European Empires in Latin America: 1660sSpainPortugalFrance
Peninsulares (men born in Spain)Creoles (Spaniards born in Latin America)Mestizos (mixed European & Indian ancestry)Mulattos (mixed European & African ancestry)Africans (majority enslaved)Indians (of little economic value) Early Social Classin Latin AmericaColonial society was divided into six classes based on birth
Economy: based on the ideas of Mercantilism Africans & American Indians used as slave laborLands are used for natural resources (harvested/mined and traded) The Economy incolonial Latin America
Causes of Latin American RevolutionsInspired by Enlightenment ideas Creole discontent Motivated by the successful American and French Revolutions. Preoccupation of Spain & Portugal in fighting in other wars (the Napoleonic Wars)
Economic policies benefited Europeans at the expense of the native Latin Americans
Enlightenment ThinkersNew ideas about freedom, rights, and liberty!
Creole DiscontentWant a voice in government and economy but are not allowed due to birth!
Inspiration of American & French RevolutionsDeclaration of Independence, 1776Declaration of the Rights of Man & of the Citizen, 1789
Preoccupation of Spain & Portugal In Fighting Napoleonic WarsProvides a model & a diversion!
Latin American Revolutions!
Toussaint LOuveture Leads a Revolution in Haiti (1804)
First Colony to revoltHaitiHome Country: French colonyDate of Independence: 1804Independence Leaders: - Toussiant-Louverture (former slave)- Jean-Jaques Dessalines (Toussaints general)
Haitian Independence: 1791= slave revolt1801= Toussaint seized 2/3 of Haiti (frees slaves)1802= French troops arrive & agreement made to stop revolution1804= Dessalines starts revolution again and declares independence
Home Country: Spanish colonyDate of Independence: 1816
Independence Leaders: - Jose de San Martin (Spanish military officer)
Argentiaian Independence: 1816= Creole colonist rebel & seize government 1816= Martin declares independenceArgentina
The Muscle of the RevolutionBolivar coming from the North.Jos de St. Martn and Bernard OHiggins cross the Andes Mountains.
Home Country: Spanish colonyDate of Independence: 1817
Independence Leaders: - Jose de San Martin (Spanish military officer) - Bernardo OHiggins (military officer)
Chile Independence: 1817= San Martin leads his army across the Andes into Chile 1817= Joins forces with OHiggins and defeat the Spanish and declare independenceChile
Simn Bolivar: The Brains of the RevolutionCreole leader of the revolutions in Venezuela.Spent time in Europe and the newly-independent United States.
Home Country: Spanish colonyDate of Independence: 1821/1822
Independence Leaders: - Simon Bolivar (Venezulan Creole/military general)
Gran Columbia Independence: 1811= Venezuela declares independence 1811-1821= Revolts against Spanish 1821= Bolivar wins independence 1821= Rebellion goes to Columbia, Ecuador, & Panama 1822= Bolivar elected president; the new nation called Gran Columbia established
Venezuela, Columbia, and Panama
Simn Bolivar Meets Jos de San Martin
Bolivar & San Martin Fight for Independence!
Home Country: Spanish colonyDate of Independence: 1824
Independence Leaders: - Jose de San Martin (Spanish military officer) - Simon Bolivar (Venezuelan Creole/military general)
Peruvian Independence: 1821= San Martin takes army to Lima, Peru to drive out the remaining Spanish1822= San Martin joins Bolivar/combines army 1822= San Martin leaves for Europe1822= Carries rebellion to Columbia, Ecuador, and Panama1822= Bolivar defeats Spanish at Battle of AyacuchoPeru
Home Country: Spanish colonyDate of Independence: 1825
Independence Leaders: - Simon Bolivar (Venezuelan Creole/military general)Bolivian Independence: 1824= Bolivar drives out the remaining Spanishfrom Peru1825= Upper Peru separates and names itself Bolivia (after Simon Bolivar)Bolivia
Bolivars FailureAfter uniting Venezuela, Columbia, & Ecuador into Gran Columbia, he left to help free the rest of Latin AmericaHe died a year later, with his goal of uniting all of South America unfulfilled!
Latin American States After the Revolutions
1.) Brazil Freed from PortugalThe Portuguese royal family escaped Napoleon by fleeing to Brazil. Pedro I set up a new, independent kingdom in 1821 when his father returned to Portugal. Pedro II assumed full power after Pedro I abdicated his throne.
Home Country: Portuguese colonyDate of Independence: 1822
Independence Leaders: - Dom Joao/King John(leader of Portugal) - Dom Pedro (son of King John)
Brazillian Independence: 1807= Prince John flees to Brazil to escape from Napoleon & rules from Portugal (14 yrs) 1815= Napoleon defeated 1822= Brazilian creoles demand independence 1822= petition by Brazilians ask for Dom Pedro to rule Brazil; King John agrees Brazil
2.) Independence for Spanish & Portuguese Latin AmericaBy the mid-1820s, revolts create many newly-independent nations.Toussaint LOuveture HaitiBolvar, San Martn, & OHiggins in: Paraguay, Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, Peru, Bolivia, the United Provinces of Central America, and Gran Columbia!
3.) No Unity!Failure of Bolivars dream for a united South America =Civil wars erupt in many newly independent countries.By 1830s, geographic barriers (mts., the Amazon, etc.), vast distances, plus cultural differences defeated attempts at unification.Gran Columbia.United Provinces of Central America.
4.) Independence Brought More PovertyThe wars disrupted trade. The wars devastated the cities and the countryside.
5.) Left Many Countries in the Control of CaudillosWHO WERE THEY?:Mid-19c military dictatorsMostly wealthy creole aristocrats.Followed the fight for independence.Posed as reformers.BUTonce in power overthrew govt. & took away basic human rights.Attempted improvements, but most just cared about themselves and their families and friends [nepotism].Power changes usually occurred at bayonet-point [coup detats!]
What is the Message?
Additional ProblemsFeuds among leaders.Geographic barriers.The social hierarchy continued from the past. Conservatives favored the old social order.Liberals wanted land reform.Dependence on foreign nations for capital and for economic investments.
The Caribbean: An American Lake
The Colossus of the NorthUS dominated affairs in the Americas.1823 Monroe Doctrine.US takes Texas and Mexican Cession.US gains independence for Cuba.Roosevelt Corollary US will police the America.US sent troops to Cuba, Haiti, Mexico, Honduras, Nicaragua.US built Panama Canal Yankee imperialism.
The Panama Canal
Big Stick Foreign Policy
Cause of the Mexican Revolution of 1910?
Mexican RevolutionariesEmiliano ZapataFrancisco I Madero Venustiano Carranza Porfirio DiazPancho Villa
The Mexican RevolutionVictoriano Huerta seizes control of Mexico and puts Madero in prison where he was murdered.Venustiano Carranza, Pancho Villa, Emiliano Zapata, and Alvaro Obregon fought against Huerta.The U.S. also got involved by occupying Veracruz and Huerta fled the country.Eventually Carranza would gain power in Mexico.
Home Country: Spanish colonyDate of Independence: 1821Independence Leaders: - Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla (priest)- Jose Maria Morelos y Pavon (rebel leader) - General Augustin de Ituribe (Creole officer)
Mexican Independence: 1810= Costilla leads rebellion against Spainish 1811= Costilla defeated and executed 1811= Pavon leads rebellion for next four years 1815= Iturbide defeats Pavon 1821= turns on Spanish over loss of rights; makes peace with Pavon; declares independenceMexico
1913: Economic Imperialism?
U. S. Global Investments in 1914