VCE Physical Education - Unit 3 Chapter 2 Strategies for Promoting Physical Activity & ‘Stages of Change Model’ Text Sources 1.Nelson Physical Education

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  • VCE Physical Education - Unit 3Chapter 2Strategies for Promoting Physical Activity & Stages of Change Model

    Text SourcesNelson Physical Education VCE Units 3&4: 4th Edition Malpeli, Horton, Davey and Telford 2006.

    2. Live It Up 2: 2nd Edition Smyth, Brown, Judge, McCallum and Pritchard 2006.

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 3

  • Mediators of Behavioural ChangeStrategies for Promoting Physical Activity & Stages of Change Model

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 3

  • VCE Physical Education - Unit 3Mediators for behavioural changeA mediator is the mechanism through which the intervention (strategy) is believed to influence physical activity behaviour. Self-efficacy can be improved if a person is taught strategies to remind themselves to be more active.The improvement in these mediators combined might lead to a greater chance of behavioural change occurring.

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 3

  • Theoretical Social ModelsStrategies for Promoting Physical Activity & Stages of Change Model

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 3

  • VCE Physical Education - Unit 3Theoretical Social ModelsMany professionals are trying to change peoples physical activity levels.The focus of their promotion is biological, cognitive and behavioural factors the influence physical activity participation. Physical activity theories cover; determinants of physical activity, relationships between factors and the conditions required to get people involved in physical activity.

    Social Models;Provide a framework of health behaviour that can enhance our understanding of participation in physical activity.Can direct the development of strategies used to increase physical activity levels.The major theoretical models related to physical activity;Social cognitive theoryEcological frameworkBehaviour-choice model

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 3

  • VCE Physical Education - Unit 3Social Models

    ModelOverviewKey FactorsExamplesSocio cognitiveThe social learning theory of emphasises the importance of observing and modeling the behaviors, attitudes, and emotional reactionsof others.Behavioural capability Observational learningExpectations Self-EfficacyReinforcementsA persons P.A. skillsLearn about P.A. by looking.Expected results to from P.A.Self control Positive or negative eventsThe Ecological FrameworkLooks to explain the cause of inactivity by looking at six sets of factors that are effectively solutions to the problem of physical inactivityInterpersonal FactorsInterpersonal Processes Institutional FactorsCommunity FactorsPublic PolicyEnvironmental Factors Knowledge, skills attitudes social situations eg family or friends. interaction between organisations. local, state, national rules/lawsweather, facilities etcThe Behaviour-choice modelIncludes three reasons why people choose to behave in certain ways.Reinforcement ValueEnvironmental barriersPreference Consequences that result in a choice.Lack of bike paths results bike being used less often.Choose one behaviour over another.

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 3

  • Psychological ModelsStrategies for Promoting Physical Activity & Stages of Change Model

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 3

  • VCE Physical Education - Unit 3Psychological TheoriesThese theories are used to guide individual approaches.These models are used by practitioners and policy makers to justify, shape and focus health promotion strategies. Theories;Health-belief modelPenders health promotion modelTheory of reasoned actionStages of Change **(Also called the trans-theoretical model)

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 3

  • VCE Physical Education - Unit 3Psychological Theories Summary

    TheoryOverviewKey FactorsThe Health-belief ModelPromotes healthy behaviour change by addressing the patients health beliefsPerceived susceptibility and severity of illnesses.Perceived benefitsInformation access to prompt action Self-efficiencyPenders Health Promotion ModelDeveloped to describe and explain health enhancing behavioursHow people value their healthSelf-efficiencyPerceived health status and benefitsBarriers to changeInterpersonal factorsFamily membersRelationships with health professionalsTheory of Reasoned ActionPeople intend to participate in physical activity for a variety of reasons.Benefits of physical activity is weighed up against long term healthMotivated by significant others such as family and peers.Stages of ChangeShows the progression through several major changes of behaviour towards becoming more active.Pre-contemplationContemplationPreparationActionMaintenanceTerminationNote. Relapse can occur at most stages.

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 3

  • VCE Physical Education - Unit 3Stages of Change Model Stages 1&2Stage 2. ContemplationAcknowledge that they need to become more active.

    Weighing up the pros and cons of being more active.

    Intention of becoming more active within the next 6 months.

    Some individuals remain in this stage for long periods.

    Stage 1. Pre-contemplation Not considering behavioural change

    No intention of being more active within the next 6 months. Not aware their lack of activity is a problem.

    Most difficult group

    Only start to think about change due to constant pressure or after a signicant health event eg. heart attack.

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 3

  • VCE Physical Education - Unit 3Stages of Change Model- Stages 3&4Stage 4. ActionRequires the largest effort, time and energy. Attempting to follow National Physical Activity Guidelines. Relapse is common, however if an individual maintains the active stage for six months they move into the maintenance stage.

    Stage 3. PreparationSeriously considering becoming more active May exercise once or twice a week or several times a month. May be doing physical activity but are not meeting the physical activity guidelines.

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 3

  • VCE Physical Education - Unit 3Stages of Change Model- Stages 5&6Stage 5-MaintenanceRegularly active as part of their lifestyleMeeting NPAG for six monthsPerson continually strives to overcome barriers.May be in this stage for up to five years.

    Stage 6-TerminationRegularly active for over five yearsRelapse very unlikelyPermanent behaviour change has occurred.

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 3

  • Complete questions 1-5 page 42 of Nelson Physical Education VCE Units 3 & 4.Explain what is meant by the term mediator and provide two examples.What are the 2 major categories of physical activity promotional strategies? List 3 examples used to promote physical activity at an individual level VCE Physical Education - Unit 3Checkpoints

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 3

  • Counselling optionsStrategies for Promoting Physical Activity & Stages of Change Model

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 3

  • VCE Physical Education - Unit 3Counselling options

    Telephone counseling and automated telephone-delivered adviceProgrammed to call people automatically including during convenient times. Collect data for PA research. Counseling for people living in isolated or remote areas Social support for older adults if not familiar with using web-based technologies.

    Health-professional counseling Advice from GPs is often highly regarded. GPs sometimes prescribe PA instead of a prescription for medication.

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 3

  • VCE Physical Education - Unit 3Counselling strategies- 1&2Assessing motivational readinessOne of the first steps is to assess a persons motivational readiness to become more active. Once their stage is determined, an individuals motivation readiness can be matched with processes to change their behaviour.

    Matching processes of change with motivational readinessStages of change = when people change behaviour Processes of change = how people change their PA behaviour Processes of change can be grouped into two different categories: cognitive processes & behavioural processes. Individuals in early stages (Stages 1 or 2) focus on cognitive strategies eg increasing awareness and knowledge of the benefits of physical activity. Later Stages (Stages 3,4 and 5) might include behavioural strategies such as developing a reminder system an encouraging the use of rewards.

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 3

  • VCE Physical Education - Unit 3Readiness to change (motivational readiness)Are you accumulating at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity on most (five+) days of the week?NoYesAre you accumulating at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity at least one day per week?Have you been doing this on a regular basis for the last six months?Do you intend to increase your physical activity?If youre doing physical activity irregularly, youre in the preparation stage.If youre not even thinking about it, you are in the precontemplation stage.If you're giving it a thought now and then but not doing it, you are in the contemplation stage.If you have been doing this consistently but for fewer than six months, you are in the action stage.If youre maintained the new habit for six months of more you are in the maintenance stage.NoNoNoYesYesYes

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 3

  • VCE Physical Education - Unit 3Counselling strategies 3&43. Identifying opportunities to be active Before you can identify opportunities to be more active you have to be aware of how often you move. Modern technology has minimised the need to move and people today sit longer hours than previous generations. 4. ContractingYou could draw up a simple contract that states your activity goals and have a witness sign it with you. Set a date to reassess whether or not you have met your behavioural goa

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