Latin American Revolutions

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Latin American Revolutions. What was the “ Grito de Delores”? Who was Father Miguel Hidalgo? How did the Age of Enlightenment change traditional ways of thinking? What role did the “precursors” of the revolutions, such as Francisco de Miranda, play in encouraging new ways of thinking? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of Latin American Revolutions

Latin American Revolutions

What was the Grito de Delores?Who was Father Miguel Hidalgo?How did the Age of Enlightenment change traditional ways of thinking?What role did the precursors of the revolutions, such as Francisco de Miranda, play in encouraging new ways of thinking?How did Spain change its policy regarding the hiring of government officials in the colonies?How did Creoles and Peninsulares feel about each other?Latin American RevolutionsWhat issues of trade and commerce aggravated many Creole businessmen?How did the Spanish colonies of Latin America view their place within the Empire?How did Napoleons invasion of Spain and Portugal play out?Where did the Portuguese royal family move to?Whom did Napoleon place on the throne of Spain?What was a junta?How did the colonial juntas respond to the juntas in Spain?

In what way was the Napoleonic invasion of the Iberian Peninsula the straw that broke the colonial back?Why did the Hidalgo revolt receive little support from the Creoles of New Spain? What policies was Hidalgo looking to change in his attempted revolution?What was Bolivars appraisal of Latin America according to his Jamaica Letter of 1815?What did the Creoles of Venezuela declare on July 5, 1811? Was that declaration welcomed by everyone in Venezuela?

Who was Simon Bolivar? How did his experiences in Europe shape his political beliefs and ambitions?Whom did Bolivar convince to lead the first attempt at establishing Venezuelan independence? What role did an earthquake play in bringing about an end to the First Republic in Venezuela?How did Bolivar react to news that Miranda was secretly negotiating a surrender with Royalist forces?What happened to the First Republic of Venezuela?

What happened in Buenos Aires on July 27, 1806? What was the purpose of the English invasion?How did the viceroy and peninsulares respond?How did the local Creoles respond?What did the British do after being driven out of Buenos Aires?How did the occupation of Montevideo turn out for the British?Why did the Creoles not welcome the British?

What did the locals do with the Spanish viceroy of the La Plata region?What is a cabildo abierto?What sort of reforms did the new junta of Buenos Aires bring in?What were portenos?Why was there a split between many of the portenos and their compatriots who lived farther inland?Describe the socio-economic structure of Bolivia. How had the Tupac Amaru II uprising in the late 1700s affected the Creole elite in Bolivia?

How did the first attempt at revolution in Bolivia make out in 1809? Why?From where was the idea of revolution introduced to Bolivia? How?In 1810 Buenos Aires sent an army into Bolivia to bring freedom. How did the expedition go?Why did many of the Bolivian Creoles not welcome the liberating army from Buenos Aires?How did the second expedition, launched in 1813, turn out?How did the third expedition, in 1815, end up?Who were the montoneros?Why were Lima and Buenos Aires so determined to take control of Bolivia (Upper Peru)? Why did the local Creole elite tend to side with Lima?What were the obstacles Buenos Aires faced in trying to subdue Bolivia?What were some of the advantages and disadvantages to independence minded Montevideans as a result of the citys location?

Who was Jose Artigas?What is a caudillo?What was the Grito de Asuncion, issued in February 1811?How did the Spanish viceroy in Montevideo handle the dual attack from Uruguayan and Argentine patriots?How did the Argentines respond to Brazils incursion into the Rio de la Plata region?Why is Artigas retreat from Montevideo into the hinterland considered a significant moment in Uruguayan history?What happened in 1817 after Artigas has taken control of Montevideo?

How long would it be until Uruguay became an independent country?Why did it take so long?What was Paraguays social and economic state as of 1810?How did the Paraguayans react to Spains attempt to speak for all the colonies?How did Buenos Aires react to Paraguays refusal to go along with its junta?How did the military campaign go for the Argentines?What did Paraguay do on May 17, 1811?

Did Paraguay develop into a democracy right away?What did Jose Francia declare himself to be in 1815?Why do you think it was relatively easy for Paraguay to reach independence?Why would many Chilean Creoles already consider themselves to be Chilean by the time Napoleon invaded Spain?How did the Creoles of Chile outmaneuver the viceroy?What did the cabildo abierto of September 10, 1810 decide?

What steps did the junta take that were clear indicators of a desire for independence?What did Jose Carrera do in July of 1811? Why?What reforms did Carrera institute while in power? Was everyone happy with Carreras style of leadership? Why not?Who was Bernardo OHiggins? Where did the most serious opposition to Chilean independence come from?Where did OHiggins and many of the survivors of the Battle of Rancagua flee?What were the following years like for the patriotic Creoles of Chile?

How did the journey to independence begin for the people of Ecuador?Why did they not achieve independence until Bolivars armies marched south from Colombia in 1822?Why did the juntas of Colombia ultimately fail?Why did Bolivar leave Colombia for Jamaica?Why did most of the Creoles of Peru not take up the cause of Independence? What impact did the native rebellion led by Mateo Pumacahua have on the Creoles?What role did the Viceroy of Peru, Jose Fernando de Abascal play in the counter-revolutionary movement?

What was happening in Spain while the colonies were considering independence?What was the Cortes convened in Spain and what sort of decisions did it make?Were Creole representatives from the Americas permitted to attend?How did the Creoles who went feel about their treatment?Why was the liberal constitution of 1812 short lived?Why was Ferdinand VII able to reassert royal control over the colonies?Who was Jose Maria Morelos? What did he declare in 1810?Why was popular with the lower classes in Mexico?What did he mean when he declared that all the inhabitants except Europeanswill be known as Americans?What types of reforms did he support?Why did the Creoles of Mexico not support him?What happened to Morelos on December 22, 1815?To where did Bolivar flee after the defeat of the First Republic in Venezuela?What did Bolivar call for in the Cartegena Manifesto?

What would have caused Bolivar to come to the conclusion that unity was the key to winning independence?What moment of glory did Bolivar experience in 1813?Why didnt it last?Who were the llaneros?Why did many blacks, and pardos not support the revolutionary cause?When did the second Venezuelan republic come to an end?What was the state of Spanish America by the end of 1816?

What was Great Britains attitude toward the rebellious colonies of Spanish America?How did this somewhat contradict their policy towards Spain?What was the level of US involvement in Latin America?Why did they take a position of neutrality?Why did Haiti support Bolivars cause?When did Bolivar return to Venezuela?What type of government did Bolivar propose in his Jamaica letter?Why did he feel the need for a strong executive?Which part of Venezuela did Bolivar make his home base?Why did the llanos prove to be an excellent region in which to operate?Who was Joes Antonio Paez?How did Bolivar change the direction of the war in 1819?Was his attack into Colombia successful?Why is the Battle of Boyaca on August 7, 1819 important?What role did British soldiers play in the battles in Venezuela and Colombia?

In what shape had Bolivars push toward Caracas left him and his army?What was Britains position on the recruitment of British citizens to serve in Bolivars army?How did being named president of Venezuela help Bolivars cause? Did it make much of a difference in actuality?Why did Bolivar decide to attack in New Granada (Colombia)?What evidence is there of a rivalry between Bolivar and Paez?What was the journey through the floodplains and into the mountains like for the Army of the West?What was the state of the army as it came out of the mountains? How did it survive?Why did opposing forces not crush Bolivars army as it came through the mountains?What was the order of battle at Boyaca Bridge. August 7th, 1819?How did the Viceroy and other Spanish officials in Bogota react to the news of the victory at Boyaca?Provide evidence of just how important the victory was to the overall course of independence in Spanish America.Why was Bolivar upset with Santanders decision to execute Royalist prisoners in Bogota?What events in Spain helped Bolivars campaign in Venezuela in 1820?Why is the Battle of Carabobo, on June 24, 1821, important?How did Bolivar feel about the Paez and the Llaneros? How did he handle them?

What was Gran Colombia and who was named as its president?What sort of constitution did the new state possess?Who was General Antonio Jos de Sucre?What did Bolivar think of him?What role did he play in the liberation of Ecuador and Peru?What happened on the slopes of Pichincha on May 24, 1822?Who finally met in the city of Guayaquil in July of 1822?What had San Martin accomplished by late 1816?What was San Martins strategic vision, or what did he plan to do with his new army?What was the political situation in Buenos Aires by 1816?What happened at Tucumn in 1816?What did the constitution of the newly independent Argentina call for?Why did some of the provinces revolt against it?What evidence is there that San Martin was a modest man, not overly interested in fighting for personal gain?How would you describe San Martins preparations for his invasion of Chile?What challenges did San Martin had to consider while planning his crossing of the Andes?How did he plan to overcome them?What role did the Lautaro Lodge play in supplying San Martins army while maintaining sec