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  • Directed Energy Test Science and Technology HPM Sensor Program

    2011 Annual ITEA Technology ReviewAnnapolis, Maryland

    July 19, 2011

    Jeff SchleherDET S&T Subject Matter [email protected]

    Dan TreibelDET S&T Subject Matter [email protected]

    Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

  • Topics

    • HPM Sensor Requirements• DET S&T Sensors – Why they Meet the Needs• Sensor Test Activities• Other Test range Applications• Conclusions

    Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

  • What is High Power Microwave

    • High Peak Power Generally Low Average Power– Giga Watts Peak – Watts Average

    • Very Fast Rise Time – Narrow Pulses – Low Repetition Rate– Pico-seconds -

  • Tri-Service Study

    • Joint Service HPM System Test Concepts– Test Parameters Required to Execute Test Concepts

    • Service Workshops for Test Range, Laboratory, and Program Office Personnel to Validate/Correct Test Concepts

    • Capability Call to Ranges to Support Test Concepts– Survey of test range HPM test capability

    • Test Shortfalls Identified– Divided into development or Science & Technology required

    • Shortfalls Approved by Government Oversight

    4Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

  • DE T&E Shortfall Resolution

    5

    DETEC Tri-Service Study

    DE Stakeholders:• MRTFB/DoD Labs• Weapon Sys Dev• Industry/Academia• Intel Community

    DETEC Domain

    ENGR DEV

    TECH ADV

    AoA Candidates

    FUTURE DEV

    Tech Enablers

    DET S&TDomain

    DE T&ECapabilities

    Risk Reduction/P3I

    DET S&T WGDETEC IPT

    Strategic Plan for DoDT&EResources

    AoA – Analysis of AlternativesMRTFB – Major Range & Test Facility BaseP3I – Pre-planned Product Improvement

    DE Weapons/Threats

    Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

    http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/cb/United_States_Department_of_the_Navy_Seal.svghttp://www.popsci.com/popsci/image/2004/11november/92407ab951d84010vgnvcm1000004eecbccdrcrd.htmlhttp://www.sew-lexicon.com/Graphics Pool/dod_logo.jpg

  • Where to Measure HPM

    Source Propagation Medium Target Platform Target Electronics

    Type 1SurfaceMine

    Type 2BuriedMines

    Type 3SurfaceMine

    IEDs on Guard Rail

    IED Between 2Metal Sheet CM

    IED Controller

    Type 1Surface Mine

    Daisy ChainIEDs

    Ground Effects

    Threat TestingMIL STD 464C

    InternalMeasurements

    Ground Effects

    IEMS

    APOS

    APOS

    IEMS

    IEMS

    APOS

    Over Head Attack

    C-IED, C-Mine Testing

    Power- Platform -Test Source

    CTAS

    Safety

    APOSIEMS

    APOSIEMS

    IEMS

    APOS

    C-IED

    ClaymoreMine IED

    Type 3Mine IED

    Type 3BuriedMine

    Metal SheetCar Simulation

    Weapon System Test EOS

    Near FieldAPOS

    VoltagePotentialNeeded

    Current SensorNeeded

    6Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

  • DET S&T Sensor Technology Programs

    • E-Field EO Sensors– EO Crystals Pockel Effect– Tailored EO Polymers

    Pockel Effect– EO Crystals Kerr Effect

    • H-Field MO Sensors– MO Crystals Faraday Effect

    • Current Sensors– No current project – Broad

    Area Announcement• Voltage Potential

    – No current project

    • E-Field Crystal– Electro-Optical Sensor Technology

    (EOST)– Compact Three Axis Sensor (CTAS)– Integrated Electro-Magneto-optic Sensor

    (IEMS)• E-Field Polymer

    – Dielectric Electromagnetic Field Probes (DEFP)

    – Advanced Polymer Optical Sensors (APOS)

    • Magnetic Sensors– Magnetic Optical Field Sensors (MOFS)– Integrated Electro-Magneto-optic Sensor– Spectrographic Magnetic Field Sensor

    (SMFS)– Advanced Polymer Optical Sensors

    7Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

  • DET S&T Sensors for HPM

    NRL E- and H-fieldIntegrated Electro-Magneto-optic Sensor

    (IEMS)

    IPITEK/BYU/ Univ. of WashingtonAdvanced Polymer Optical Sensors

    (APOS)

    Crystal and PolymerSlab Coupled Optical Sensor (SCOC)

    Intended for electronics boards in single axis format

    Sensor

    Sensor

    Single Axis MO sensortested at White Sands

    4-axis sensor3-axis E-field1-axis H=field

    8Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

  • Characteristics of Sensors

    • Direct Measure of E and H-Field• Non-intrusive (< 1% demonstrated in laboratory)• Small to Very Small Foot Print (cm to mm)• Three Axis• Sensitive• Survive to 3MV/m (air breakdown)• Wide Band Width

    – 1MHz – 12 GHz demonstrated /NIST validated– < 1kHz to 100 GHz theoretical (different crystals)

    9Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

  • NIST Certification

    • Electro-Optical Sensor Technology (EOST)• Single Access EO Transmission Sensor (Pockel Effect)• First DET S&T sensor project• Field Tested at Dahlgren • Started as LiNbO3 changed to KD*P – greater sensitivity• Validated at National Institute of Science and Technology (NIST)• Uncertain where Prototype went• PAX River has one• NRL HPM has one

    NIST Tested 1 MHz to 10 GHz

    10Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

  • Field Testing Non-Intrusive Sensors

    NRL 4-AxisSensor TestingNarrow Band At PAX River

    IPITEK APOSSensor TestingNarrow BandAnd Wide Band At White SandsHigh Power Test Site

    11Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

  • Sensor Progress

    IEMSComplete

    APOSIn progress

    MOFSComplete

    Tested at PAX River NIST Review (1MHz – 10 GHz)

    Tested in Railgun @ GTRI SCOS Lab Test Results

    Brass Board Lab Tested FO Calibration Cables a Problem

    12

    E3 Testing>3 GHz

    HEMPTesting

  • Wider Sensor Range Application

    • High Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse Testing– MIL-STD 188-125– Like HPM – Lower Frequencies, Longer Pulses

    • Electronic Warfare• Electromagnetic Environmental Effects

    – Wider Bandwidth – Lower Power – Radar Like Pulses

    • Spectrum Management– Conventional Equipment – Averaging– Typically Non-directional

    • Other Application

    13Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

  • High Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse Testing

    Satellite Communications Trailer Shielding Effectiveness

    Continuous Wave Immersion

    Pulse Testing

    14

    MIL STD 188-125 Testing

    Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

  • Electromagnetic Warfare Testing

    CREW Jammer Iraq Test Shortfalls• Energy does not always

    reach target receivers• Ground Effects and

    Urban Structures Part of Cause

    • Conventional Sensor don’t work well close to ground or conductive objects

    • DET S&T Non-intrusive sensors do!

    15Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

  • Electromagnetic EnvironmentalEffects Testing

    E3 Testing• MIL STD 464C now includes HPM

    Testing Methods– Expanded on MIL STD 464A

    • MIL STD 464A RF Impact on Systems

    – Ordinance (HERO)– Fuels (HERF)– Personnel (HERP)– High Altitude Nuclear Pulse (HEMP)– Electronics

    • And:– Lightning– Precipitation Static

    MIL STD 464C Testing

    16

    D-dotProbe

    Side lobesWidebandThreatSystems

    Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

  • Range Spectrum Management

    Conventional Averaging Sensors DET ST 3-Axis Sensors

    Time Domain Data DetectedRise Times to 6-ps DemonstratedImpulse waveforms < 5ns Demonstrated

    17

    CTAS Tested with 3-axis AR sensorAt PAX River

    5.5 turns

    Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

  • Conclusions

    • DET S&T E and H-Field Sensors Are Developed for Range Testing of High Powered Microwave Systems– Starting work on non-intrusive current and voltage potential

    sensors

    • DET S&T E and H-Field sensor prototypes proven at ranges and measured by NIST

    • These Sensors Could Serve a Wide Selection of Test Uses out side HPM– High altitude Electromagnetic Pulse– Electronic Warfare– Electromagnetic Environmental Effects– Spectrum Management

    18Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

  • Back-up Slides

    Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

  • Questions?

    The very first "senior moment".....

    Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

    Directed Energy Test Science and Technology HPM Sensor ProgramTopicsWhat is High Power MicrowaveTri-Service StudyDE T&E Shortfall Resolution Where to Measure HPMDET S&T Sensor Technology ProgramsDET S&T Sensors for HPMCharacteristics of SensorsNIST CertificationField Testing Non-Intrusive SensorsSensor ProgressWider Sensor Range ApplicationHigh Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse TestingElectromagnetic Warfare TestingElectromagnetic Environmental�Effects TestingRange Spectrum ManagementConclusionsSlide Number 19Questions?