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  • THE FIELD ARTILLERY JOURNAL

    MARCH-APRIL, 1934

    PUBLISHED BI-MONTHLY BY

    THE UNITED STATES FIELD ARTILLERY ASSOCIATION

  • March-April, 1934 CONTENTS

    Major General Harry G. Bishop ..................................................Frontispiece

    Major General Harry G. Bishop Retires as Chief of Field Artillery...... 105

    Three Battles in One ................................................................................... 113 By Colonel Conrad H. Lanza, F. A.

    Lieutenant Colonel Frank Thorp, Jr. ....................................................... 139

    Fort Sill Scene of Historic Parley .............................................................. 140

    The Murderous Power of the Artillery ..................................................... 144 By General Frederic Culmann, French Army

    Why Use Aiming Points for Rapid Preparation of Fire? ........................ 163 By Captain C. C. Park, F. A.

    PaviaThe Renaissance Masterpiece....................................................... 168 By Fletcher Pratt

    A Rapid Method of Computing K ............................................................. 180 By Lt. R. M. Montague, F. A.

    A Professor of Artillery Tactics ................................................................. 182 By Kenneth C. Jones

    Field Artillery Notes ................................................................................... 193 The Bishop Miniature Gun; Changes in Classification of Signal Corps Equipment; Regular Course at the Field Artillery School; Decision of Executive Council.

    Military Books............................................................................................. 195

    Recent Books ............................................................................................... 196

    AUTHORS ALONE ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR STATEMENTS CONTAINED IN THEIR ARTICLES

  • VOL. XXIV No. 2 MARCH-APRIL, 1934

    THE FIELD ARTILLERY

    JOURNAL EDITED BY

    DEAN HUDNUTT MAJOR, FIELD ARTILLERY, UNITED STATES ARMY

    Patron Saint of Artillery

    PUBLISHED BI-MONTHLY FOR

    THE UNITED STATES FIELD ARTILLERY ASSOCIATION

    BY MONUMENTAL PRINTING COMPANY 1918-32 HARFORD AVENUE

    BALTIMORE, MD.

    Editorial Office: 1624 H Street, N. W., Washington, D. C. Entered as second-class matter August 20, 1929, at the post office at

    Baltimore, Md., under the Act of March 3, 1879 Published without expense to the government

    The Field Artillery Journal pays for original articles accepted

  • THE U. S. FIELD ARTILLERY ASSOCIATION 1624 H Street, N. W., Washington, D. C.

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  • MAJOR GENERAL HARRY G. BISHOP

  • THE FIELD ARTILLERY JOURNAL VOLUME XXIV MARCH-APRIL, 1934 NUMBER 2

    MAJOR GENERAL HARRY G. BISHOP RETIRES AS CHIEF OF FIELD

    ARTILLERY

    N MARCH 9, 1934. Major General Harry G. Bishop completed four years as Chief of Field Artillery and nearly forty-one years of military service. A review of his assignments and of his

    accomplishments brings forcibly to mind the outstanding service he has rendered the field artillery, the army and the nation.

    O He showed from his earliest days as a second lieutenant his

    ability to enlist enthusiastic support and to get things done "in spite of hell and high water." With barely two years of commissioned service he was appointed Chief of the Department of Licenses and Municipal Revenue of the city of Manila, which position he held for a year and a half, collecting all the city taxes and maintaining supervision over all of the civilian business of this cosmopolitan city of a quarter of a million people.

    In the biographical sketch which follows this article a few glimpses are given of the intellectual and physical vigor of this unusual officer. When marooned in the Sonora desert, and when struck down by a serious heart attack in Walter Reed Hospital he fought his way back through sheer determination and an unconquerable spirit. By exercise of the same dauntless will combined with a remarkable clearness of vision, he has merited and received commendations from members of Congress and officers of the other arms and services as well as of his own for the progressiveness of the field artillery during his regime.

    When assigned as an instructor at Fort Leavenworth, he needed a text to teach the elements of field artillery, and to meet this need he wrote a book which at once had wide circulation. As a line officer he has commanded every unit of field artillery from a platoon to a brigade of five regiments, and he has always

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  • THE FIELD ARTILLERY JOURNAL

    thrown himself heart and soul into having a good organization. His hobby has been field artillery in all its phases. As a Major General he has kept up with the details of the lower echelons, especially those relating to firing methods, and to materiel, as well as with tactics and with war planning.

    While willingly assuming the responsibilities of his office, from the time that he entered upon his duties as Chief of Field Artillery until the end of his tour, he was most careful to see that the opinions of all his subordinates were given consideration and in so doing he maintained their enthusiastic support in carrying out his decisions.

    Having made a thorough study of current development projects and of the needs of the arm, he set out to tackle motorization of transport and modernization of weapons.

    He saw that the arm must prepare itself to make use of the motor vehicles which would be immediately available in case of an emergency, and if necessary, to make some changes in method of employment in order to use such vehicles rather than to delay getting to the front while awaiting supply of ideal equipment. When attention to minor details was necessary to carry through his main purpose he entered into working them out with the same enthusiasm that he devoted to making the major studies of the equipment and the training of hundreds of regiments.

    As an example of his methods, the organization of the first test battery required endless planning. The question was raised as to how to provide high speed gun carriages, and through lack of experience it was thought that the guns should not be fired from pneumatic tires. General Bishop joined with his staff and with the Ordnance designers in solving the problems. The ideas of the dropped hub, to permit use of commercial automobile wheels without lowering the gun trunnions, and of the steel segments, which were to be lowered to take the weight off the pneumatic tires in firing, were his.

    With the help of the Quartermaster General and of the Chief of Ordnance he got the first battery to the Field Artillery Board, saw it through its test, and then pushed the experiment to that of a battalion at Fort Sill. He secured numerous types of trucks for test for the 155mm howitzer, the 155mm gun. and the 105mm

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  • MAJOR GENERAL BISHOP RETIRES

    howitzer. He gave his personal attention to all auxiliary developments to be sure that the plans for motorization were coordinated. He pushed the development of traction devices, of methods of maintenance, of devices for wire-laying, of radio communication, and supervised the writing of new drill regulations.

    At the same time, realizing that we must use our present guns in case of an emergency, he pushed the modernization of gun carriagesnot alone to permit high speed towing, but to provide much greater traverse on the carriage, and full elevation without having to dig recoil pits.

    Recognizing the efficiency of the new pack howitzer, he drove vigorously to get this howitzer mounted on a wheeled carriage which could be towed at speed, as the artillery weapon in support of either horsed or mechanized cavalry.

    When it became evident that a serious reduction in ammunition allowances was imminent, he threw his efforts into the design and development of the miniature gun. Within a week after his serious heart attack he was directing this development by pencil notes from his sick-bed. He had no time to be sick, and he fought his way back to physical strength in order to carry this job through. Batteries of these small guns have now been issued throughout the Regular Field Artillery, to Field Artillery R. O. T. C. units, and to many of the National Guard organizations. It is expected that they will now be provided in limited numbers for the Organized Reserves.

    The mere enumeration of the principal efforts of General Bishop