World War II and the Cold War Dictators and War Mobilizing for War Roots of the Cold War The Cold War Expands

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  • World War II and the Cold WarDictators and WarMobilizing for WarRoots of the Cold WarThe Cold War Expands

  • 20th Century Dictators

  • Dictators and WarDictators and WarsTreaty of Versailles from WWI caused anger/resentment among nationsThree dictators use totalitarian govts to rise to powerJoseph Stalin: RussiaCommunist State5 year plan-collectivesEst. complete control of citizens lives- totalitarian govtBenito Mussolini: ItalyCreated Fascist Party- Extreme Nationalism

  • Dictators and WarAdolf Hitler: GermanyJoined NAZI party when youngMein Kampf- NazismPurity Race- Aryans anti-semiticUnite German speaking peopleThird Reich- political regimeJapanese militarists control govt

  • Dictators and WarWar in EuropeHitler acquires Austria and Czech into the Reich AnschlussGB uses appeasement with Hitler- let him get his way to avoid warStalin signs non-agression pact with Hitler as Germany launches blitzkrieg in Poland ridding Poland of JewsFrance falls to Axis Powers when the Maginot Line is brokenAllies finally join Battle of Britain: G. bombs GB day/night for 2 mo.

  • Dictators and WarAmerica and WarAt first US adopts and isolationist policy FDR signs the Neutrality Act- allowing trade between US and EuropeQuarantine Speech: Peaceful states urge aggressive states to isolate themselvesFDR uses cash and carry- allowed warring nations to buy US materials if they used cash and carried them on their own ships

  • Dictators and WarAmerica in the War ContinuedCongress passes peacetime draft, boosts defense spendingGreat Arsenal of Democracy- FDR convinces nations that we must help Allied powers against the Axis powersLend Lease Act- GB, SU give any kind of aid to AlliesChurchill (GB) and FDR secretly meet to plan war- Atlantic Charter

  • Dictators and WarJapan AttacksJapan invades China and wants to acquire as much land as possibleDecember 7, 1941- Pearl HarborFDR knew Japan was planning an attack- two front war

  • Mobilizing for WarMobilizingWomen serve in non-combat roles WAC (Women Army Corps)Lend-Lease Act begins, War Production Board manages peacetime to wartime industry start rationingOffice of Price Administrations: freeze prices on goods to fight inflation

  • Mobilizing for WarWar in the PacificJapanese on defense after Pearl Harbor Gen. Douglas McArthur in command of Pacific theaterAt first, J. forces advance against US in Philippines and Southeast Asia1941- US turns the tide Doolittles Raid, Battle of Coral SeaBattle of Midway- turning point in Pacific War- Island HoppingJapanese launch first kamikaze strikes to break Allied linesIwo Jima: Crucial Island for US base- heavy losses

  • Mobilizing for WarThe War for Europe and North AfricaFDR, Churchill, Stalin agree Pacific war is second to European fight against HitlerGermany uses U-Boats to sink all ships in Atlantic Convoy system 1943- Germany slowly presses in on Stalingrad (SU)SU army wins- major turning point in fighting on landAllies invade Italy and N. Africa in an attempt to spread Hitlers army thin

  • Mobilizing for WarD-DayD-Day: Allies land in France, a month later, they control ParisBattle of the Bulge: German make last attempt to cross Allied lines liberate death campsHitler commits suicide and G surrenders VE Day: May 8, 1945FDR died of a stroke a month before- Harry S. Truman (VP) takes over

  • Mobilizing for WarThe Atomic Bomb- Manhattan ProjectUS considered invading Japan, like on D-Day- too riskyUS warns Japan prior to dropping bombHiroshima/Nagasaki: August 6 & 9, 1945- Japan surrenders

  • Mobilizing for WarEffects of the WarThe HolocaustYalta Conference: Feb. 1945: FDR, Churchill, Stalin meetDiscuss post war plans- Stalin favors harshness towards G; FDR, C. disagreePoland, Bulgaria, Romania would have free elections (Stalin reneged)

  • Mobilizing for WarPotsdam Conference: July 1945: Truman, Atlee, StalinDivide G. into 4 zonesFree elections in PolandStalin joins war against JapanUnited Nations is formed, Nuremberg Trials try war criminals

  • Roots of the Cold WarRoots of the Cold WarSoviet Union vs. US (Communism vs. Democracy)Stalin had made promises at Yalta and Potsdam to allow democratic, free elections in Poland, Bulgaria, etcStalin backed out of promises-created satellite states of these nationsStalin disagrees w/ dem., while Truman does not believe in commieDemocratic Western Europe vs. Communist East EuropeChurchill calls the division the iron curtainStand-off lasts 46 years, but never became a hot war militarily

  • Roots of the Cold WarThe Cold War BeginsUS starts aiding Greece and Turkey (SU influence there)Truman Doctrine: stop aid nations struggling against communist movementUS policy is to contain Soviet communist expansion

  • Roots of the Cold WarThe Cold War ContinuesUS provides support to any Western European nation that needed it- Marshall PlanGB, Fr. US unify their zones in G.; but Berlin is surrounded by SU zoneSU cuts off rail/road travel to West Berlin (Berlin Blockade)-US starts Berlin AirliftW. Europe and US join together against Communism- NATO (North Atlantic Treaty OrganizationNATO members pledge military support to each other Warsaw Pact is SU rival organization

  • Roots of the Cold WarThe Cold War heats UpCivil war in China Chiang Kai-Shek (nationalist leader) vs. Mao Zedong (communist)Chiang govt corrupt and ineffective, Mao takes over China commie

  • Roots of the Cold WarThe Korean WarKorea divided NK- Commie vs. SK- Dem (38th parallel)1950- NK attacks SK- Soviet Union backs NKNK troops seem unstoppable, Gen. MacArthur launches counterattackChina feels threatened by US- China attacks US/UN forcesMacArthur suggests attacking China- Truman says noTruman fires MacArthur for insubordinationStalemate1951-19531953- ceasefire at 38th parallel; demilitarized zones b/t sides

  • The Cold War ExpandsThe Cold War Expands1949: SU detonates atomic bomb, China falls to commie shocks US1952: US tests first H-Bomb US/SU race to out build armsDwight D. Eisenhower elected in 1952- favors strengthening nuke armsJohn Foster Dulles- Sec. of State believes in brinkmanship: go to edge of war

  • The Cold War ExpandsStalin dies 1953- Nikita Khrushchev takes over- believes Commie can work and happen peacefullyAnti- commie rebellions in Czech. and Hungary rock surrounding nationsUS starts covert actions (CIA) to stop spread of Communism

  • The Cold War ExpandsSuez Canal trouble- Egyptian leaders playing US and SU against each other for more money to build a dam along Nile RiverCanal used by many nations for travel GB/France use force to gain canal- US outragedEisenhower Doctrine: US would defend the ME from communist attacks

  • Space Race: SU launches Sputnik in 1957; Congress creates NASA

  • The Cold War ExpandsThe Cold War At HomeCold War creates us vs. them attitude Red Scare re-emergesRed Scare deeper than in 20s govt creates Loyalty Review Bd: kick out govt workers who were soft on commiesHouse Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC): investigated communist activities in and out of white houseAttack movie industry- Hollywood Ten: ten witnesses called to trial who plead the fifth

  • The Cold War ExpandsSpys in the USAlger Hiss: spying for SU- never prosecuted, later found to be trueThe Rosenbergs: helped leak A-Bomb secrets to SU sentenced to death

  • The Cold War ExpandsMcCarthyismSen. Joe McCarthy (Wisconsin) accused US state dept. of being infested with commiesMade constant threats to suspected communists- never produced a single nameMade slanderous comments about US army downfall