Revolutions:Industrial, American, French
The American RevolutionColonists from Britain, France, Holland mostly settle Eastern U.S.Conflicts between Britain and France over territory lead to Seven Years War (1756-1763) (French and Indian War).Britain wins gains all land between Mississippi River and Appalachian Mts.
The American RevolutionColonists believe they have a right to land because they helped win it.Conflicts with Native Americans cause Britain to forbid settlement of new area.In addition, Britain begins to tax settlers to help pay for the war.Stamp ActTea Act
The American RevolutionInspired by Enlightenment ideas, colonists begin to protest unjust laws.Boston Massacre - 1770Boston Tea Party - 1773First Continental Congress 1774Many divided on how to deal with Britain intense loyalty to crown vs. revolutionaries
The American RevolutionLexington and ConcordApril 19, 1775 Britain decided to seize stockpiles of weapons in Concord, Massachusetts.Confronted by Minutemen at LexingtonColonists win first battles of the revolutionSecond Continental CongressColonists decide to raise an army appoint General George Washington as head
The American RevolutionDeclaration of IndependenceThe U.S. formally declares independence in July 1776Written by Thomas Jefferson inspired by the Enlightenment.All people created equalUnalienable rightsGovernments derive powers from governed
The American RevolutionWar lasts from 1775-1781.Many battles most importantBattle of Saratoga French decide to join AmericansBattle of Yorktown General Cornwallis surrenders to General Washington.Americans begin to form new government.
The American RevolutionFirst government Articles of ConfederationWeak central strong statesMany problemsBy 1787 everyone realizes the Articles needs revisionConstitutional Convention summer of 1787Supposed to change Articles eventually created whole new government
The American RevolutionThe ConstitutionInspired by Enlightenment philosophers Voltaire, Montesquieu, LockeStrong central governmentTwo houses in Congress (Great Compromise)Senate, House of RepresentativesThree branches of government (Leg, Ex, Jud)Federal SystemFederal govt, State govt, Local govtBill of Rights first 10 amendments to ConstitutionCan change government when it needs itCurrently 27 amendments have been ratified
Feudal SystemKingsRuler/collected feesLordsLand/fees/loyaltyChurch paid no taxesKnightsProtection/loyaltySerfsPoor masses (slaves)Paid fees to lords/king
France in 1789Old Regimesystem of division among the three social classes called Estates1st EstateClergy (church)2nd rich noble families1st & 2nd estates - 2% of the pop.; owned 20% of the landAbsolute monarchy - increasingly unpopular form of government increasingly ineffectiveNobility & clergy also had powers and prerogatives no taxation!!
3rd Estate98% of population - included:1) bourgeoisie- merchants/shopkeepers, well educatedpaid high taxes2) workersservants, cooks, etc.3) peasants (80% of third estate)
These people were increasingly jealous of the rights & privileges of the 1st & 2nd estates
Louis XIVLouis XIV (1638 1715) King of France Known as The Sun King or Louis the Great ruled France for seventy-two yearslongest reign of any European monarchLouis XIV increased the power and influence of France in Europe through three major wars "L'tat, c'est moi" ("I am the State")
France under Louis XVIFrance - cultural, military, and political leader of EuropeModel of an absolute monarchLoved by the French at first, but his indecisiveness & conservatism led the people to reject him and hate the tyranny of kings
Causes of French RevBad HarvestsDebtWeak leadership of Louis XVIDivision of classesAs conditions worsened, third estate was taxed heavilySpread of Enlightenment ideas
Spread of Enlightenment IdeasEnlightenment ideas Locke, Rousseau, Voltaire equality & freedom of the individual spread to:Large & growing middle classsome of the nobility working class**American Revolution showed Enlightenment ideas about governmental organization could workAmerican revolutionaries - Benjamin Franklin - stayed in Paris - frequent contact with the French intellectualsFrench troops worked with American revolutionaries - spread of revolutionary ideals to the French.
Result of new ideas - Many people in France attacked the undemocratic nature of the government, pushed for freedom of speech, and challenged the Roman Catholic Church and the privileges of the nobles & clergyAND ThenMore State Debt King calls a meeting of the Estates General
French RevolutionMeeting of Estates General 3rd Estate created National Assembly & meet separatelybeginning of representative govt 3rd Estate broke down the door of indoor tennis courtTakes Tennis Court Oathpledged to stay until a new constitution is drawn up National Assembly creates Declaration of Rights of ManRight to liberty, property, security; Freedom of speech, religion, equal justiceAngry crowd captures Bastille (Paris prison)Seize gunpowder, release some prisonersMob of Women marched to kings palace in Versaillesdemanding that King and Queen return to Paris & give them breadKing and Queen try to sneak out of Versailles caught & arrested
Equality, Fraternity, LibertyLiberty leading the People
National Assemblytook over church lands & sold to pay off Frances debtMany peasants objected to this (devout Catholics)some objected to the idea of separation of church and state1791- N.A. created a limited constitutional monarchyLegislative Assembly -power to make law/declare warKing Louis - little powerfood shortages/debt - Revs leaders split into 3 factionsAustria/Prussia wanted to restore Louis to powerWhy did European monarchs want Louis restored to power??National Assembly declare war on Austria, April 1792 French abroad losing war France at home in a state of chaos Great FearNational Assembly could no longer keep power - dissolvedNew government electedNational Convention
End of absolutist monarchy in France
Kings powers suspended in August 1792.Arrested & tried by the National Convention, found guilty of treason, and executed - January 1793. Louis XIV is reported to have said on his death bed: "Je m'en vais, mais l'tat demeurera toujours." ("I am going away, but the State will always remain").
Jacobins (radicals) San-coulottesRadical group - wanted to remove king permanently & establish a democratic govtLed by Jean Paul MaratFrance declared a republic liberalismN.C. drafts 300,000 citizens into army for war against Prussia/Austria - Napoleon generalRobespierre leads Reign of TerrorForms Committee of Public SafetyTried and executed thousands of citizens who were considered to be enemies of the republic
National Convention eventually turns on Robespierre - guillotined in 1794
Directory NapoleonMan of the EnlightenmentMilitary leader rose through ranks fighting abroad during French Revolution1797 returned to Paris a heroTook part in the coup detat of 1799 that overthrew the Directory & set up new govtTHE CONSULATE a republic on paper but Napoleon had absolute power in realityNapoleon became CONSUL
Napoleon crownshimself Emperorof France; also Crowns his wife Josephine Queen
What is the Significance of this?
France under NapoleonChurch 1801 agreement with Catholic ChurchCatholicism recognized as majority religion; church got no lands backCivil Code Napoleonic CodeBefore rev. France had approx 300 different legal systemsEquality for all citizens before the lawRight of individuals to choose a professionReligious toleranceAbolition of serfdom & feudal obligationsNapoleon created a strong central bureaucracy Public officials/military leaders promoted not because of rank or birth but because of ability- meritocracyCreated a new aristocracy only 22% of public officials were from noble families; 60% from middle class!!
Fr Rev ideals upheld or killed??No free elections plebiscite an election w/a fixed resultCivil Code Napoleonic CodeNew bureaucracy more people gained govt powersCensored press restriction of liberty - 60 of 73 newspapers shut downGovt police censored private mail limited freedom of speech1803 war broke out with Britain, Austria, Russia, Sweden & PrussiaSold French territory in America to the United States Louisiana Purchase raise money for European wars By 1807 - Napoleon - victorious
Napoleon rules Europe --1807 to 1812 --Spread the principles of the Fr. Rev. to continental Europe equality before the law, religious tolerance, economic freedom, opening of public offices to talented men instead of nobility--Destroyed much of old regime nobility & clergy lost privileges
Napoleons defeat1. Britain most powerful Navy in world**Battle of Trafalgar 1805 Napoleons navy defeated**Napoleons Continental System stop European countries from buying British goods - failed
2. Nationalism in Europe undermined Napoleons desire to build a European EmpireFrench started nationalism in Europe decided THE PEOPLE were the state; the ruler was notNapoleon spread ideas of nationalism to people of Europe & they united against Napoleons occupation3. Disaster in RussiaJune, 1812 Russia refused Continental System Napoleon invaded w/600,000 troops Russian troops retreated instead of engaging Napoleons troopsRussians used SLASH & BURN strategy to keep Napoleons troops from finding food
Moscow cold!!Napoleons troops finally arrived in Moscow & find capital city burningLacking food