GOVERNMENT REVOLUTIONS American French Latin American

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Government Revolutions

Government RevolutionsAmerican FrenchLatin AmericanRecap: Spain and Portual colonized in 1500sEnglish and French colonized in North AmericaSpain colonized in Caribbean, Mexico, and South AmericaPortugal - Brazil

English SettlementsJamestownNamed after King James IFirst town in VirginiaStarted by Virginia Company English joint-stock companySurvived by tobacco farmingPlymouthPilgrims group of English Puritans seeking religious freedomFounded Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, And New Hampshire.

Self Government By 1700s English had 13 ColoniesWanted to self-governVirginia allowed Burgesses-representatives House of Burgesses- voted on laws for the colonyColonies began writing constitutions plans of govt


British tried to control trade and impose taxes on the coloniesNavigation Acts- colonists had to sell raw materials to Britain (even if a better price was available somewhere else)Didnt mind at firstlater resorted to smugglingIntolerable ActsBritish needed moneyTaxing colonists would tighten up trade rulesStamp Act- tax on all printed materialNeeded a stamp to show tax was paidTaxed glass, lead, paper, paint, and teaLed to the Boston MassacreTea Act- allowed British to ship tea without paying taxes the colonists had to payAlmost put colonial tea merchants out of businessLed to Boston Tea Party

Continental Congress

First Continental Congress (1774) Delegates from 12 coloniesMet in Philly to speak out against ActsFighting started 1775Lexington Shot heard around the worldSecond Continental Congress (1775) Named George Washington head of colonial armyTried to settle difference with King George III IndependenceThomas Pain Common SensePamphlet used to condemn the king and urge for separation

Thomas Jefferson Declaration of Independence.1776Ideas from John Locke all men are created equal Have a right to rebel

American Revolutionary War

Long...expensiveFirst major victory for Colonists didnt come until 1777Battle of Saratoga (NY)French agree to help the Colonists Realized the US might win1781 = French navy block British escapeYorktownBritish trapped surrenderTreaty of Paris ended war in 1783

Constitution1787 55 Delegates met in PhillySet up federal system dividing powers between national and state govtFollowed ideas of MontesquieuRepublic with an elected president instead of KingGeorge WashingtonShaped by Enlightenment principlesPopular sovereignty govt receives power from the peopleLimited Govt govt may use only power given by the people

Bill of rights: First 10 amendments to the ConstitutionFreedom of Press, Speech, Religion, Assembly

Motivation for FranceAmerican Revolution gave hope to many countries seeking changeFrench kings = AbsolutismNobles had privileges and wealthMost people were poor

Why Revolt? People divided into 3 estates- classesFirst Estate Catholic clergy (church officials)No taxes; paid from taxes on church landSecond Estate NoblesNo taxes; lived in luxury; high in Govt and military Third Estate common peopleBourgeoisie middle classBankers, Dr.s, Lawyers, teachersCity workersArtisans, laborers, servantsPeasants80% of the populationWhy Revolt? King Louis XVI asked nobles and clergy to pay taxesRefusedThird Estate met separately National Assembly began working on a constitution 1789 Stormed Bastille- royal fortress and prison

The Fight is ON

1791 National Assembly vote for Constitutional MonarchyEnded 1st and 2nd Estate privilegesKing Louis not on boardKing Louis and Queen Marie Antoinette tried to fleeCapturedDeclared War on AustriaLost.badRadicals took over Paris and set up new Govt National Convention

Reign of TerrorKing Louis found guilty of helping AustriaBeheaded on the guillotine machine designed to quickly execute peopleNational Convention set up the Committee of Public SafetyRun by Maximilien RobespierreLawyerExecuted ANYONE believed to be disloyal to the revolutionAnywhere between 16,000 and 40,000 people

End of Terror

People tired of Robespierre killing everyoneWhen he refused, leaders had him executedNew govt createdDirectory focused on food shortages, inflation, bankruptcy Failing.looking for a strong leaderNapoleonSupported RevolutionGeneral by the age of 24Took part in French coup detat sudden govt overthrow by forceNapoleonic Code-organization of govt based on enlightenment ideasCreated schoolsOrganized tax systemNew legal systemMade peace with Catholic church

The EmpireNapolean became emperor in 1804Crowned himselfWanted to build empireControlled most of EuropeTried to conquer British: FailedRefused trade with BritainImpossible to enforceTried to conquer RussiaGrand Army 600,000 soldiersRussia refused to fight drawing Napoleon deeper into the countryHarsh winter killed more than 500,000

Out, then in, then out

Enemies caught Napoleon Sent to ElbaHe escapedSoldiers flocked back to himFought Duke of Wellington at Waterloo (Belgium)Defeated, sent to Island of St. Helena where he died

To where they started.Monarch reinstated in FranceRevolutions start again in 1848King replaced with republicPeople had strong sense of nationalism desire of people for self-ruleNapoleon III became emperorCivil war led to republic once againPage 746:20Nationalism in Latin AmericaFirst revolt: 1791 HaitiToussaint-Louverture led slaves against FrenchGrandson of African KingBorn into slaveryNot accepted by NapoleonTricked T-L into giving himself upTaken to FranceDied in 1803Haiti free in 1803

Hidalgo and Morelos led Mexicans against Spanish in Mexico Defeated and executedWon independence in 1821Mexico became a republic Soon people in other Central America areas broke free

South AmericaSimon Bolivar led most South America freedom fightsVenezuelaColombiaPanamaEcuadorBoliviaNamed after Bolivar Bolivar and San Martin defeated Spanish in Peru

Growing Latin AmericaMost countries free by the end of the 1820sBrazil free from Portugal without war

US protected Latin America under President MonroeMonroe Doctrine


Political conflictReligionBoundary linesRich vs. PoorCaudillos strong leaders supported by the upper class Usually rich menRuled like dictators Rich became richerDid nothing to help the poor Unequal distribution of income still a major problem today