Business Communication Chapter 12

  • Published on

  • View

  • Download

Embed Size (px)




<ul><li> 1. Business Communication Chapter 12 Designing and Delivering Business Presentations</li></ul> <p> 2. Planning a Presentation </p> <ul><li>Goal:To be organized, clear, confident and persuasive </li></ul> <ul><li>Identify Your Purpose </li></ul> <ul><li>If your presentation were a Broadway musical, whattunewould you want the audience whistling at the end of the performance? </li></ul> <ul><li>This primary message should be the first and last thought in your presentation. </li></ul> <ul><li>Develop a compact, clear andmemorable phrase that expresses it. </li></ul> <p> 3. Planning a Presentation</p> <ul><li>Know Your Audience </li></ul> <ul><li>How many? </li></ul> <ul><li>Who are they (age, gender, culture, etc.)? </li></ul> <ul><li>What are they (occupations, levels, job titles)? </li></ul> <ul><li>Why are they there? </li></ul> <ul><li>What do they expect? </li></ul> <ul><li>What do they need or want? </li></ul> <ul><li>What will they find interesting, useful and credible? </li></ul> <ul><li>Answer the three business foundation questions. </li></ul> <p> 4. Planning a Presentation </p> <ul><li>Know Your Context </li></ul> <ul><li>What is the situation? </li></ul> <ul><li>What does it call for? </li></ul> <ul><li>Length and topic specified? </li></ul> <ul><li>Who else speaks?About what? </li></ul> <ul><li>Where does my presentation fit in?What time of day? </li></ul> <ul><li>Is Q. and A. expected?Panel or individual?If so, anticipate questions and prepare answers. </li></ul> <ul><li>Written, hand-out version required or can you speak from power point notes? </li></ul> <ul><li>Podium or lapel mike?What other equipment is available? </li></ul> <ul><li>Will news media attend? </li></ul> <p> 5. Organizing the Content </p> <ul><li>Tell them what youre going to tell them. </li></ul> <ul><li>Tell them. </li></ul> <ul><li>Tell them what you told them. </li></ul> <ul><li>S, S and I, S </li></ul> <ul><li>State, Support and Inform, Summarize </li></ul> <p> 6. Organizing the Content </p> <ul><li>Primary point </li></ul> <ul><li>2.Supporting point </li></ul> <ul><li>A. Sub-point </li></ul> <ul><li>B. Sub-point </li></ul> <ul><li>3.Supporting point </li></ul> <ul><li>A. Sub-point </li></ul> <ul><li>B. Sub-point </li></ul> <ul><li>II. Summary </li></ul> <p> 7. Writing Process </p> <ul><li>Research. </li></ul> <ul><li>Pause, ponder, analyze. </li></ul> <ul><li>Select your position/primary message. </li></ul> <ul><li> Burst write to get down the position and the support you have gathered. </li></ul> <ul><li>Read what you have written and ask, What am I trying to say? </li></ul> <ul><li>Then pretend you are verbally explaining the subject to a friend; write aleadsentence (no more than 30 words) summarizing what you say to the imaginary friend.This is the tune. </li></ul> <p> 8. Writing Process </p> <ul><li>Select supporting points, write a short sentence explaining each and organize them under the lead sentence in descending order of importance.Or outline. </li></ul> <ul><li>Write a final statement summarizing your entire argument. </li></ul> <ul><li>Connect all pieces with smooth transitions. </li></ul> <ul><li>Rewrite, polish and condense removing extra words. </li></ul> <ul><li>Check the then-then-then logic chain.Is it persuasive?Does the conclusion stand up? </li></ul> <ul><li>Proof-read for syntax, grammar, spelling and punctuation. </li></ul> <ul><li>You should rewrite at least three times! </li></ul> <p> 9. Introduction </p> <ul><li>Goal:to seize audience attention, generating involvement and rapport </li></ul> <ul><li>A shocking statement or startling statistic </li></ul> <ul><li>A quotation from a well-known person </li></ul> <ul><li>An open-ended question that will generate thought or discussion </li></ul> <ul><li>An appropriate joke or anecdote that can be tied into the subject </li></ul> <ul><li>A dramatic demonstration (King Kong in a tux) </li></ul> <ul><li>A compliment to the audience, a reference to the occasion of the presentation or something happening in the community where the presentation is given Linkage! </li></ul> <p> 10. Introduction </p> <ul><li>Present your purpose and preview points to be developed in the order in which you will address them. </li></ul> <ul><li>If it is a long complex presentation, list them in order on a slide. </li></ul> <ul><li>This is the visual equivalent of a heading in a written presentation; a signpost telling the audience what to expect. </li></ul> <p> 11. Body </p> <ul><li>Use no more than 5 major (first-level) points in a 30-minute presentation.People cannot easily absorb more. </li></ul> <ul><li>Use conversational style, short sentences and simple words.Unlike the eye, the ear has only one chance to absorb meaning. </li></ul> <ul><li>Dont over-use statistics; round them off 63% or nearly two-thirds, not 62.7%. </li></ul> <ul><li>Use humor only if it ties easily into the subject.Humor doesnt cross national borders easily.Self-deprecating humor works well. </li></ul> <ul><li>People like stories. </li></ul> <p> 12. Close </p> <ul><li>Signal that the closing is coming. </li></ul> <ul><li>Make it a memorable summary of your primary message (remember the tune). </li></ul> <ul><li>Tie it to the opening by, for example, answering the rhetorical question you asked to start your presentation. </li></ul> <ul><li>Practice so that you can deliver it smoothly while maintaining eye contact with the audience. </li></ul> <ul><li>Raise your voice to make it clear, emphatic and sincere. </li></ul> <ul><li>Dont say thank you.If you give an effective presentation, they will thankyouwith applause. </li></ul> <p> 13. Designing Compelling Visuals </p> <ul><li>Visuals reinforce your message by engaging the audiences eyes as well as ears.Research has shown that visuals: </li></ul> <ul><li>Increase retention by as much as 38 percent </li></ul> <ul><li>Reduce time required to present concepts by clarifying and emphasizing vital points </li></ul> <ul><li>Increase consensus in a meeting by as much as 20 percent. </li></ul> <p> 14. Effective Visuals </p> <ul><li>The goal is toclarifyso keep visuals simple. </li></ul> <ul><li>Limit the number; rule of thumb -- each visual uses one minute of presentation time. </li></ul> <ul><li>Mr. Word should match Mr. Picture.Dont show one thing and talk about another. </li></ul> <ul><li>Include only important core ideas that can be visually digested </li></ul> <p> 15. Effective Visuals </p> <ul><li>Use short, bulleted lists. </li></ul> <ul><li>Avoid condensed speaking notes as a crutch to accompany a boring delivery (as I am doing right now); instead use powerful visual symbols. </li></ul> <ul><li>Make certain your visuals are legal and ethical (dont visually distort meaning). </li></ul> <ul><li>Proofread them as you do text. </li></ul> <p> 16. Effective Visuals </p> <ul><li>Invite the eye with white space. </li></ul> <ul><li>Follow the 7X7 rule: no more than seven lines of text, each with no more than seven words (75% coverage or less). </li></ul> <ul><li>Use borders, boxes and lines to capture and direct the eye. </li></ul> <ul><li>As a rule, align text left. </li></ul> <p> 17. Effective Visuals </p> <ul><li>Limit fonts to no more than three that can be read easily from a distance. </li></ul> <ul><li>Vary font on a slide for emphasis. </li></ul> <p> 18. Using Color </p> <ul><li>Color conveys message and mood: blue, conservative and formal; yellow, informal; red, bold, loss or stop; green, calm and go; white, crisp and clean; black, profitable, etc.</li></ul> <ul><li>Make certain background color doesnt make words difficult to read. </li></ul> <ul><li>Use color to highlight elements of a slide or a particular page in a handout. </li></ul> <p> 19. Using Color </p> <ul><li>About 10 percent of people are color-impaired, so dont use red or green to highlight slides. </li></ul> <ul><li>To avoid confusing the eye, use no more than three different colors on a slide. </li></ul> <ul><li>Be aware of context: for example, dark room use light text on a darker background (test it) </li></ul> <ul><li>Use complementary colors for text and background to heighten contrast and legibility (example, yellow on dark blue).If its a large audience, these legibility tricks become even more important. </li></ul> <p> 20. Handouts </p> <ul><li>A handout provides your take-away in written form and can provide a place to take notes (as I do with you by providing power point ahead of time) </li></ul> <p> 21. Delivery </p> <ul><li>Four methods: memorized, scripted, impromptu, extemporaneous </li></ul> <ul><li>___________________________________ </li></ul> <ul><li>Memorized:like a train on a narrow track no flexibility; useful only for emphasizing short sections of a speech </li></ul> <ul><li>Scripted:useful when accuracy is vital; disrupts eye contact unless script is carefully prepared and presented </li></ul> <p> 22. Preparing a Script </p> <ul><li>Use heavy, easy-to-turn stock. </li></ul> <ul><li>Double space. </li></ul> <ul><li>Use at least 20-point type. </li></ul> <ul><li>Use no more than 2/3 of page in order to keep the speakers head up and foster good eye contact. </li></ul> <ul><li>Never carry a sentence or a paragraph over a page break. </li></ul> <ul><li>Underline and/or boldface key words. </li></ul> <p> 23. Presentation Styles </p> <ul><li>Impromptu:unprepared and frightening at first, but experience improves you (think of meetings) </li></ul> <ul><li>Extemporaneous:prepared but using power point or notes and wandering around the stage wearing a lapel mike.Can be the most credible and persuasive format if you know your material well. </li></ul> <p> 24. Using Your Voice Properly </p> <ul><li>Phonation, Articulation, Pronunciation </li></ul> <ul><li>Phonation masters : Martin Luther King, James Earl Jones, Barack Obama (minister, actor, politician all depending on their voice) </li></ul> <ul><li>&gt;Pitch:mid-to-low is best; low perceived asauthoritative; variation necessary </li></ul> <ul><li>&gt;Volume:make sure youre audible to thebackrow; vary it to keep their attention </li></ul> <ul><li>&gt;Rate:vary it, but in general breathe deeply,relax and slow down </li></ul> <p> 25. Emphasis Changes Meaning </p> <ul><li>Iam happy you are here. </li></ul> <ul><li>Iamhappy you are here. </li></ul> <ul><li>I amhappyyou are here. </li></ul> <ul><li>I am happyyouare here. </li></ul> <ul><li>I am happy youarehere. </li></ul> <ul><li>I am happy you arehere. </li></ul> <p> 26. Using Your Voice Properly </p> <ul><li>Articulation (not dialect):produces clear, smooth, pleasant speech:kind of (kinda); working (workin); going to (gonna); this (dis) </li></ul> <ul><li>&gt; Work to develop American BroadcastEnglish </li></ul> <ul><li>&gt; Speaking is like singing: stand up withshoulders back; support with yourdiaphragm; breathe well; enunciate </li></ul> <p> 27. Using Your Voice Properly </p> <ul><li>Pronunciation:incorrect pronunciation can distract and detract from your message; if in doubt, use the dictionary to check the word out.</li></ul> <p> 28. Presenting </p> <ul><li>Prepare thoroughly to control anxiety; if youbelieveyour message, your audience will feel as well as hear your words. </li></ul> <ul><li>Develop tools (visuals, handouts, etc.) and always have a back-up plan in case of technical difficulties. </li></ul> <ul><li>Practice to familiarize yourself with the material, but dont rehearse all the feeling out of it. </li></ul> <ul><li>Record it and listen to yourself.Do your ears catch the key phrases?</li></ul> <p> 29. Presenting </p> <ul><li>Work hard on the opening and the closing so you can maximize eye contact at these important points. </li></ul> <ul><li>Body left (of the audience) and eyes front; check the slide, make eye contact and deliver the point. </li></ul> <ul><li>Move your contact around (serial conversations with individual audience members). </li></ul> <ul><li>If your hands are shaking, use a podium. </li></ul> <p> 30. Presenting </p> <ul><li>Dont bob and weave its distracting. </li></ul> <ul><li>Dress professionally. </li></ul> <ul><li>Arrive in time to check it out. </li></ul> <ul><li>Adopt alert, athletic posture. </li></ul> <ul><li>Communicate confidence and enthusiasm. </li></ul> <ul><li>Use natural gestures. </li></ul> <ul><li>Watch audience for feedback. </li></ul> <ul><li>Adhere to time limits. </li></ul> <ul><li>Always seek feedback so you can improve. </li></ul> <p> 31. Crossing Ethnic/Cultural Barriers </p> <ul><li>Speak Simply. </li></ul> <ul><li>Know and avoid red flag words/phrases. </li></ul> <ul><li>Pay attention to enunciation and articulation. </li></ul> <ul><li>Be careful of humor and jokes! </li></ul> <ul><li>What are the cultures body-language norms? National protocol?</li></ul> <ul><li>Be patient and walk in their shoes. </li></ul> <p> 32. Team Presentations </p> <ul><li>Team presentations require even more preparation, coordination and practice than individual presentations. </li></ul> <ul><li>Agree on a purpose and timetable. </li></ul> <ul><li>Pick an organized, disciplined team leader willing to act as referee in dividing up the turf. </li></ul> <ul><li>Use a standard, cohesive design for all parts of the presentation. </li></ul> <ul><li>Make transitions from member to member both verballyand physicallysmooth </li></ul> <ul><li>Field Q. and A. as a team. </li></ul>