VCE Physical Education - Unit 4 Chapter 13 Performance enhancement from a psychological perspective Text Sources 1.Nelson Physical Education VCE Units 3&4: 4 th Edition Malpeli, Horton, Davey and Telford 2006. 2. Live It Up 2: 2 nd Edition Smyth, Brown, Judge, McCallum and Pritchard 2006.
Psychological Skills Training Performance enhancement from a psychological perspective
VCE Physical Education - Unit 4 Sports Psychology Sports Psychology; Study of peoples behaviour in the field of sport. There are three main fields of sport psychology 1. Social Psychology Social/personal interactions determine behaviour 2. Psychophysiology Physiological effect of the brain 3. Cognitive-behavioural Psychology How an individuals thoughts affect their behaviour.
VCE Physical Education - Unit 4 Psychological Skills Training Focuses on cognitive behavioural aspects of sports psychology. Psychological skills, like physical skills, can be learnt via training (PST). PST can dramatically improve performances PST programs are individualised Techniques include; Goal setting, arousal, mental rehearsal, confidence and concentration PST has three main stages; 1. Education What techniques are currently used and being told about other options 2. Acquisition Taught how to use the technique 3. Practice Use of the technique in training and competition.
Goal Setting Performance enhancement from a psychological perspective
VCE Physical Education - Unit 4 Goal Setting Goal setting is where athletes set down clear targets, priorities and expectations. Goal setting has been shown to increase work out put up to 40-50%. Goals need to be set up for both training and competition. Long term goals aim at the broader target, whereas short term goals provide more manageable focus points. See Fig 13.2 p.313 Types of goals; 1. Outcome goals Focus on end results, times, finishing places or medals. 2. Performance goals Focus on comparing present performance levels with those obtained previously. Independent to other competitors. 3. Process goals Focus on physical movements and game strategies.
VCE Physical Education - Unit 4 Goal Setting - SMARTER The National Coaching Association has set down the following SMARTER way of setting goals; Specific Clear goals to focus on Measurable Need to be assessed against previous performances Accepted Acceptance by the all parties involved Realistic Goals need to be within the athletes capacity Time Phased Specific date for completion needs to be set Exciting Challenged, inspired and rewarding goals Recorded Goals should be written down and kept Goal setting improves performance by; Focusing attention on important elements of the skill/s being performed Activating and organising an athletes efforts Encouraging athlete perseverance Promoting the development of new learning strategies Refining movements and set plays Contributing towards a positive psychological state
VCE Physical Education - Unit 4 Goals (Short and Long Term)
VCE Physical Education - Unit 4 Complete the case study task on page 317 of Nelson Physical Education VCE Units 3 & 4. Coursework 13.1
Arousal Performance enhancement from a psychological perspective
VCE Physical Education - Unit 4 Arousal Arousal is the amount of readiness or activation a person experiences when faced with a task. Athletes need an optimal level of arousal to experience success. Moderate level is ideal zone. Note. Arousal levels and performance outcomes vary in athletes
VCE Physical Education - Unit 4 Complete the structured questions on page 318 of Nelson Physical Education VCE Units 3 & 4. Coursework 13.2
VCE Physical Education - Unit 4 Complete questions 1-3 page 314 of Nelson Physical Education VCE Units 3 & 4. Checkpoints
Arousal Regulation Performance enhancement from a psychological perspective
VCE Physical Education - Unit 4 Arousal Regulation Arousal reduction techniques; Progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) Breath control Used to relax and refocus Biofeedback Sensors detect raised tension or stress in the body Stress-inoculation training (SIT) Building immunity to stress via training. Arousal promotion techniques; Elevated breathing rate Increases state of awareness in CNS. Act energetic Positive talk and sounds: Talk it Up! Energising imagery Pre-competition workout
VCE Physical Education - Unit 4 Complete questions 1-5 page 319 of Nelson Physical Education VCE Units 3 & 4. Checkpoints
Mental Imagery Performance enhancement from a psychological perspective
VCE Physical Education - Unit 4 Mental Imagery Mental Imagery, or visualisation, is used by athletes when they imagine themselves performing skill before actually doing them. It is a form of simulation Sensory experience which occurs in the mind via thought Strengthens neural pathways Images can be kinaesthetic, auditory and tactile. Mental rehearsal needs to be done in a relaxed state for 5-10 minutes at a time. Simulation training is considered more effective than mental imagery in that it replicates the game situation. Visuo-motor behaviour rehearsal (VMBR) Requires a relaxed state to perform mental imagery and then conducting the skill under simulated conditions.
VCE Physical Education - Unit 4 Complete questions 1-4 page 322 of Nelson Physical Education VCE Units 3 & 4. Checkpoints
VCE Physical Education - Unit 4 Complete the laboratory task on page 321 of Nelson Physical Education VCE Units 3 & 4. Coursework 13.3
Concentration Performance enhancement from a psychological perspective
VCE Physical Education - Unit 4 Concentration Concentration contains three parts; 1. Focusing on relevant environmental clues 2. Maintaining attention focus over time 3. Having awareness of the situation Note. Concentration and attention are used interchangeably in sports psychology. Attention can be described in terms of width and direction. Broad-internal Focus on thoughts and feelings Broad-external Focus outwards on an opponents actions Narrow-internal Mentally rehearse movements Narrow-external Focus on very few external cues
VCE Physical Education - Unit 4 Concentration
VCE Physical Education - Unit 4 Concentration and Choking Factors leading to a lack of attention; Focus on past experiences Cant let things go Future orientated thinking What if questions Focusing on negative aspects of their game Concentration can improved via; Simulation Use of cue words Having set routines Over-learning skills Choking can also cause concentration to falter. Occurs when pressure is built up A lot is riding on the next phase of play Causes attention to narrow and become internal Can impair timing and coordination See figure 13.7 p.324
VCE Physical Education - Unit 4 The Choking Process
Confidence Building Performance enhancement from a psychological perspective
VCE Physical Education - Unit 4 Confidence Building Self-confidence is the belief individuals possess in becoming successful. Self-confident athletes; Believe in themselves and their skills Exhibit positive emotions Remain calm under pressure Work towards their goals More likely to take risks during games See fig 13.8 p.325 Improving confidence Achieving success at training and during competition Thinking more positively Using positive imagery Ability to follow and understand game plans
VCE Physical Education - Unit 4 Confidence Levels
VCE Physical Education - Unit 4 Complete questions 1-6 page 326 of Nelson Physical Education VCE Units 3 & 4. Checkpoints
VCE Physical Education - Unit 4 Complete the review questions 1-6 page 329 of Nelson Physical Education VCE Units 3 & 4. Test Your Knowledge
VCE Physical Education - Unit 4 Complete the chapter questions on page 109-118 of Nelson Peak Performance Physical Education VCE Units 3 & 4. Peak Performance
VCE Physical Education - Unit 4 Read the summarised information of pages 116-121 of PHYS ED Notes and complete the revision questions. PHYS ED Notes
VCE Physical Education - Unit 4 Web Links Chapter 13 Australian Sports Commission: http://www.ausport.gov.au http://www.ausport.gov.au Find 30 promotion (Government of WA Department of Health): http://www.find30.com.au http://www.find30.com.au Walking School Bus promotion (UK): http://www.walkingbus.com http://www.walkingbus.com Ministry of Health (New Zealand) toolkits: http://www.newhealth.govt.nz http://www.newhealth.govt.nz The 10,000 Steps Rockhampton project: http://www.10000steps.org.au/rockhampton/ http://www.10000steps.org.au/rockhampton/ Travelsmart Australia: http://www.travelsmart.gov.au http://www.travelsmart.gov.au World Health Organisation: http://www.who.int http://www.who.int Heart Foundation Australia: http://www.heartfoundation.com.au http://www.heartfoundation.com.au VicHealth (The Victorian Health Promotion Foundation): http://www.vichealth.vic.gov.au http://www.vichealth.vic.gov.au Be Active promotion (Government of South Australia): http://www.beactive.com.au http://www.beactive.com.au Go For Your Life: http://www.goforyourlife.vic.gov.au http://www.goforyourlife.vic.gov.au Physical Activity Resources for Health Professionals Introduction (Centre for disease control and prevention USA): http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/physical/health_professionals/index.htm http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/physical/health_professionals/index.htm Health Promotion (Public Health Agency of Canada): http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/hp-ps/index.html http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/hp-ps/index.html Strategic Inter-Governmental Forum on Physical Activity and Health (SIGPAH): http://www.nphp.gov.au/workprog/sigpah/ http://www.nphp.gov.au/workprog/sigpah/ Healthy youth (Centre for disease control and prevention (USA): http://www.cdc.gov/HealthyYouth/ http://www.cdc.gov/HealthyYouth/ America On The Move promotion: http://www.americaonthemove.org http://www.americaonthemove.org Papers from the International Journal of Behavioural Nutrition and Physical Activity: http://www.ijbnpa.org/home http://www.ijbnpa.org/home Department of health and aging (Australian government): http://www.health.gov.au/internet/wcms/publishing.nsf/content/home http://www.health.gov.au/internet/wcms/publishing.nsf/content/home Building a healthy, active Australia (Australian government): http://www.healthyactive.gov.au http://www.healthyactive.gov.au National Public Health Partnership: http://www.nphp.gov.au http://www.nphp.gov.au Be Active promotion (Government of South Australia): http://www.beactive.com.au http://www.beactive.com.au Sport and Recreation Australia: http://www.sport.vic.gov.au http://www.sport.vic.gov.au Australian Institute of Sport Performance psychology research: http://www.ais.org.au/psychology/research.asp http://www.ais.org.au/psychology/research.asp Athletic Insight online journal of sport psychology: http://www.athleticinsight.comhttp://www.athleticinsight.com Australian Psychological Society (information about sport psychologists): http://www.psychology.org.au/psych/special_areas/2.4_9.asp http://www.psychology.org.au/psych/special_areas/2.4_9.asp Psych web Sport psychology: http://www.psywww.com/sports/index.htmhttp://www.psywww.com/sports/index.htm Sport psychology resrouces (Psychwatch.com): http://www.psychwatch.com/sport_psychology.htm http://www.psychwatch.com/sport_psychology.htm Sports science library (Gatorade Sports Science Institute): http://www.gssiweb.com/sportssciencecenter/topic.cfm?id=62 http://www.gssiweb.com/sportssciencecenter/topic.cfm?id=62 Peak performance sports mental resources: http://www.peaksports.com/tips_resources.php http://www.peaksports.com/tips_resources.php Article In the zone: Training your mind as well as your body (CNN): http://www.cnn.com/HEALTH/library/SM/00001.html http://www.cnn.com/HEALTH/library/SM/00001.html