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1 Adolescence Module 9

1 Adolescence Module 9. 2 Adolescence Physical Development Cognitive Development Social Development Emerging Adulthood

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1 Adolescence Module 9 Slide 2 2 Adolescence Physical Development Cognitive Development Social Development Emerging Adulthood Slide 3 3 Adolescence Many psychologists once believed that our traits were set during childhood. Today psychologists believe that development is a lifelong process. AP Photo/ Jeff Chiu Slide 4 4 Adolescence Adolescence the transition period from childhood to adulthood extending from puberty to independence Puberty the period of sexual maturation when a person becomes capable of reproduction Slide 5 5 Physical Development Adolescence begins with puberty (sexual maturation). Puberty occurs earlier in females (11 years) than males (13 years). Thus height in females increases before males. Slide 6 6 Primary Sexual Characteristics During puberty primary sexual characteristics the reproductive organs and external genitalia develop rapidly. Ellen Senisi/ The Image Works Slide 7 7 Secondary Sexual Characteristics Also secondary sexual characteristicsthe nonreproductive traits such as breasts and hips in girls and facial hair and deepening of voice in boys develop. Pubic hair and armpit hair grow in both sexes. Slide 8 8 Brain Development Until puberty, neurons increase their connections. However, at adolescence, selective pruning of the neurons begins. Unused neuronal connections are lost to make other pathways more efficient. Slide 9 9 Frontal Cortex During adolescence, neurons in the frontal cortex grow myelin, which speeds up nerve conduction. The frontal cortex lags behind the limbic systems development. Hormonal surges and the limbic system may explain occasional teen impulsiveness. Slide 10 10 Cognitive Development Adolescents ability to reason gives them a new level of social awareness. In particular, they may think about the following: 1.Their own thinking. 2.What others are thinking. 3.What others are thinking about them. 4.How ideals can be reached. They criticize society, parents, and even themselves. Slide 11 11 Developing Reasoning Power According to Piaget, adolescents can handle abstract problems, i.e., they can perform formal operations. Adolescents can judge good from evil, truth and justice, and think about God in deeper terms. William Thomas Cain/ Getty Images AP/Wide World Photos Slide 12 12 Developing Morality Kohlberg (1981, 1984) sought to describe the development of moral reasoning by posing moral dilemmas to children and adolescents, such as Should a person steal medicine to save a loved ones life? He found stages of moral development. AP Photo/ Dave Martin Slide 13 13 3 Basic Levels of Moral Thinking 1.Preconventional Morality: Before age 9, children show morality to avoid punishment or gain reward. 2.Conventional Morality: By early adolescence, social rules and laws are upheld for their own sake. 3.Postconventional Morality: Affirms peoples agreed-upon rights or follows personally perceived ethical principles. Slide 14 14 Moral Feeling Moral feeling is more than moral thinking. When posed with simulated moral dilemmas, the brains emotional areas only light up when the nature of the dilemmas is emotion-driven. Slide 15 15 Morality As our thinking matures, so does our behavior in that we become less selfish and more caring. People who engage in doing the right thing develop empathy for others and the self- discipline to resist their own impulses. Moral Action Moral action involves doing the right thing. People who engage in doing the right thing develop empathy for others and the self-discipline to resist their own impulses. Slide 16 16 Eriksons Stages of Psychosocial Development Approximate ageStage Description of Task InfancyTrust vs. mistrust If needs are dependably met, infants (1st year) develop a sense of basic trust. ToddlerAutonomy vs. shame Toddlers learn to exercise will and (2nd year)and doubt do things for themselves, or they doubt their abilities. PreschoolerInitiative vs. guilt Preschoolers learn to initiate tasks (3-5 years) and carry out plans, or they feel guilty about efforts to be independent. ElementaryCompetence vs. Children learn the pleasure of applying (6 years-inferiority themselves to tasks, or they feel puberty) inferior. Slide 17 17 Eriksons Stages of Psychosocial Development Approximate age StageDescription of Task Adolescence Identity vs. roleTeenagers work at refining a sense of self by (teens into confusiontesting roles and then integrating them to 20s)form a single identity, or they become confused about who they are. Young Adult Intimacy vs.Young adults struggle to form close relation- (20s to early isolation ships and to gain the capacity for intimate 40s) love, or they feel socially isolated. Middle Adult Generativity vs. The middle-aged discover a sense of contri- (40s to 60s) stagnation buting to the world, usually through family and work, or they may feel a lack of purpose. Late Adult Integrity vs.When reflecting on his or her life, the older (late 60s and despairadult may feel a sense of satisfaction or up) failure. Slide 18 18 Adolescence: Social Development Identity ones sense of self the adolescents task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles Intimacy the ability to form close, loving relationships a primary developmental task in late adolescence and early adulthood Slide 19 19 Parent and Peer Influence Although teens become independent of their parents as they grow older, they nevertheless relate to their parents on a number of things, including religiosity and career choices. Peer approval and relationships are also very important. Slide 20 20 Slide 21 21 Emerging Adulthood Emerging adulthood spans ages 18-25. During this time, young adults may live with their parents and attend college or work. On average, emerging adults marry in their mid-twenties. Ariel Skelley/ Corbis Slide 22 22 EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY (7th Edition in Modules) David Myers Aneeq Ahmad Henderson State University, James A. McCubbin, Ph.D. Clemson University, Amy Jones, Garber edits Worth Publishers, 2008