Text of Latin America and Caribbean Revolutions follow the American Example
Latin America and Caribbean Revolutions follow the American Example
End of Habsburgs in Spain War of the Spanish Succession (1701- 14)brought the Bourbon Monarchy to rule Spain Bourbons reasserted control of colonies after years of Habsburg neglect Colonial reforms part of a larger effort to modernize the govt. & econ. of declining Spain Bourbon reforms included limiting power of Catholic church, imposing taxes, maintaining royal monopolies, adding standing armies, limiting power of Creole elite and tightening mercantilist practices Caused unrest and seeds of rev. by Creole elite
Bourbon Reorganization Administrative Reorganization Created two new viceroyalties New Granada (1717) based in Bogot La Plata (1776) based in Buenos Aires Introduced intendancy system Intendants were Peninsulares Appointed to oversee military leadership, implement imperial laws and collect taxes from Creoles and natives Directly responsible to the Crown not viceroys Tightened control of colonies but Creoles angered by reduced standing looked for opportunities to overturn or circumvent new tax codes and rules System led to outflow of gold and therefore riches to Spain
Bourbon Reorganization Economic Reorganization 1779 free-trade decree allowed Spanish-American ports to trade directly with each other & most ports in Spain Forbade production of certain goods in colonies to prevent competition with Spanish goods Resources available in Spanish America could not be traded with other Euros and British colonies in NA & Caribbean Efforts to stop illegal trade were largely futile Trade was monopolized by Peninsular traders Further cut Creoles out of benefits
Bourbon Reorganization Religious Reforms Efforts to limit power of Catholic Church Force sale of church lands deprives clergy of income from rents charged to tenants Church deprived of political authority Bourbons appointed career military officers to oversee colonies Unlike Habsburgs who appointed clergy 1767 Jesuits expelled from Americas to limit their influence on education Expelled priests were Creoles deprived of homeland and church missions Creole clergy permanently alienated from Crown they become ripe for recruitment into insurgency against Spain
Bourbon Reorganization Military Defense Created a more organized defense force Not enough Peninsular officers willing to serve in Americas had to rely on colonial-born officers Creoles held in secondary levels of command
Tension across the Spectrum Creoles most restricted by changes but all sectors of colonial society resented reforms Some open resistance even riots and revolts Per Tpac Amaru II rebellion (1781-1793) 100,00 deaths and widespread property damage Comunero uprising (1781) in New Granada Indians and mestizos rose up against Spanish Crown Napoleons invasion of Spain Placed Joseph Bonaparte on Spanish throne (1808) American Creoles refused to recognize Bonaparte rule of Spain still loyal to crown but sought autonomy
Creole Discontent Simn Bolvar
Inspiration of American & French Revolutions Declaration of Independence, 1776 Declaration of the Rights of Man & of the Citizen, 1789
Preoccupation of Spain & Portugal In Fighting Napoleonic Wars
Haitian Revolution 1791-1804 French colony of Saint Domingue Sugar producer dependent upon slaves Population divided by race Non-whites (gens de coleur) discriminated against 500,000 slaves made up vast majority of population Some granted more privileges than others During French Revolution whites divided between wealthy and middle- to lower-classes Inspired gens de coleur to seek and get political rights from French National Assembly
Haitian Revolution Effort to prevent non-white political power Results in uprising, riots based on race and class Slave revolt developed in 1791 & grew larger than conflict between whites and non-whites By 1793 French attempted to put down revolt, now led by Toussaint LOuverture In turn defeated the French, British, and gens de coleur, then the French again Toussaint was captured and died in prison but his revolution was successful in the end Jean-Jacques Dessalines became the ruthless dictator of Haiti and massacred any remaining whites Dessalines assassinated in 1806 gens de coleur replaced whites as dominant group over black masses Haitian Revolution was an inspiration to American slaves
Toussaint LOuveture Leads a Revolution in Haiti (1804)
Spanish America Creole rebellion began as a push for autonomy rather than independence Creoles in viceroyalties created juntas to rule until the Spanish monarchy was restored Peninsular officials resisted Creole-run governing bodies pushed Creoles further to independence Many concurrent uprisings but independence wars varied from place to place Own leaders, philosophies, agendas When Spanish monarch Ferdinand II was restored he tried to turn back changes in Spanish America Failure to recognize autonomous govts. by King left no resort but full independence
Mexican Independence Revolution started in Sept. 1810 by Father Miguel Hidalgo Mass insurrection that was strong with lower classes and mixed races, Indians, slaves Peninsulares and Creoles allied to stop Hidalgo (1811) Father Jos Maria Morelos continued revolution 1814 Constitutional Decree for Liberty of Mexico A Mexican Declaration of Independence Morelos also captured and executed like Hidalgo Followed by years of guerilla warfare Mexican lites, Creoles, Catholic hierarchy and military leaders joined to make independent Mex.
Augustn de Iturbide Plan de Iguala Three guarantees Clear independence from Spain Supremacy of Catholic Church Equality for Peninsulares and Creoles Treaty of Crdoba Mexican Independence August 24, 1821 Iturbide becomes Emperor of Mexico - 1822
Latin American Revolutions!
Simn Bolivar: The Brains of the Revolution Creole-led revolution in Venezuela Liberal agenda preserve pwr base Independent Republic of Venezuela declared on July 5, 1811 Royalists recruited non-whites against creole patriots Spanish retook Caracas in May 1815 Diverse forces united against Spanish occupation under Simn Bolivar Welcomed all races in movement freed his own slaves as example Army coup in Spain let to negotiations with patriots in Venezuela. Old viceroyalty of Nueva Granada became Gran Colombia Ecuador, Colombia, Panama, Venezuela until 1830 Venezuela and Ecuador independent republics
The Muscle of the Revolution Bolivar coming from the North. Jos de St. Martn and Bernardo OHiggins cross the Andes Mountains to fight for Chilean independence.
Bolivar & San Martin Fight for Independence!
Bolivars Failure After uniting Venezuela, Columbia, & Ecuador into Gran Columbia, he left to help free the rest of Latin America. He died a year later, with his goal of uniting all of South America unfulfilled!
Latin American States After the Revolutions
Brazil Freed from Portugal Brazil Freed from Portugal The Portuguese royal family escaped Napoleon by fleeing to Brazil. Pedro I set up a new, independent kingdom in 1821 when his father returned to Portugal. Pedro II assumed full power after Pedro I abdicated his throne.
No Unity! Failure of Bolivars dream for a united South America: $Many newly independent countries struggle with civil wars. By 1830s, geographic factors (mts., the Amazon, etc.) plus cultural differences defeated attempts at unification. $Gran Columbia. $United Provinces of Central America.
Independence Brought More Poverty The wars disrupted trade. The wars devastated the cities and the countryside.
Left Many Countries in the Control of Caudillos WHO WERE THEY?: $Mid-19c dictators military authoritarianism. $Mostly wealthy creole aristocrats. $Immediately followed the fight for independence. $Posed as reformers with goals to improve the economy and better the lives of the common people.
Left Many Countries in the Control of Caudillos WHO WERE THEY?: $BUTOverthrew governments and took away basic human rights. $Some attempted to make improvements, but most just cared about themselves and their families and friends [nepotism]. $Power changes usually occurred at bayonet-point [coup detats!]