Chapter 26 - The Beginning Of The Cold War

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Text of Chapter 26 - The Beginning Of The Cold War

  • 1.The Beginning of the Cold War Events From 1946-1960

2. Clash of Interests

  • Cold War
    • Post WWII to 1990 time period of increasing tensions between the US and USSR
  • Soviet Interests
    • Security control all countries between Germany and the Soviet Union
    • Communism superior to Capitalism
    • Suspicious of capitalism saw it as the source of conflict and a threat to communism
  • US Interests
    • Increase economic growth around the world including Germany
    • Capitalism superior to Communism
    • Suspicious of communism wanted to promote democracy, individual rights and capitalism

3. Tensions Between Nations 4. Yalta Conference

  • USSR Joseph Stalin
  • US Franklin Delano Roosevelt
  • Great Britain Winston Churchill
  • Germany divided into 4 zones of occupation
  • Germany would pay reparations for causing the war

5. Yalta Conference 6. Yalta Conference

  • FDR dies Harry Truman becomes US president
  • USSR fails to follow agreements at Yalta tensions increase

7. Truman Takes Control 8. Truman Takes Control

  • Other issues at Potsdam
    • Declaration of Liberated Europe not upheld USSR creates satellite nations (nations which contained Soviet-imposed communist governments)
  • Communist satellite nations increase iron curtain (division of communist nations of Eastern Europe and the West) descends on Europe

9. Europe after Potsdam

  • Europe divided after WWII amongst the Soviet Satellite States of Eastern Europe and the Western European Democracies.
  • Iron Curtain = Dividing line in Europe between the two powers

10. US Policy of Containment Chapter 26 Section 2 11. Containing Communism

  • USSR behavior? Why?
  • George Kennan (US diplomat in Moscow) writes the Long Telegram
    • Russias insecurity and fear of the West reason why it would be impossible to reach agreements with Russia
  • Kennan proposescontainment(keeping communism within its present territory through diplomatic, economic, and military actions)

12. Containing Communism

  • Soviets Invade Iran and the US use military action to intimidate USSR
  • Truman Doctrine Truman requests $400 million to fight Soviet aggression in Turkey and Greece
  • Marshall Plan US would give aid to Europe to rebuilt after WWII designed to decrease the appeal of communism

13. The Berlin Crisis

  • US, Britain, and France combine their zones in Berlin and allow West Berlin to have its own government
  • In response, The Soviets block all road and rail traffic into East Germany, hoping to force the Americans to renegotiate West Berlins status
  • Truman sends long range bombers to Berlin with atomic weapons.

14.

  • Berlin Airlift eleven months of food, medicine, and coal to West Berlin
  • US joinsNATO(North Atlantic Treaty Organization) military alliance with Western Europe
  • Soviets respond to NATO with the creation of theWarsaw Pact Military alliance between Soviets and Eastern Europe

The Berlin Crisis 15. The Cold War Spreads East

  • Nationalist and Communist forces battle in a civil war forcontrol over China Communists win creating the Peoples Republic of China
  • China and USSR sign a treaty of friendship and alliance in 1950

16. The Cold War Spreads East

  • US keeps Communist China out of the UN, but allows Taiwan to stay
  • US sees Japan, not China, as its ally in defending Asia from communism

17. Korean War

  • While disarming Japanese troops in Korea after WWII, the USSR stayed in North Korea, while the US stayed in South Korea

18. 19.

  • General MacArthur criticizes Truman for not using more force and is then fired
  • Truman committed tolimited war(war fought to obtain a limited objective)
  • Major turning point in the Cold War : US began a major military buildup to fight communism.

Korean War 20. CHAPTER 26 SECTION 3 The New Red Scare 21. A New Red Scare

  • 1945 Americans fearsubversion(an effort to secretly weaken a society and overthrow its government)
  • 1947 Loyalty Review Programwhich screened federal employees for their loyalty
    • Leads to more American fears of communism
  • FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover urges theHouse Un-American Activities Committee(HUAC) to hold public hearings on Communist subversion
  • 1948 Whittaker Chambers testifies that government officials were also Communist spies
    • Alger Hiss accused, denied, and was then convicted of perjury (lying under oath)

22. A New Red Scare

  • Soviets create an atomic bomb
  • Julius and Ethel Rosenberg who were charged with heading a Soviet spy ring
    • Rosenberg couple were executed in 1953 though some believed them to be innocent
  • 1946 American cryptographers crack the Soviet spy code underProject Verona becomes public knowledge in 1995 (indicts the Rosenberg couple with strong evidence.)

23. A Conspiracy So Immense

  • Senator Joseph R McCarthy 205 Communists in Gov.
  • McCarthy denounces the Democratic party as corrupt politicians and protectors of Communists He wins a seat in the Senate
  • 1950 McCarran Actillegal to combine, conspire or agree with any other person to perform any act which would substantially contribute to the establishment of a totalitarian government

24. A Conspiracy So Immense

  • McCarthy accused and searched for Communists based on poor, little, or no evidence and fear.
  • McCarthyism: to ruined reputations without proper evidence
  • Army-McCarthy hearings McCarthy accuses army of employing communists McCarthy looses popularity

25. Life During the Cold War Era

  • Communism and the threat of the atomic bomb dominated life in the 1950s
  • Fallout (radiation left over from an atomic blast)
  • Americans began to build fallout shelters
  • Time of contrast:
    • Images of the Cold War fear filled popular culture
    • The country enjoyed immense postwar prosperity and optimism

26. CHAPTER 26 SECTION 4 Eisenhowers Policies 27. Eisenhowers New Look

  • Dwight D. Eisenhower WWII hero wins the 1952 election against Adlai Stephenson
  • How to win the Cold War:
    • Strong military + strong economy
  • More atomic weapons (conventional weapons too expensive) = New Look defense policy
  • Massive retaliation threaten the use of nuclear weapons on any Communist state who tried to take territory through force
  • B-52s,ICBM(Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles), and Submarines could be used to deliver nuclear weapons
  • October 4, 1957 USSR launches 1 stsatellite into space known as Sputnik.
    • US feels they are falling behind in missile technology
  • Congress createsNASA(National Aeronautics and Space Administration) and passes theNational Defense Education Act(NDEA)

28. Brinksmanship in Action

  • The Korean War armistice was signed after Eisenhower threatened to use nuclear weapons stopped communism from spreading
  • 1954 China threatens to take over two islands from the Chinese Nationalists in Taiwan Eisenhower threatens nuclear conflict and the Chinese retreat
  • Eisenhower uses the threat of nuclear power to stop the Soviets from attacking during the Suez Canal Crisis.

29. Fighting Communism

  • Brinksmanship would not work against internal Communist revolutions
  • Eisenhower creates the CIA (Central Intelligence Agency) to use covert (hidden) operations to stop Communism
  • CIA operations took place in mostly developing nations
    • Iran and Guatemala in the 1950s
  • Nikita Khrushchev becomes prime minister after Stalins death
  • Eastern European countries revolt against their communist-imposed governments
  • Khrushchev uses military force to put down revolts

30. Continuing Tensions

  • Eisenhower and Khrushchev meet at a summit in Paris to alleviate tensions
  • Summit stopped after Khrushchev finds out about a U2 spy plane that is shot down over Russia (Francis Gary Powers)
  • Eisenhower warns of themilitary-industrial complex(relationship between the military establishment and the defense industry) in a democracy