,see clearly, perceive,

persuades, ere, -suasi, -suSsum,persuade, induce, with dat.

perterreo, ere, ui, Itum, terrify,


pertliieu, ere, ul, extend; tend,

perturbs, are, avi, atnm, throwinto confusion, confuse ; alarm. .

perveulS, Ire, -veui, -ventum,come, arrive, reach [125].

pes, pedis, m., foot [394].

pets, ere, petivi, petitum, seek


ask, request,

piliim, 1, N., javelin,

plnguls, e, fat.

plilnltles, Si, f., plain,

plurlmum, adv., most, very much,

plus, plurls, more [197].

pSculnm, i, N., cup, goblet,

poena, ae, f., penalty.

polUceor, eri, Itus sum, promise.

Polypbemus, I, n., Polyphemus,thefamous Cyclops.

pSuS, ere, posni, posltum, place;

pitch (camp) ; passive, depend (on).

pSns, pontls, m., bridge [349].

popiilor, ari, iitus sum, devastate,

lay waste.

populiis, 1, M., people, nation,

poreus, 1, M., pig, swine.

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 379

porta, ae, f., gate,

porto, iire, Jivi, iltuni, carry, bear,

portns, us, m., harbor,

posco, crc, poposci, demand.

posScsslo, -onls, F., possession, oc-


possum, posse, potui, be able, can


post, prep, with acc., after, behind,

postea, adv., afterwards,

posterns, a, um, next, following,

postqnam, conj., after, when,

postulo, are, slvi, atniii, demand,require, ask.

potens, -entls, powerful,

potestas, -tatls, f., power, oppor-

tunity [445].

praeacfltus, a, um, sharpened at

the end.

praecedo, ere, -eessl, -cessum, sur-


praeda, ae, f., plunder, booty [452].

praedlco, are, aTi, atnm, announce,


praedo, -donls, m., robber’, pirate,

praedor, iirl, situs sum, plunder,


praefectus, i,M.,officer, commander,

praeflclo, ere, -feel, -feetum, set

over, put in command (charge) of

[378, N.B.].

praemltto, ere, -mlsi, -mlssnm,send in advance.

praesens, -entls, immediate, in-


praesldlnm, I, n., garrison,

praesto, sire, -stltl, -stStum or-stltum, be superior, surpass, withdat.


praestat, it is preferable or


praesnm, -esse, -fui, be over, be in

command (charge) of, command,with dat.

praeter, prep, with acc., beyond,

past ; except.

praeteresl, adv., besides, else,

premo, ere, press!, pressum, press;

harass, beset ; pass., be hard pres-


Prlamns, 1, m., Priam, the last king

of Troy.

primo, adv., at first,

primnm, adv., first, in the first


primus, a, um, first [308].

prlneeps, -clpls, m., leading man,chief man, chief,

prlnelpsltns, us, M., leadership,

prlus, adv., earlier ; prlus . . quamuntil (literally, sooner . . than),

pro, prep, with abl., before, in front

of ; instead of, in return for.

probfl, are, slvj, atnm, test; ap-

prove, favor.

prScedo, ere, -eessl, -cessum, ad-

vance, proceed.

proeurri), ere, -curri, -cnrsum, runforward, charge.

prodcft. Ire, -li, -Itum, come forth,

come out.

proddeo, ere, -dfixl, -ductnm, lead


proclinm, 1, N., battle,

profectlo, -onls, f., setting out, de-


proficlS, ere, -feci, -feetum, ac-


prollciscor, I, -fectns sum, set out.

profnglo, ere, -fftgl, flee, make one’s


progredlor, I, -gressns sum, ad-

vance, proceed.

prohlbeo, ere, ul, Itum, keep, pre-

vent [167, N.B.].

prOJlclo, ere, -JecI, -Jectum, throwdown, throw.

380 Latin Lessons for Beginners.

prSmo, ere, prSmpsI, prSmptuiu,bring out.

prope, adv.y nearly, almost, near


prep, with acc., near,

propter, prep, with acc., on account


propnlso, are, iivl, atum, repel,

prosplelo, ere, >spexi, -spectum,provide (for), attend (to), secure.

prSsterno, ere, -stravi, -stratum,

stretch prostrate.

provelio, ere, -vexi, -rectum, carry

forward ; passive, proceed,

provides, ere, -vidi, -visum, fore-

see ;provide, secure,

provlncla, ae, f., province,

proxlmus, a, um, nearest, next


pradeiis, -entls, discreet, prudent,

prudeiitla, ae, f., prudence, sa-


pflbllcus, a, um, public, of the state.

Pflbllus, i, M., Publius, a Romanname.

puella, ae, f., girl, maiden,

puer, eri, m., boy.

pfigua, ae, f., fight, fighting, battle,

pflgiio, fire, iivl, atum, fight,

pulcber, cbra, ebrum, beautiful.

Qquaerd, ere, quaeslvl, quaesitum,ask, inquire (ab=o/) ;


quails, e, of what sort, what,

quam, adv., than ;with superlatives

as as possible [249].

quantus, a, um, how great, howlarge.

qnftrtus, a, um, fourth,

quasi, adv., as if, as it were,

quattuor, four.

-qne, enclitic conj., and [62].

qui, quae, quod, who, which, what,

that [254].

quidam, qnaedam, qulddam or

quoddam, certain [458].

quldem, adv., to be sure, indeed;

ne . . quldem, not even,

quludeclm, fifteen,

qulngeutl, ae, a, five hundred,

quinquagluta, fifty,

quinque, five,

quintus, a, um, fifth,

quls, quae, quid, who, which, what[341].

quls, qua, quid or quod, any [157].

qulsquam, quldqiiam, any [457].

qiilsque, quaeque, quldqiie or

quodque, each [459].

quivls, quaevis, quidvis or quod-vls, any [457].

qu6, adv., whither, where [343, N.B.].

quod, conj., because.


ratio, -onls, f., method;manner,


recens, -eutls, recent, new.

reclplS, ere, -cepi, -ceptum, regain,

recover ; with se, betake one’s self,

retreat, recover, rally,

reda, ae, f., wagon,

reddo, ere, reddldl, reddltum, give

back, restore.

redeo. Ire, -U, -Itum, return,

redltus, us, m., return.

redtlcS, ere, -duxi, -ductum, lead

back ; restore.

refers, -ferre, rettuU, relatum,bring back, carry back report


reglo, -Snls, f., district, country,


regnum, I, n., kingdom, rule, sov-


rejlclo, ere, -JecI, -Jectum, hurl

back ; throw away.

Latin Lessons for Beginners. 381

rellnqnS, ere, -Uqnl, •Uctnm,leave behind, leave,

rellqnns, a, nm, remaining, rest

(75, fn.].

removes, ere, -mSvI, •mStnm, re-

move, withdraw.

rSmns, !, m., oar.

renovS, are, avi, Stum, renew.

renfkntlS, Sre, Svi, Stum, report,

bring back word.

repello, ere, reppnll, repnlsum,drive back, repulse,

reperlo. Ire, repperl, repertum,find, discover,

repletns, a, nm, filled,

reports, are, SvI, Stum, carry back,

bring back.

rSs, rei, f., thing, matter, aflfair,

circumstance ; rCs pfibllca, public

interest, state, public business,

resists, ere, -stltl, resist, oppose,

with dot.

respondeS, Sre, •spend!, >spSn>

sum, reply, answer..

respSnsnm, 1, n., answer, reply.

restltuS, ere, -nl, •fltnm, put back,

restore, replace ; renew ; rebuild.

retlneS, ere, nl, ‘tentum, restrain,

reverter, I, return.

revocS, are, Svi, atnm, recall.

rSx, regls, M., king.

RhSnns, I, M., the Rhine.

Rhodanns, I, M., the Rhone,

ripa, ae, f., bank.

rogS, are, avI, Stum, ask.

RSmanns, a, nm, Roman.

RSmanns, 1, m., a Roman.

rOmor, ‘Srls, M., rumor, report.

mmpS, ere, rOpi, ruptum, break.

rOnns, adv., again.

Ssaepe, adv., often,

salds, -fttls, F., safety [109].

salvns, a, nm, safe, weU.

SantonSs, nm, m. jplur., the Sah-

tones, a tribe on the west coast ofGavl.

satis, adv. and indeclinable a^j.,

enough, sufficiently ; satis faclS,

satisfy, apologize, with dot.

saxum, I, N., stone.

sclS, Ire, Ivl, !tnm, know.

scrIbS, ere, scrips!, scrlptnm,write.

sed, conj., but.

sedeS, ere, sedi, sessum, sit, sit


semper, adv., always,

seuatns, fls, M., senate.

sentlS, Ire, sens!, sSnsnm, feel, pei^


septem, seven.

Septimus, a, nm, seventh.

SSqnanl, ornm, M. plur., the Se-

quani, a tribe of east central Gaul,

sequor, I, secfltns sum, follow.

servltHs, •tatls, f., slavery,

servns, I, m., slave,

sesceutl, ae, a, six hundred,

sexaglnta, sixty,

si, conj., if.

sic, cbdv., thus, so.

sicnt, adv., as.

signnm, 1, n., signal; standard [282].

Silva, ae, f., wood, forest,

slmllls, e, like, similar,

slmul, adv., at the same time;slmnl ac, as soon as.

slmul5, are, avi, atnm, pretend,

sine, prep, with ahl., without,

sinister, tra, tmm, left.

9S2 Latin Lessons for Beginners,

soclns, I, M,, ally; comrade.sr»l, soils, M., sun ; the Sun-god.

^olnni, adv., only,

solus, a, uni, only, alone [205],

solvo, ere, solvi, solutiiin, loose,

yelease ; iiavem solvo, set sail


pociiam solvo, pay a penalty,

soiunus, I, M., sleep,

sopor, -oris, m., sleep, stupor,

soror, -oris, f., sister,

sors, sortls, p., lot ; ad sorteni re-

Tocari, be decided by lot.

Sparta, ae, F., Sparta, afamous city

of Greece.

spatlum, i, n., space, distance ; time,

species, el, f., appearance, form,

specto, are, avi, iltum, look, face,

specns, as, m., cave, cavern,

speluuca, ae, p., cave, cavern,

sperno, ere, sprevi, spretum, de-

spise, scorn.

spero, are, avi, atiim, hope.

spSs, ei, p., hope.

sponte, P., only in ahl. sing., of

(one’s) own accord,

stattm, adv., at once, immediately,

statlo, -5nls, p., outpost, guard,

sto, are, stetl, statum, stand.

stndeS, ere, ui, be eager, be zealous,

stndlnm, I, N., zeal, eagerness,

sub, prep, with acc. and ahl., under


close to [438].

subdaco, ere, -daxi, -dnctum,draw off.

snbeO, Ire, -U, -Itnm, undergo,

snblto, adv., suddenly,

snbjlclo, ere, -Jeci, -Jectum, place

beneath, with acc. and dat.

snbiatus, a, nm,from toUo.

snbseqnor, I, -secatus sum, follow

closely, follow after,

subsldlum, 1, n., support, reinforce-


snccedo, ere, -cessl, -cessuiii, comeclose up, advance,

sudls. Is. p., stake.

Suebi, ornm, m. plur., the Suebi, atribe of north-western Germany.

sui, slbl, himself, him [278].

suiunins, a, um, greatest, utmost,extreme, signal ; top [175].

superior, -oris, higher, upper


former [198].

supers, are, avi, atnm, conquer;surpass, excel.

snppllclum, I, N„ punishment,

supra, adv., above,

susclplo, ere, -cepi, -ceptnm, under-take, incur.

susplcor, ari, atus sum, suspect,

sustlueo, ere, ul, -tentnm, with-stand, sustain, endure,

sustuli, /rom tollo.

suus, a, um, his, his own; their,

their own [281, 6].

Ttarn, adv., so.

tamen, adv., stm, yet, however.

Tamesls, Is, m., Thames,

tandem, adv., at length, at last,

tango, ere, tetlgl, taetum, touch,

tantns, a, um, so great, such great,


telum, 1, N., weapon, missile,

tempestas, -tatls, p., storm,weather,

tempus, -oris, N., time,

teneo, ere, ui, tentum, hold, keep,


tergum, I, N., back, rear [282].

terra, ae, p., land ; country,

terreo, ere, ui, Itum, frighten, ter-


terror, -oris, m., terror, panic,

tetlgi,/rom tango.

Tlberls, is, M., Tiber.

Latin Lessons for Beginners, 383

tlme5, 5re, ni, fear, have fears,

tlmor, -oris, m., fear,

tollo, ere, snstuU, snblatnm, raise


remove, take away ; with ancora,

weigh [502].

lotus, a, um, whole, all [205].

tracts, are, avi, atum, handle, feel.

trSdo, ere, -dldl, -dltum, give np,


tradaco, ere, -duxi, -dnctnin, lead

across, take across, lead, bring.

trahS, ere, traxi, tractnm, draw,

trans, prep, with acc., across,

transdaco, see tradaco.

transeo. Ire, -il, -Itnm, cross,

transfodlo, ire, -fSdi, -fossnm,


transports, are, avI, atnin, carry

across, bring over,

trecenti, ae, a, three hundred,

trlbanns, i, M., tribune,

tridunni, I, n., three days,

triplex, -pllcls, triple.

TrSja, ae, F., Troy, a city in the

north-west of Asia Minor.

TrSJanns, 1, M,, Trojan, an in-

habitant of Troy.

ta, tul, you, thou,

tuni, adv., then, thereupon,

tnmnltns, as, m., noise, uproar, com-motion.

turrls. Is, F., tower,

tatns, a, nm, safe,

tuns, a, um, your, thy.


ubl, adv., where *, when [343, N.B.].

ulciscor, I, nltns sum, avenge.

IJllxes, Is, M., Ulysses, the shrewdest

of the Greek kings before Troy,

and the hero ofHomer's Odyssey.

aUns, a, um, any [205, 457].

nltlmns, a, um, most distant, re-

motest; last.</