Latin American Revolutions

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Latin American Revolutions. Libertyville HS. Conquest to Colonies. Conquistadors defeated Aztecs, Mayans & Incans; set up gov’ts New Spain = Aztec / Mayan area Viceroyalty = “assistant king” Viceroy appointed by king Had authority of king Semi-independent Audiencia - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of Latin American Revolutions

Latin American Revolutions

Latin American RevolutionsLibertyville HSConquest to ColoniesConquistadors defeated Aztecs, Mayans & Incans; set up govtsNew Spain = Aztec / Mayan areaViceroyalty = assistant kingViceroy appointed by kingHad authority of kingSemi-independentAudienciaJudicial courts in New WorldAlso had legislative powers

The Colonial ExperienceSocial structure based on purity of Spanish bloodlinesPeninsulares: socially superior to all othersCriollos (Iberians born in New Spain): wealthiest classMestizos: Spanish men, American Ind. Women; excluded from econ op.SlavesWomen were to be obedient to men (patriarchal society)Catholic ChurchChurch as imp. as govt officialsNatives identified w/ Virgin MaryCrucifixion mirrored their suffering

The Colonial ExperienceEuropean born were dominant & controlled native laborMiningCash cropsTradeColonial AdministrationDirected from SpainResponsible to SpainBUT semi-independent from Spain (distance, time)

The Colonial ExperienceEconomyMining was key (silver, gold)Agriculture: cash & food cropEncomiendas (labor system)Given a certain # of nativesResponsible for teaching Spanish, religion in exchange for food, goldHaciendas (self sufficient land grants)TradeSpanish monopolySlave trade: British monopoly (asiento K between Spain, Britain, to supply slaves)

European Power in Sp. AmericaSpanish power declined in late 17th / early 18th C.Spanish Hapsburgs weakPeninsulares, Criollos dominated Am. w/ little interference from SpainBourbons took over, 1701 (remember the War of Spanish Succession?)More efficient governmentRevived Spanish control in NWMore efficient taxation = more wealth taken out of NW

Opposition to Spanish ControlSimon Bolivar (1783-1830)Success of American Revolution inspired him to seek freedom for Spanish coloniesCalled The LiberatorContributed to liberation of Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Panama, BoliviaFormed federation of former colonies called Gran ColumbiaServed as its president from 1821-1830Believed in strong central govtAnti-slavery

Gran Columbia in blueHaitian Revolution (against French)Santo Domingo (island)2/3 of Fr. Tropical imports1/3 of Fr. Total foreign trade!Brutal slave economyPoor living conditionsHarsh punishmentsConstant demand for more African slaves

The Haitian RevolutionFrench Rev. in France leads to rev. in islandsRich planters vs. free mixed race population (gens de coleur mulattoes)Slaves take advantage, rebelPlantations burned, masters killed, houses destroyedCombined African political culture w/ Fr. Rev. ideology

Haitian RevolutionToussaint LOuvertureFormer slave, leader of rebellionCreated an organized, disciplined military force1794: Fr. NA abolished slavery1801: LOuverture adopted liberal constitutionAsserted loyalty to FranceMade Haiti indep.And then Napoleon took over

Haitian Revolution1802: Nap. sent army to reclaim Santo DomingoCaptured Toussaint (sent to France, died in prison)Then, yellow fever infected French troopsBrutality on both sidesNative resistance strong; they began winning the fightFr. forces withdrewUS (Thomas Jefferson) put embargo on Haiti (feared free blacks)

Haitian RevolutionOutcomesWith no base in Americas, Napoleon sold colonies to USAHaiti declared indep. 1804 (first black republic)US continued embargo (Jefferson pro-French)Haiti economy a shambles for decadesPolitical violence continue for decades

Jean Jacques Dessalines, firstPresident of the republicThe Disintegration of Argentina Bolivar: I fear peace more than warDifficulties following revolutionNo middle classNo tradition of self ruleNo cultural unityContrast with USARise of caudillo (military dictator)Usually a military officer who took over governmentRuled using combo of charisma, strength, patronage

The Disintegration of Argentina

Decades of civil war tore Argentina apartParaguay, Uruguay, and Bolivia declared independence from ArgentinaJuan Manuel Rosas, caudillo of Argentina (1828-52)Violent: assassination, intimidation of enemiesBUT he brought economic benefits to regionMan of the people (whipping story)

Juan Manuel de Rosas, caudilloof Argentina

Mexican IndependenceRepublic est. 1823Spain invaded, 1829 (defeated)French invaded, 1838 (defeated)Mexico invited US citizens to settle in Texas (then, a state of Mexico) in 1820sSoon outnumbered MexicansOpposed Mexican govts abolition of slavery

Mexican Independence1835-36: TX rebellion vs. Mexican liberalsAlamoBUT Texans win war, declare independence1845: TX became a state of US provoked war1848: Treaty forced Mexico to give up Mexico Cession (CA, NM, AZ)In return, Mexico received $15 million

Mexican Independence

Mexican liberals took over govt: Benito JuarezReforms (equality; no privileges for church, military)Sparked CW w/ conservatives (1858-1861)French invaded in 1862, set up Maximilian as EmperorAustrian HapsburgUS threatened to get involved after 1865French pulled out, Max executed in 1867

Results of Independence MovementsLegacy of Spanish colonialismPolitical liberalism limitedMuch of L.A. were economic disaster areas (corruption, primitive economies)Latin American weakness allowed USA rise to prominence in last of 19th C.