Field Artillery Journal - Mar 1927

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    VOLUME XVII NUMBER 2

    MARCHAPRIL

    THEFIELD ARTILLERY

    JOURNAL

    EDITED BYHARLEIGH PARKHURSTMAJOR, FIELD ARTILLERY, UNITED STATES ARMY

    THE UNITED STATES FIELD ARTILLERY ASSOCIATION1624 H STREET, N. W.WASHINGTON, D.C.

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    COPYRIGHT, 1927, BYTHE UNITED STATES FIELD ARTILLERY ASSOCIATION

    The U.S. Field Artillery Association,

    1624 H St., N. W., Washington, D. C.

    Gentlemen:

    Please change my address

    from __________________________________________________________

    to_____________________________________________________________

    ______________________________________________________________(Signature)

    ______________________________________________________________

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    Contents, March-April, 1927

    Dan IV by Ex Veto out of Deihadarra ......................................... Frontispiece

    French Artillery .......................................................................................... 113By Major Emmanuel Lombard, French Artillery.

    Six Months with a Japanese Artillery Regiment...................................... 121By Major William C. Crane, Jr., F. A.

    Gaits (Poem)................................................................................................ 128By Fairfax Downey.

    Sub-Caliber Firing in Training Field Artillery ........................................ 129By Major Francis T. Colby, F. A.

    The Reserve Officers' Training CorpsMission and Methods ............. 138By Major John N. Hauser, F. A.

    The 83rd Field Artillery Constructs New Quarters................................. 146By Major Robert S. Donaldson, F. A.

    A Miniature Range and its Operation ...................................................... 149By Lieutenant William P. Blair, F. A.

    Letters ......................................................................................................... 158By Martin Gale.

    The International Legal Status of Chemical Warfare............................. 162By Captain Geoffrey Marshall, C. W. S.

    Regimental Notes ........................................................................................ 168

    Foreigen Military JournalsA Current Rsum .................................... 199

    Current Field Artillery Notes .................................................................... 210New Ration for Horses and Mules.Classification of Our Battle Casualties in the World War.Machine Gun Caisson Mount.76th Field Artillery Football Team.

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    THE UNITED STATES FIELD ARTILLERY ASSOCIATIONOrganized June 7, 1910

    OFFICERS

    PRESIDENTMajor-General William J. Snow, U. S. Army, Chief of Field Artillery

    VICE-PRESIDENTBrigadier-General Geo. Le R. Irwin, U. S. Army

    SECRETARY-EDITOR AND TREASURERMajor Harleigh Parkhurst, Field Artillery, U. S. Army

    EXECUTIVE COUNCILMajor-General William J. Snow, U. S. ArmyMajor-General Fox Conner, U. S. ArmyBrigadier-General Churchill Mehard, Pennsylvania National Guard

    Colonel Leroy W. Herron, Reserve CorpsColonel Robert L. Bacon, Reserve CorpsColonel Daniel W. Hand, U. S. ArmyLieutenant-Colonel J. Craig McLanahan, Maryland National GuardLieutenant-Colonel George P. Tyner, U. S. ArmyMajor George R. Allin, U. S. Army

    THE FIELD ARTILLERY JOURNALEdited by

    Harleigh ParkhurstMajor, Field Artillery, U. S. Army

    PUBLISHED BI-MONTHLY FOR

    THE UNITED STATES FIELD ARTILLERY ASSOCIATIONBY J. B. LIPPINCOTT COMPANY

    227 SOUTH SIXTH STREET

    PHILADELPHIA, PA.

    LONDON OFFICE: J. B. LIPPINCOTT COMPANY, 16 John St., Adelphi.

    EDITORIAL OFFICE: 1624 H Street, N. W., Washington, D. C.Entered as second-class matter November 20, 1915, at the post office at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, under

    he Act of March 3, 1879t

    Published without expense to the government.The Field Artillery Journal pays for original articles accepted.

    Subscriptions to The Field Artillery Journal:Domestic, $3 per annum.Single copies, 75 cents.Canada, $3.25 per annum.Countries in the postal union, $3.50 per annum.

    Checks from the Philippine Islands, Hawaii, the Canal Zone, and Canada, should include 15cents for collection charges.

    Subscribers should notify us promptly of changes in their addresses, and of failure to receiveThe Journal.Subscriptions and communications should be addressed to

    THE UNITED STATES FIELD ARTILLERY ASSOCIATION1624 H Street, N. W. Washington, D. C.

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    DANIVBYEXVETOOUTOFDEIHADARRA,ACELEBRATED

    STEEPLECHASERNOWSTANDINGF

    ORSERVICEATFRONTROYAL.VIRGINIA

    HEIGHT16.2HANDS,WEIGHT1250POUNDS,

    AGE9YEARS.DONATEDTOTHEREMOUNTSERVICEBYMRS.GEORGESLOAN.WINNEROF

    MANLYMEMORIALAT

    PIMLICO,SARATOG

    ASTEEPLECHASEATSARATOGA,GREENSPR

    INGVALLEYSTEEPLECHASEATPIMLICOAN

    DGRANDNATIONALATBELMONTPARK.

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    THE FIELD ARTILLERY JOURNAL

    VOL. XVII MARCHAPRIL, 1927 NO. 2

    FRENCH ARTILLERYA LECTURE DELIVERED AT THE COMMAND AND

    GENERAL STAFF SCHOOL IN MAY, 1924

    BY MAJOR EMMANUEL LOMBARD, FRENCH ARTILLERY

    THE general object of this lecture is to give a summary view of thematriel situation in the French Army.

    Many factors are responsible for this situation. Among the mostimportant are:

    The pre-war doctrine;The hasty and strenuous work of improvisation during the first months

    of the war;

    The emergency building program by which the French High Commandwas supplied with a powerful and modern artillery;The post-war doctrine derived from the study of the teachings of the

    war.Consequently this lecture will be divided as follows:1. Conditions and ideas prevailing before 1914;2. Developments during the war;3. Situation at the armistice;4. The post-war doctrinesthe resulting matriel situation up to

    1924.It is not within the scope of this very simple talk to discuss the tacticalprinciples which govern the assignment of certain weapons and guns togiven organizations and units. No reference will be made to tacticalemployment of artillery which has been studied thoroughly in this veryschool. To dwell upon this would simply mean a loss of time.

    The principles on which we base the characteristics of our differentmatriels are identical to those which govern the building program in theUnited States. However, the application is sometimes different. Among the

    reasons for these apparent discrepancies, the following are obvious: objectivesand military laws; the French political and geographical situation are quitedifferent from those of the United States. Here the tremendous development of

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    THE FIELD ARTILLERY JOURNAL

    the railroads and of the automobile industry, the relative scarcity of theroads, the nature of the coasts, and the relative isolation make the defense

    problem a very different one. "Couverture" is a question of hours forFrance. Continuous entrenchments may still be found in the nextEuropean war. Without leaving his own territory, the eventual enemy ofto-morrow may deal deadly blows on vital and tempting targets such asbig frontier cities. The French may have to retaliate on similar pointsexisting within the enemy borders. Consequently the matrielscorresponding to such warfare and such objectives have to be built.

    Therefore when, in this lecture, a discussion occurs concerning certaindesigns and the principle on which existing models have been built, it must

    be remembered that such observations or criticisms, based on the opinionsof French experts, refer to French matriel only and relate to the Frenchproblem exclusively.

    1. SITUATION IN 1914

    Prevailing Ideas.On account of the prevailing principles ofoffensiveI mean tacticallymobility was required from the gun: 8kilometers an hour on roads was considered as the average speed formatriel not placed in an infantry column. Trotting behind

    reconnaissance detachments and galloping to firing emplacements wasthe accepted rule. Fire had to be delivered a few seconds after gettinginto firing position. Such fire was instantaneous, torrential andspasmodic. The battery commander from a position of a few metersahead or on the side of the battery observed his own rounds at rangeswhich seldom were more than 3000 or 3500 meters. As soon as he haddelivered six or seven salvos for adjustment and ten for effect, he wassupposed to have obtained definite results (neutralizing effect at least).In a single day he could not expect to repeat many similar firings.

    Should he do so, the following days would see his guns speechless onaccount of shortage of ammunition.

    For it was required that guns not only be light, but that they beaccompanied by as limited a number of caissons and service wagons aspossible, so that artillery columns should not become too cumbersome.

    Explosive shells were given to the field artillery in a very shyproportion. Nobody believed in field entrenchments, for our doughboy'sonly tool was a pelle-bche with which he was able to play with dirt aschildren do in public gardens.

    The previous wars in the Balkans and in Manchuria had not taught adifferent lesson, for the lack of observers, the exceptional character ofthe wars and the heterogeneousness of the belligerent

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    FRENCH ARTILLERY

    nations prevented the stronger nations from deriving positive conclusions.We t

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