Latin American Revolutions

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Latin American Revolutions. Libertyville HS. Conquest to Colonies. Conquistadors defeated Aztecs, Mayans & Incans; set up gov’ts Colonial Administration Directed from Spain Responsible to Spain BUT semi-independent from Spain Distance Communication time. The Colonial Experience. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of Latin American Revolutions

Latin American Revolutions

Latin American RevolutionsLibertyville HSConquest to ColoniesConquistadors defeated Aztecs, Mayans & Incans; set up govtsColonial AdministrationDirected from SpainResponsible to SpainBUT semi-independent from SpainDistanceCommunication time

The Colonial ExperienceSocial structure based on purity of Spanish bloodlinesPeninsulares: socially superior to all othersCriollos (Iberians born in New Spain): wealthiest classMestizos: Spanish men, American Ind. Women; excluded from econ op.SlavesCatholic ChurchChurch as imp. as govt officialsNatives identified w/ Virgin MaryCrucifixion mirrored their suffering

The Colonial ExperienceEuropean born were dominant & controlled native laborMiningCash cropsTrade

The Colonial ExperienceEconomyMining was key (silver, gold)Encomiendas (labor system)Given a certain # of nativesResponsible for teaching Spanish, religion in exchange for food, goldHaciendas (self sufficient land grants)TradeSpanish monopolySlave trade: British monopoly

European Power in Sp. AmericaSpanish power declined in late 17th / early 18th C.Spanish Hapsburgs weakPeninsulares, Criollos dominated Am. w/ little interference from SpainBourbons took over, 1701 (remember the War of Spanish Succession?)More efficient governmentRevived Spanish control in NWMore efficient taxation = more wealth taken out of NW

Haitian Revolution (against French)Santo Domingo (island)2/3 of Fr. Tropical imports1/3 of Fr. Total foreign trade!Brutal slave economyPoor living conditionsHarsh punishmentsConstant demand for more African slaves

The Haitian RevolutionFrench Rev. in France led to rev. in islandsRich planters vs. free mixed race population (gens de coleur mulattoes)Slaves take advantage, rebelPlantations burned, masters killed, houses destroyed

Haitian RevolutionToussaint LOuvertureFormer slave, leader of rebellionCreated an organized, disciplined military force1794: Fr. NA abolished slavery1801: LOuverture adopted liberal constitutionAsserted loyalty to France BUT made Haiti indep.And then Napoleon took over

Haitian Revolution1802: Nap. sent army to reclaim Santo DomingoCaptured Toussaint (sent to France, died in prison)Brutal fightingMalaria infected French troops, killing majorityFr. forces withdrewUS under President Jefferson put embargo on Haiti (feared free blacks)

Haitian RevolutionOutcomesWith no base in Americas, Napoleon sold colonies to USAHaiti declared indep. 1804 (first black republic)US continued embargo (Jefferson pro-French)Haiti economy a shambles for decadesPolitical violence continue for decades

Jean Jacques Dessalines, firstPresident of the republicOpposition to Spanish ControlSimon Bolivar (1783-1830)Success of American Revolution inspired him to seek freedom for Spanish coloniesCalled The LiberatorContributed to liberation of Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Panama, BoliviaFormed federation of former colonies called Gran ColumbiaServed as its president from 1821-1830Believed in strong central govtTended towards dictatorship

Gran Columbia in blueThe Disintegration of Argentina Bolivar: I fear peace more than warDifficulties following revolutionNo middle classNo tradition of self ruleNo cultural unityContrast with USARise of caudillo (military dictator)Usually a military officer who took over governmentRuled using combo of charisma, strength, patronage

The Disintegration of Argentina

Decades of civil war tore Argentina apartParaguay, Uruguay, and Bolivia declared independence from ArgentinaCaudillo (dictator) became typical why?Lack of democratic tradition in Spain, coloniesJuan Manuel Rosas, caudillo of Argentina (1828-52)Brutal dictator who nevertheless brought peace and stability to regionJuan Manuel de Rosas, caudilloof Argentina

Quote from RosasThe King can be compared with a father, and reciprocally a father can be compared with the King, and then set the duties of the monarch by those of the parental authority. Love, govern, reward and punish is what a King and a father must do. In the end, there's nothing less legitimate than anarchy, which removes property and security from the people, as force becomes then the only right.

Mexican IndependenceMexican Republic est. 1823Spain invaded, 1829 (defeated)French invaded, 1838 (defeated)Mexico invited US citizens to settle in Texas (then, a state of Mexico) in 1820sSoon outnumbered MexicansOpposed Mexican govts abolition of slavery

Mexican IndependenceDecades of conflict included war with America and a Mexican civil warCession of 1848Transfer of 2/3 of Mexican nation to AmericaResult of Mexican American WarToday, makes up the American SW

Mexican Independence

French invaded in 1862, set up Maximilian as EmperorAustrian HapsburgUS threatened to get involved after 1865French pulled out, Max executed in 1867Results of Independence MovementsLegacy of Spanish colonialism (cultural)Political liberalism limited (no democratic traditions)Much of L.A. were economic disaster areas (corruption, primitive economies)Latin American weakness allowed USA rise to prominence in last of 19th C.