VCE Physical Education - Unit 3 Chapter 6 Muscular Fatigue Mechanisms Text Sources 1.Nelson Physical Education VCE Units 3&4: 4 th Edition – Malpeli, Horton,

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> VCE Physical Education - Unit 3 Chapter 6 Muscular Fatigue Mechanisms Text Sources 1.Nelson Physical Education VCE Units 3&amp;4: 4 th Edition Malpeli, Horton, Davey and Telford 2006. 2. Live It Up 2: 2 nd Edition Smyth, Brown, Judge, McCallum and Pritchard 2006. </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> VCE Physical Education - Unit 3 Types of fatigue FatigueDescriptionExample LocalFatigue in specific muscle group Biceps during bicep curls Quads in snowboarding GeneralFatigue in all muscles groupsAfter completing full weights session Playing a full game of football etc. ChronicUnhealthy level of fatigue, caused by breakdown of bodys defences. Chronic fatigue syndrome Overtraining Reoccurring illness or injuries </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> What is Fatigue? Muscular Fatigue Mechanisms </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> VCE Physical Education - Unit 3 What is Fatigue? Fatigue occurs when the body is unable to function at its optimal level. The muscles are unable to exert maximal force levels as a result of exercise. Fatigue occurs through everyday physical activity. Exercise increases the physiological effects of fatigue. </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> Causes of Fatigue Muscular Fatigue Mechanisms </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> VCE Physical Education - Unit 3 Causes of Fatigue Our response to fatigue depends on; 1. The muscle fibre being used 2. Types of muscular contraction occurring 3. Depleted fuel stores (Glycogen / PC and other phosphate compounds) 4. Energy Systems used and the ability to extract energy 5. The amount of metabolic by products being produced 6. Changes in blood flow and increased body temperature 7. The athletes hydration levels A number of underlying processes that also determine the level of muscular fatigue include; The type, intensity and duration of the activity The fitness level and mental state of the performer. </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> Fuel stores (PC and glycogen) Metabolic By-products (LA, H +, P i, Creatine) Energy pathways Causes of Fatigue Hydration levels Blood flow &amp; redistribution Body Temperature </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> VCE Physical Education - Unit 3 Complete questions 1-4 page 134 of Nelson Physical Education VCE Units 3 &amp; 4. Checkpoints </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> 1. Muscle Fibre Types Muscular Fatigue Mechanisms </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> VCE Physical Education - Unit 3 Muscle Fibres Muscle fibre types can be broken down into two main types: Slow twitch (Type I) muscle fibres and Fast twitch (Type II) muscle fibres [Contains Type II a and b] Human muscles contain a genetically determined mixture of both slow and fast fibre types. On average, we have about 50% slow and 50% fast fibres in most of the muscles used for movement. Slow Twitch (Type I) The slow muscles contain more mitochondria and myoglobin which make them more efficient at using oxygen to generate more fuel (ATP) for continuous, extended muscle contractions over a long time. Fast Twitch (Type II) Because fast twitch fibres use anaerobic metabolism to create fuel, they are much better at generating short bursts of strength or speed but fatigue more quickly. Fast twitch fibres are able to fire more rapidly than slow twitch, hence their name. The slow twitch fibres, on the other hand, fire more slowly, but can go for a long time before they fatigue. </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> VCE Physical Education - Unit 3 Muscle Fibre Type Summary </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> VCE Physical Education - Unit 3 </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> 2. Muscle Contraction Types Muscular Fatigue Mechanisms </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> VCE Physical Education - Unit 3 Contraction Types Isotonic Isometric Isokinetic Muscle Lengthens No change in length Contraction through full range of motion </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> 3. Depletion of Fuels Muscular Fatigue Mechanisms </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> VCE Physical Education - Unit 3 Fuel Depletion Most commonly exhausted energy stores are PC and glycogen. Stores of glycogen in the muscle and liver can fuel continuous exercise for over 90 mins. Muscle glycogen is generally the first fuel source used during aerobic exercise; then liver glycogen and eventually blood-borne and stored fat. Fat conversion to energy is far less efficient than that for glycogen, resulting in a reduced intensity. As energy stores are continually depleted, fatigue occurs and therefore the quality of performance decreases </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> VCE Physical Education - Unit 3 </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> 4. Energy Systems Muscular Fatigue Mechanisms </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> VCE Physical Education - Unit 3 4. Aerobic Pathway &amp; Fatigue Aerobic Exercise Less than 20 minutes; No major fatigue and carbos and fats used as energy (Very little lactic acid). Extended activities (Several hours of constant exercise); Fats used as fuel therefore body must slow down (More oxygen required). Fatigue caused by depleted fuel stores, dehydration, increased body temp, physical and mental stress. Anaerobic Exercise Energy supplied by ATP-PC (1- 15 sec) and anaerobic glycolysis (15sec-2min). Energy Stores Athletes should follow strict diets when preparing for events so that fatigue is minimised or delayed. Elite athletes have nutritional programs to aid their performance and recovery. </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> VCE Physical Education - Unit 3 Summary Table </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> 5. Metabolic By-Products Muscular Fatigue Mechanisms </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> VCE Physical Education - Unit 3 Metabolic by-products Metabolic by-products are compounds made as a result of chemical reactions within the body. They are the left-overs as such. Eg. When making ATP using phosphocreatine, the by-product is creatine: ADP + PC ATP + creatine By-products can prove harmful to the body by causing it to function in a less efficient way, such as through the effect of hydrogen ions during physical activity. These by-products effect the functioning of the working muscle eg. Ability to break down glycogen, ability to send signals to the muscle and the changing concentration of minerals in and around the muscle. Summary See fig 6.7 p.136 for ATP production during muscular activity. </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> VCE Physical Education - Unit 3 Current Investigations The role of intracellular metabolites in controlling membrane excitability and the release of intracellular calcium during fatiguing exercise are now hotly being investigated - P i, Ca 2+, Na + and K +. The hydrogen ion theory as a major fatiguing product is hotly debated at present. </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> VCE Physical Education - Unit 3 Lactic Acid The Myths Busted Lactic acid has a bad reputation. Many people blame it for fatigue, sore muscles, and cramps. Scientists have discovered that lactic acid plays a critical role in generating energy during exercise. When your body makes lactic acid, it splits into lactate ion (lactate) and hydrogen ion. The lactate ion provides fuels for many tissues, helps use dietary carbohydrates, and serves as fuel for liver production of glucose and glycogen. However, lactic acid does have a dark side. The Hydrogen ion is the acid in lactic acid. It interferes with electrical signals in your muscles and nerves, slows energy reactions, and impairs muscle contractions. The burn you feel in intense exercise is caused by hydrogen ion build-up. Inorganic phosphate (P i ) can also have a similar fatiguing effect on the body. So, when you fatigue, don't blame it on lactic acid. Rather, place the blame where it belongs- on hydrogen ion. Lactic Acid </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> VCE Physical Education - Unit 3 Lactate Inflection Point (LIP) The relationship between blood lactate levels and anaerobic metabolism is still unclear. The term anaerobic threshold (AT) is therefore no longer used in the field exercise physiology and this area of study due to its conflicting meaning. The preferred term, lactate inflection point (LIP), is the point where blood lactate levels increase, as a direct result of increasing exercise intensity. Exercise intensities beyond the LIP causes fatigue due to a reliance on anaerobic pathways to supply ATP and the build up of the metabolic by-products. LIP can be measured in the laboratory using blood analysis or ventilation measurements. It is a good measure of an athletes speed and power of an athlete over a prolonged period. It can also distinguish between middle and long distance runners during a VO 2 max test. </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> VCE Physical Education - Unit 3 L.I.P </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> VCE Physical Education - Unit 3 Complete questions 1-5 page 137 of Nelson Physical Education VCE Units 3 &amp; 4. Checkpoints </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> 6. The Redistribution of Blood Flow Muscular Fatigue Mechanisms </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> VCE Physical Education - Unit 3 Blood Flow and Body Temperature During exercise; Increased demand for oxygen Increased waste products Increased blood volume to working muscles Increased cardiac output Less blood flow to vital organs and more to the working muscles This can cause an increase in core body temperature. The body therefore needs to monitor its balance between cooling and muscle supply (Thermoregulation) Body Temperature Increase Due to blood being brought to the surface (vasodilation of veins) of the skin (cooling mechanism), less blood is supplied to the working muscles. This lessens the ability to produce ATP and lactic may be produced. See fig 6.2 p.138 and 6.8 p.139 </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> VCE Physical Education - Unit 3 Redistribution of Blood Flow </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> VCE Physical Education - Unit 3 Complete questions 1-2 page 138 of Nelson Physical Education VCE Units 3 &amp; 4. Checkpoints </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> 7. Dehydration Muscular Fatigue Mechanisms </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> VCE Physical Education - Unit 3 Dehydration Sweating causes; A loss of salt, electrolytes and water. This can cause; Impaired coordination, decision making and endurance levels. An impact on the cardiovascular system A rise in body temperature Levels of dehydration are affected by; Duration and intensity of session Environmental conditions and acclimatisation. The individual physiological characteristics Fluid intake Athletes can become dehydrated due to; Not having access to fluids during competition Not tolerating drinking while exercising Inability to match intake with loss of fluids If dehydrated, athletes are more prone to; Cramp, heat stress and heat stroke, poor performances and increase the risk of injury. </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> VCE Physical Education - Unit 3 Dehydration Signs of dehydration; Mild to severe thirst Rapid loss in weight (1 kg of weight lost = 1L of sweat lost). Dry lips and tongue, confusion Decreased urine volume Dark urine Increased breathing rate Light headedness nausea and headache Confusion, nausea, headache faster breathing rate than normal Combination of dehydration and electrolyte loss can make the athlete more susceptible to cramp, heat stress and heat stroke. A loss of 2% of body weight (just 1 kg for a 50-kg person) causes an increase in perceived effort and could reduce performance by 10-20 %. Loss exceeding 3-5% of body weight reduces aerobic exercise performance noticeably and impairs reaction time, judgment, concentration, cognitive abilities and decision making. Complete hydration is vital for achieving optimal performance and minimising the negative effects of fatigue. </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> VCE Physical Education - Unit 3 Guidelines for Reducing Dehydration Do not wait until you are thirsty - thirst is a poor indicator of hydration levels. Drink cool water - absorbed more rapidly Use a sports drink if exercise is 1 hour +. Avoid starting exercise dehydrated. 500 mL of water 30-60 mins prior to the game. Drink at least 200 mL of water every 15mins during Weighing yourself before and after sport is a good way to assess fluid levels. One kilogram of weight lost = one litre of fluid lost. After participating, aim to replace more than the fluid lost as sweating and fluid loss continues after exercise. </li> <li> Slide 36 </li> <li> VCE Physical Education - Unit 3 Complete the written report task on page 140 of Nelson Physical Education VCE Units 3 &amp; 4. Complete the case study on page 141 of Nelson Physical Education VCE Units 3 &amp; 4. Coursework 6.1 and 6.2 </li> <li> Slide 37 </li> <li> VCE Physical Education - Unit 3 Complete questions 1-9 page 141 of Nelson Physical Education VCE Units 3 &amp; 4. Checkpoints </li> <li> Slide 38 </li> <li> VCE Physical Education - Unit 3 Fatigue and Energy Systems Predominant energy system Likely causes of fatigueTypes of recovery ATP/PCFuel Depletion: ATP &amp; PC Rest recovery Lactic AcidAccumulation of metabolic by-products: H+ (hydrogen ions) Pi (inorganic phosphates) NB Lactic Acid is no longer thought to contribute to fatigue. In fact, it is being regarded more as a positive performance enhancer rather than a negative Non-dietary Active Recovery Massage Hydro/water based therapies e.g. contrasting via hot/cold baths AerobicFuel Depletion: Glycogen stores, then fats Elevated body temperature leading to: Dehydration Blood flow away from muscles Dietary High GI foods Rehydration via sports drinks: Hypertonic to replace glycogen Hypotonic to replace lost fluids Non-dietary Active Recovery Massage Hydro/water based therapies </li> <li> Slide 39 </li> <li> VCE Physical Education - Unit 3 Complete the review questions 1-4 page 143-4 of Nelson Physical Education VCE Units 3 &amp; 4. Test Your Knowledge </li> <li> Slide 40 </li> <li> VCE Physical Education - Unit 3 Complete the chapter questions on page 40- 50 of Nelson Peak Performance Physical Education VCE Units 3 &amp; 4. Peak Performance </li> <li> Slide 41 </li> <li> VCE Physical Education - Unit 3 Read the summarised information of pages 54-67 of PHYS ED Notes and complete the revision questions. PHYS ED Notes </li> <li> Slide 42 </li> <li> VCE Physical Education - Unit 3 Web Links Chapter 6 Australian Sports Commission: http://www.ausport.gov.au http://www.ausport.gov.au Find 30 promotion (Government of WA Department of Health): http://www.find30.com.au http://www.find30.com.au Walking School Bus promotion (UK): http://www.walkingbus.com http://www.walkingbus.com Ministry of Health (New Zealand) toolkits: http://www.newhealth.govt.nz http://www.newhealth.govt.nz The 10,000 Steps Rockhampton project: http://www.10000steps.org.au/rockhampton/ http://www.10000steps.org.au/rockhampton/ Travelsmart Australia: http://www.travelsmart.gov.au http://www.travelsmart.gov.au World Health Organisation: http://www.who.int http://www.who.int Heart Foundation Australia: http://www.heartfoundation.com.au http://www.heartfoundation.com.au VicHealth (The Victorian Health Promotion Foundation): http://www.vichealth.vic.gov.au http://www.vichealth.vic.gov.au Be Active promotion (Government of South Australia): http://www.beactive.com.au ht...</li></ul>

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