Latin American Revolution
AgendaBell Ringer: Questions with Mr. T.Lecture: Independence in Latin America Part 1Chart: Latin American Revolutions Primary Source Analysis: Simon BolivarRevolution from three perspectives DiscussionA Symbol of Freedom Objectives
Bell RingerWhat was the purpose of the Congress of Vienna?Who led the meeting? Where was he from?Identify one outcome of the Congress of Vienna.What is Conservatism?What is Liberalism?What is Nationalism?How would these political philosophies impact future world events?
Haiti500,000 Enslaved AfricansThey could easily overpower masters, who treated them brutally.1791, Toussaint LOuverture emerges as leader in the Haitian Revolution.French attempt to intervene, and LOuverture agrees to stop the revolt if slavery is outlawed. French accuse him of another uprising and he is arrested, dies 10 months later. 1803.
Dessalines finishes where Toussaint began, and Haiti is independent in 1804.
Colonial Society in Latin AmericaPeninsularesMen born in Spain, able to hold high offices. CreolesSpaniards born in Latin America, work as officers in the army. MestizosMixed descent, European and Indian ancestryMulattosMixed descent, European and AfricanIndiansOppressed minority.
Independence Movement by CreolesLeast oppressed, best educated.Adopted Enlightenment ideas from education in Europe.Discontent rises among Creoles, Spain suppresses any revolt.Napoleon actually starts the revolt by removing the Spanish King and putting his brother on the throne in the Peninsular War. 1808.
End of Spanish Rule in South AmericaTwo major generals begin revolt.Simon BolivarVenezuela declares independence from Spain in 1811. Not very successful at first, went into exile twice.1819, surprised the Spanish Army and won, independence gained by 1821.
Agenda Day 21. Bell Ringer: Identify and describe the five major social groups in Latin America during the Independence movement. 2. Lecture: Continuation of Independence in Latin America (20)3. Finish Chart: Latin American Revolutions (5)4. Primary Document Interpretation: Miguel Hidalgo (10)5. Map Activity: A Change in Independence (10)6. Miguel Hidalgo Image Interpretation (10)7. Objectives (8)
GeneralsJose de San MartinArgentina declares independence in 1816.Frees Chile by 1817 after marching through the Andes.Peru was the last stronghold, and Bolivar would combine his forces with San Martin.Bolivar stays with troops, and in 1824 they declare independence in Peru. San Martin left his forces with Bolivar and left for France
MexicoClass system dominates South America, Mexico has more ethnic and racial groups. Indians and Mestizos play a role in the independence movement.Miguel Hidalgo makes the first cry for independence in 1810.Priest in Dolores.Began a march towards Mexico City, 60,000 involved. Creoles and Spanish army didnt like this idea of lower class Revolution so they defeat Miguel Hidalgos army in 1811Firing Squad
Mexico gains IndependenceJose Maria Morelos attempts to rally rebel forces after Hidalgo is defeated, Morelos is defeated by Creoles in 1815.Creole class begin move towards independence in 1821, fearing a loss of rights.Leading creole attempts to block any independence movement apart from Mexico, but he is overthrown in 1823.
BrazilOddly enough, this was a peaceful exchange of power.Portuguese King escapes Napoleons army by going to Brazil.Creoles play a major role again, asking by petition for independence from Portugal.Dom Pedro takes power, and the Portuguese king agreed to independence.
Impact of RevolutionIndependence brought an increase in poverty.Why? A united Latin America collapsed with poverty and upheaval.Bolivars territories would divide as well as the Provinces of Central America.
Objective Questions for todayWho is the major leader of the independence movement in Venezuela?Who would identify as a Peninsulares?Who identifies as a Mestizo?Who identifies as a Creole?Where did Miguel Hidalgo lead his Revolution?How does Napoleon inadvertently aid in several Revolutionary movements in Latin America?Why does Revolution lead to instability in the region? Which independent movement differed from others in the region? Why?