The Cold War Beginning Tensions Beginning Tensions Standard 20

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The Cold War The Cold War was the era of confrontation and competition beginning immediately after WW II between the United States and the Soviet Union The Cold War was the era of confrontation and competition beginning immediately after WW II between the United States and the Soviet Union

Text of The Cold War Beginning Tensions Beginning Tensions Standard 20

The Cold War Beginning Tensions Beginning Tensions Standard 20 SSUSH20 The student will analyze the domestic and international impact of the Cold War on the United States. The Cold War The Cold War was the era of confrontation and competition beginning immediately after WW II between the United States and the Soviet Union The Cold War was the era of confrontation and competition beginning immediately after WW II between the United States and the Soviet Union Partition of Germany End of WWII Soviet Sphere of Influence Tensions escalated as the Soviet Union annexed countries such as Estonia, Latvia, & Lithuania following WWII Tensions escalated as the Soviet Union annexed countries such as Estonia, Latvia, & Lithuania following WWII Other countries became Soviet satellites, which means they were controlled militarily & economically by the USSR Other countries became Soviet satellites, which means they were controlled militarily & economically by the USSR Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, & Albania The US feared the influence would move into the Mediterranean region next The US feared the influence would move into the Mediterranean region next a. Describe the creation of the Marshall Plan, U.S. commitment to Europe, the Truman Doctrine, and the origins and implications of the containment policy Promoting Democracy The term iron curtain soon became symbolic of the political division between western & eastern Europe. The term iron curtain soon became symbolic of the political division between western & eastern Europe. In 1947, American diplomat George F. Kennan proposed a policy of containment. In 1947, American diplomat George F. Kennan proposed a policy of containment. Included both economic support & military aid to vulnerable countries as a way to prevent them from falling under Communist rule. Later that year, President Truman announced the Truman Doctrine, based on Kennans theory. It guided Americas foreign policy for the next 4 decades. Containment Policy Containment Containment The U.S. policy towards the Soviet Union and communism Used to block, or contain, communist expansion into other countries Marshall Plan To aid Europes recovery, in 1947, Secretary of State George Marshall proposed a massive relief plan of providing billions of dollars to European countries. To aid Europes recovery, in 1947, Secretary of State George Marshall proposed a massive relief plan of providing billions of dollars to European countries. Because after WW II much of Europe was devastated physically and economically The US provided European countries with funds needed to purchase supplies to rebuild their economies & to support democratic ideas. Allowed Europe to rebuild itself The Soviet Union rejected the aid and developed its own economic program Truman Doctrine Proposed by President Harry Truman in 1947, The Truman Doctrine provided aid to any country battling Communist aggression Proposed by President Harry Truman in 1947, The Truman Doctrine provided aid to any country battling Communist aggression It was immediately used to support the free governments in Turkey and Greece against communist threats It was immediately used to support the free governments in Turkey and Greece against communist threats Unification of West Germany June 1948, France, Great Britain, and the U.S. announced their plan to unify their occupation zones in western Germany, plus those of Berlin, the capital, located deep within Soviet-held eastern Germany. June 1948, France, Great Britain, and the U.S. announced their plan to unify their occupation zones in western Germany, plus those of Berlin, the capital, located deep within Soviet-held eastern Germany. Almost immediately following the USSR declaring East Germany communist, thousands of people fled to West Berlin hoping to make their way to freedom. Almost immediately following the USSR declaring East Germany communist, thousands of people fled to West Berlin hoping to make their way to freedom. Berlin Blockade In response to the unification of West Germany, Stalin sent troops to blockade the western border of Berlin, halting vital supplies to 2 million people. In response to the unification of West Germany, Stalin sent troops to blockade the western border of Berlin, halting vital supplies to 2 million people. In a countermove, British & American cargo planes began an all around-the-clock airlift of food, fuel, & other essentials to West Berlin. In a countermove, British & American cargo planes began an all around-the-clock airlift of food, fuel, & other essentials to West Berlin. The Berlin Airlift lasted until Stalin ended the blockade 10 months later. The Berlin Airlift lasted until Stalin ended the blockade 10 months later. Soon after, the country officially divided into West & East Germany. Soon after, the country officially divided into West & East Germany. NATO In 1949, an alliance between the U.S., Canada, Great Britain, France and many other countries created the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). In 1949, an alliance between the U.S., Canada, Great Britain, France and many other countries created the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Members agreed to mutual military assistance if any member was attacked. Members agreed to mutual military assistance if any member was attacked. The Communist nations formed a similar alliance with the Warsaw Pact. The Communist nations formed a similar alliance with the Warsaw Pact. b. Explain the impact of the new communist regime in China and the outbreak of the Korean War and how these events contributed to the rise of Senator Joseph McCarthy Following WW II, China was involved in a civil war between the U.S. backed Nationalist government and Mao Zedongs Communist forces Following WW II, China was involved in a civil war between the U.S. backed Nationalist government and Mao Zedongs Communist forces Despite help from the U.S. the Nationalist government lost and retreated to the island of Taiwan Despite help from the U.S. the Nationalist government lost and retreated to the island of Taiwan The Communist Peoples Republic of China was formed in 1949 The Communist Peoples Republic of China was formed in 1949 Communist Revolution In 1950, the Peoples Republic and the Soviet Union signed a treaty of alliance In 1950, the Peoples Republic and the Soviet Union signed a treaty of alliance The U.S. feared that the two countries would spread communism across the globe The U.S. feared that the two countries would spread communism across the globe The U.S. immediately began to industrialize/rebuild Japan in order to gain an ally in Asia The U.S. immediately began to industrialize/rebuild Japan in order to gain an ally in Asia Korean War At the end of WW II Korea was split into two at the 38 th parallel, with the Soviets occupying the north and the U.S. occupying the south At the end of WW II Korea was split into two at the 38 th parallel, with the Soviets occupying the north and the U.S. occupying the south Both the North and the South formed their own governments and claimed the entire country as their own. Both the North and the South formed their own governments and claimed the entire country as their own. In 1950 the Soviet backed North Korean Army invaded South Korea nearly capturing the whole country In 1950 the Soviet backed North Korean Army invaded South Korea nearly capturing the whole country Korean War The U.S. Army backed by United Nations troops, counter-attacked and pushed the North Korean Army to the border of China The U.S. Army backed by United Nations troops, counter-attacked and pushed the North Korean Army to the border of China Feeling threatened by the advance, China attacked and forced the U.S. to retreat back behind the 38 th parallel Feeling threatened by the advance, China attacked and forced the U.S. to retreat back behind the 38 th parallel Korean War The two sides eventually signed a peace treaty in 1953 The two sides eventually signed a peace treaty in 1953 The U.S. then began to build up their military and signed defense agreements with many Asian countries The U.S. then began to build up their military and signed defense agreements with many Asian countries The U.S. also began sending aid to French forces fighting Communist forces in Vietnam The U.S. also began sending aid to French forces fighting Communist forces in Vietnam McCarthy In 1952 Senator Joseph McCarthy began holding hearings about Communism, accusing many in the government of being spies, or Communist sympathizers In 1952 Senator Joseph McCarthy began holding hearings about Communism, accusing many in the government of being spies, or Communist sympathizers His witch-hunt for communist became know as McCarthyism. Those who openly challenged McCarthy would be accused of being a communist sympathizer His witch-hunt for communist became know as McCarthyism. Those who openly challenged McCarthy would be accused of being a communist sympathizer McCarthy-ism McCarthys downfall began in 1954 when, in televised hearings, he accused the U.S. Army of containing communists McCarthys downfall began in 1954 when, in televised hearings, he accused the U.S. Army of containing communists As millions of Americans watched on TV, he openly badgered and harassed witnesses As millions of Americans watched on TV, he openly badgered and harassed witnesses With pressure from the American people, Congress censured McCarthy, ending his political power With pressure from the American people, Congress censured McCarthy, ending his political power c. The Cuban Revolution, the Bay of Pigs, and the Cuban missile crisis. Cuban Revolution Communism was spreading across the world, not only just to Asia & East Europe Cuba had its own Revolution from Communism was spreading across the world, not only just to Asia & East Europe Cuba had its own Revolution from Fidel Castro led a rebel a