The Cold WarWho: The U.S. and allies versus the Soviet Union and allies
What: An Intense rivalry which developed at the end of WWII between groups of Communist and non-Communist nations
The Cold WarWhen: End of WWII to the collapse of the Soviet Union (1945 to 1991)
Where: Europe and eventually the rest of the World
How: Through proxy wars, an arms and space race, covert operations, and political influence
THE C.I.A. U2 SPY-PLANE CRISIS
U-2 PLANES SPY ON SOVIETS In the late 1950s, the CIA began secret high-altitude spy missions over Soviet territoryThe U-2s infra-red cameras took detailed pictures of Soviet troop movements & missile sites
The U-2 Shot Down USSR was aware of American U-2 spy missions but lacked the technology to launch countermeasures until 1960.
May 1, 1960: CIA agent Francis Gary Powers U-2, was shot down by Soviet missile.
U-2 on an espionage mission to gather intelligence about military and industrial installations on Soviet territory
U-2 SPY PLANE SHOT DOWN OVER USSRThe Pilot Francis Powers parachuted into Soviet territory, was captured and sentenced to 10-years in prison
Because of this incident, the 1960s opened with tension and suspicion between the two superpowers as great as ever.
U.S. Response to the U-2 IncidentWhen the US learned of Powers disappearance over USSR, it issued a cover statement claiming that a "weather plane" crashed after its pilot had difficulties with his oxygen equipment.
US officials did not realize:
U-2 Pilot Captured
Plane crashed intact
Soviets recovered its photography equipment
Soviets Confront the U.S. Over the U-2 Spy Plane Crisis Khrushchev forced the U.S. to admit it when he produced the living pilot and the plane to corroborate their claim of being spied on from US spy planes.
Spy Plane Crisis Severe Setback to U.S. and Soviet Relations The incident worsened East-West relations and was a great embarrassment for the United StatesA Paris Summit conference that had previously been scheduled for May 16, 1960 between U.S. President Eisenhower and Khrushchev was jeopardized.
U-2 Pilot Captured
The Soviets captured Powers, whom they interrogated extensively for months before he made a "voluntary confession" and public apology for his part in United States espionage.
The Paris Summit between Dwight Eisenhower and Nikita Khrushchev collapsed, in large part because Eisenhower refused to bring apologies over the incident, demanded by Khrushchev. Khrushchev left the talks on May 16, 1960.
U-2 Spy Plane Pilot ReleasedFrancis Gary Powers, pilot of the U-2 spy plane was released by the Russians in 1962, in exchange for the release of Col. Rudolf Abel a convicted Soviet spy.
Fidel Castro had been a concern to United States policymakers since he seized power in Cuba with a revolution in January 1959.
Castro's attacks on U.S. companies and interests in Cuba, his inflammatory anti-American rhetoric, and Cuba's movement toward a closer relationship with the Soviet Union led U.S. officials to conclude that the Cuban leader was a threat to U.S. interests in the Western Hemisphere.
1961: The Bay of Pigs invasion begins when a CIA financed and trained group of Cuban refugees lands in Cuba and attempts to topple the communist government of Fidel Castro. The attack was an utter failure.
On April 17, 1961 about 1300 exiles, armed with U.S. weapons, landed at the Baha de Cochinos (Bay of Pigs) on the southern coast of Cuba. Hoping to find support from the local population, they intended to cross the island to Havana.
It was evident from the first hours of fighting, however, that the exiles were likely to lose. President Kennedy had the option of using the U.S. Air Force against the Cubans but decided against it.
Consequently, the invasion was stopped by Castro's army. By the time the fighting ended on April 19, 90 exiles had been killed and the rest had been taken as prisoners.
Additionally, the invasion made Castro wary of the U.S. He was convinced that the Americans would try to take over the island again. From the Bay of Pigs on, Castro had an increased fear of a U.S. incursion on Cuban soil.
The failure of the invasion seriously embarrassed the young Kennedy administration. Some critics blamed Kennedy for not giving it adequate support and others for allowing it to take place at all.
The captured exiles were taken to Cuban prisons.
Bay of Pigs
The invasion made Castro distrustful of the United States. He was convinced that the Americans would try to take over the Cuba again and became closer to the Soviet Union for support.
Monday, October 15th 1962 until Sunday, October 28th 1962
Some Key Players in the Crisis:Robert McNamara, Robert KennedyDean Rusk, Nikita Khruschev
An American U-2 Spy Plane developed in 1956 specifically to spy on the Soviets was used to observe military movement in Cuba.
Alarming Photos October 14, 1962US spy planes find evidence that Cuba might be assembling nuclear weapons Soviets are suspected of installing missile silosMissiles do not appear to be operational yet
Image from US-Spy Plane
Soviet Ship photographed taking what could be missiles toward Cuba
Special Council set up by the Kennedy Administration called Ex Comm (Executive Committee) meets to discuss how to deal with the Missile Crisis in October, 1962.
The Cuban Missile Crisis Oct. 14-28, 1962 World is brought to brink of Nuclear War.Caused by the question of principle regarding the soviet intermediate ranged nuclear missiles being assembled with Russian help on Cuban soil.
The Cuban Missile Crisis US sees this situation as unacceptable
Irony: US had similar Jupiter missiles in Turkey!
Robert McNamara, General Maxwell Taylor, and JFK in the oval office
The Soviet foreign minister Andre Gromyko denies the existence of soviet Missiles on October 18th What should the US do now?
US Ambassador to the UN Adalai Stephenson embarrasses Gromyko after he publically denies the presence of soviet missiles at the UN when he produces spy photos of them.
US President Kennedy goes on Live Television October 22. Announces to World:The presence of the Missiles. Quarantine or blockade of Cuba.An attack from Cuba will be regarded as an attack from the USSR and will be met by retaliation.Puts US military forces on high alert.
JFK announces decision to blockade Cuba to the public on T.V.
The world anxiously waits to see what will happen when the blockade starts..
American citizens protest against aggressive measures
German Cartoon (1962). In the cartoon, Kennedy is saying: How rude it is to put rockets in front of my front door.
Political Cartoon illustrating the standoff
Soviet reaction on October 24th - two Soviet ships heading to Cuba stop for U.S. ships on blockade line and turn around
1st Letter from Khrushchevsuggested that the soviets could remove the missiles from Cuba in exchange for a promise not to invade Cuba in the future.Two Letters Sent by the Soviets
2nd Letter from Politburo demanded the removal of US Missiles in Turkey for the removal of the Missiles in Cuba.
DilemmaDoes the US ignore both? Ignore One? Which one? Does the Politburo know about the letter Khruschev sent? What are the risks of accepting the wrong one?
Robert and John Kennedy during the Missile Crisis
The Crisis EndsResolved on October 28 when USSR agreed not to supply Cuba with missiles.
USSR agreed to dismantle weapons in Cuba
The Crisis Ends
Spy photos confirm the removal of Soviet Missiles
Results of the CrisisUS exchanges 53 Million in baby food and medicine in exchange for 1,113 exiles of Bay of Pigs invasion
Some remain prisoners until 1986
Feb 8, 1963 all financial and commercial transactions with Cuba are made illegal for US citizens
More effective communication between the two superpowers:
A telephone Hotline was established between Washington and Moscow to replace telegraphsResults of the Crisis
DetenteThreat of Nuclear war - Went from era of MAD to era of Dtente or relaxation of tensions.Results of the Crisis
Exemplified by the Test Ban Treaty of 1963 in which superpowers agreed to stop testing nuclear weapons.
Results of the Crisis
Photograph of a Soviet Mobile Missile Launcher similar to the ones in Cuba during the crisis
Assessment of the Missile CrisisKennedy and AmericaGained respect from world despite his youthSuccessful in keeping soviet weapons out of hemisphere
Castro and CubaPolitical protection and recognition from SovietsNo missiles meant Castro could not have profound impact on US
Assessment of the Missile Crisis
Khrushchev and the SovietsKhrushchev criticized for not adequately protecting soviet interestsLoss of respect for Khrushchev at home, but not abroad.Khrushchev voted out of power in 1964.USSR seen as more reasonable than before
Historical Source, the movie:13 DaysA film based upon Robert Kennedys Book American Film(2000)
Key People in 13 DaysLEADERS:
Fidel Castro President of Cuba Came to power in 1959Nikita Khrush